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Y/%. With Sunday Morning Edition. W A S H I N G T O N, D. C. Published by Tha Evening Star, Newspaper Company. FRANK 8. NOYES, President and Chairman of the Beard, 1910-1948 FLEMING NEWBOLD, President. -h B. M. McKILWAY, Iditar. Zr--* •Sr- MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. S NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 Eost 42d\St. 3S CHICAGO OFFICE: 43J North Michigan Ave. ------- S* Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. ^Doily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only 2 Monthly. 1.20" Monthly -- 90c 10c per copy « Weekly 30c Weekly 20c 10c per copy JEmOc additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. 5 Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition in those j sections where delivery is made. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. •venino ond Sunday Evening Sunday * I month 1.50 1 month 90c 1 month 60c * 6 months 7,50 6 months .. 5 00 6 months 3.00 i- 1 year . — 15.00 1 year 10.00 I year . 6.00 * Telephone STerling 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., i ob *econd-cl«ns moil matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use Ear republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper, as well as ell A. P. news dispatches. A_4 ~ SATURDAY, December 4, 1948 A Grand Jury Matter Although it is hard to take seriously in this day and age a spy expose which features the surrender of microfilm secrets hidden in a hollowed-out pumpkin, there appears to be fire as well as smoke in the latest developments in the Chambers-Hiss Imbroglio. The turn which events have taken since Alger Hiss sued Whittaker Chambers for libel as r result of statements made by the latter in connection with the Thomas Com mittee's investigation of an alleged Com munist ring in Washington is intriguing to say the least. Apparently it is also of some importance. At any rate, Mr. Hiss says that when he learned the nature of certain documents produced by Mr. Chambers in connection with the libel proceeding he directed his attorney to place them at once before the Department of Justice. Just what the nature of these documents is and who may be involved in connection with them has not been made clear. Neither has the public been informed, except in minor aspects, as to the nature of the microfilms which Mr. Chambers, in response to a Thomas Committee subpoena, dug out of a pumpkin on his Maryland farm. But former Representative, now Senator, Mundt, speaking for the committee, says they provide “conclusive proof that secret documents of direct significance to our national security were fed out of the State Department by a member of the Commu nist underground * * If all or any material part of this is true one would expect the matter to be put immediately before a grand jury. Attorney General Clark has said that, if asked to do so, he will submit the new material to the Special New York grand jury which earlier tjiis year considered Communist espionage/ activities. But why Should Mr. CIai;k wa^t for the grand jury to'call upon^im? if these new developments are not a hoax, he ought to go to the grand Jury without delay. x __ ■,_ France's Fifth Column If it can be credited with anything at all, the Communist-led General Confederation of Labor in France must be credited with being brazenly frank. With 90 per cent of the country’s miners drifting back to work despite its eight-week effort to keep them out, it has formally declared the coal strike at an end. In doing so, however, it has prided itself on having been successful in upsetting the French economy and ob structing the European Recovery Program. That was its prime objective—an objective financed in large part by Soviet money for the purpose of helping the Kremlin to work its’ will against the West. Moreover, even though they have failed to keep the strike going, the Communist labor leaders have good reason to be satis fied with what they have done. For their efforts during the past two months— marked by numerous acts of violence -and sa botage—have caused France to lose more than 4,000,000 tons of coal and to spend precious foreign exchange in order to make up for the deficiency in its own pro duction by importing 3,000,000 tons from the United States. In terms of subversion designed to serve the interests of a foreign power, that is an accomplishment of such substantial size that the French R^pls— who now proclaim their determination “to continue the struggle in different ways”— seem fully entitled to commend them selves as the Kremlin’s most effective Fifth Column west of the Iron Curtain. The remarkable thing about all this is that it has been so open. The French Communists have not attempted to dis guise the fact of their subversive intent in the service of Soviet Russia. Not even in the heyday of Hitler has the world seen a bolder or more candid application of the Fifth Column technique. The ex ample should stir up a great deal of sober thinking not only in France but in all the free Western nations. The big ques tion is how genuine democracies can act to protect themselves against the threat. Certainly, the situation calls for more than mere talk deploring it. Maryland Should Get in Step It is to be hoped that Maryland will take to heart the recent resolution of the Eastern Conference of Motor Vehicle Ad ministrators condemning failure of some of the States to require regular inspection of automobiles. The conference urged States with inspection laws to consider a ban on uninspected cars from outside jurisdictions—“after a reasonable time.” Maryland car owners would be in a seri ous predicament if the District, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware and other States having inspection systems were te adopt such a ban. For Maryland is the only State in this general area which has refused to fall in line on this safety program. Mary land inspected cars before the war, but, ijke other States, suspended inspections touring the war. A proposal to reinstitute t|ie car-inspection plan on a broader ljasls failed to pass at the 1947 session of flip Legislature, despite the indorsement cjl W. Lee Elgin, Maryland's motor vehicle commissioner. However, there were polit ical factors involved in the 1947 action which are not expected to develop again. Consequently, there are good indications that the inspection plan will pass at the next session of the Legislature in January. Results of the District’s own inspection program show that it is well worth while. About 57 per cent of the 130.000 District cars inspected so far this year have revealed mechanical defects regarded as affecting safe operation. It is logical to assume that a similar percentage of Mary land cars are in need of repairs or adjust ments to improve their safety. It is unfair to local car owners to require them to submit to regular- inspections while cars from other States are permitted to operate here without safety stickers. For self protection and for the protection of citizens in other States, Maryland should act promptly to establish a car-inspection system of the type which is making driving safer in other jurisdictions. Genocide and War After two years of study and negotiation in various committees, the General As sembly of the United Nations now has before it a convention outlawing the hid eous crime of genocide. Although the Soviet bloc and Britain have abstained from approving the final text submitted to the U. N., the undertaking undoubtedly will be supported by an overwhelming vote. After that, just as soon as it is ratified by twenty countries, it will become formally effective, and the world will be able to claim at least a little bit of additional progress in the age-old task of civilizing itself. The crime in question is not new. Hu manity has been afflicted by it at all pe riods of history. But it was nameless until Hitler came along and made it an undisguised instrument of governmental policy, particularly in his incredibly evil and fiendishly calculating mass extermi nation of the Jews of Germany and Eu rftpe. For want of a better word—no word is adequate to sum up the indescribable physical and spiritual horrors involved— it has been called genociae. As defined by the new U. N. convention, it means acts deliberately designed “to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group," either by outright sys tematic slaughter, by slow starvation, by sterilization, by forcible large-scale trans fers of children from one land to another, or by similar means consciously contrived to remove from the face of the earth, or reduce to the vanishing point, any given people. Under the U. N. convention—when rati fied by the required number—international law will establish it as a fixed fact in the political life of the world that any one guilty of genocide, or of conspiring to commit it, or of being otherwise directly or indirectly a party to it, will be subject to strict punishment. To bring such in dividuals or groups to justice, prospective victims or their qualified protectors will be able to appeal both to national courts and to the special tribunals of the United Nations. The accused, moreover, whether private persons or public officials, will not be entitled to seek sanctuary in the sig natory countriesr*^For those countries will be expressly forbiddenvto grant them asylum and wili be'Vedged instead to ex tradite them for trial on the charges filed against them. Thus, for the first time in history, the crime will be specifically banhed and a suprtWWtlWial legal process will exist to deal with it. Obviously, to the extent that it may help to prevent a repetition of mass extermination programs of the sort carried out by Hitler, the U. N. convention on genocide represents a wholesome advance in the development of international law, which in turn serves to promote a better civilization in the world. With that said, however, the fact remains that the under taking, noble though it is in purpose, can have little more than an idealistic or academic meaning at this time. For the truth is, wholly apart from the question of enforceability, that it will offer scant protection to mankind as long as the na tions continue to be as divided as they are now on the most fundamental and most pressing of human issues—namely, the issue of working out an enduring system of collective security for all peoples. Actually, if men and their governments are to be frank with themselves, they must recognize that this new convention merely scratches the surface. We are living in an age when our race is at least theoretically capable of totally annihilat ing itself. Fine as it is, therefore, the out lawry of mass extermination as defined by the U. N. must be viewed as merely a minor step in the right direction. It still leaves untouched and uncontrolled the forces of war itself. If those forces—the atom, bacteriological weapons, supersonic rockets, etc.—are unleased on an all-out basis in another twenty years or so, then there will be the genocide to end all geno cfde, with perhaps too little of humanity left to pass a law against it. For Better Public Service As President Truman and other authori ties have repeatedly declared,-one of the big problems of the Government Is to make jobs in it rewarding enough to at tract and hold men of special talent. By and large, because they can do better eco nomically in private industry, such men, when they engage in Federal service, find that it Involves substantial financial sac rifice, with the result that many of them are indisposed to make a permanent career of it. Because it is one of the agencies most in need of talented men offering continuous service, the Atomic Energy Commission has now taken steps to do something about the problem. In co-operation with the Civil Service Commission, it has established a new personnel policy setting up an inde pendent merit system. The system, which is to go into effect next month, will cover about 5,000 AEC workers, but its principal significance is that it will permit the hiring of scientists, technicians and other uniquely qualified nuclear-fission experts at salaries more in line with those paid such individuals in private industry. In other words, it will offer an inducement designed to encourage the AEC’s key em ployes to make a career of their work in Government. Considering the great Importance of our atomic project, there is good reason to commend the AEC’s new policy as an in telligent move to avoid an excessive talent turnover. Under the law, many other Federal agencies are restricted from fol lowing a similar course—a fact that calls for congressional action, to the end that progress can be made in improving our public service by narrowing the gap be tween the salary scales of private industry and the Federal Government. Presumably there will be some recommendations along this line in the forthcoming report of the Hoover Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch. The VD War Must Go On While the public response to the District Health Department’s campaign against venereal diseases has been generally en couraging, it is evident from statistics that there is need for a continuing educational program on this once hush-hush subject. More and more persons are reporting to clinics and private physicians for exami nation and treatment. But Health Depart ment figures indicate that many infected persons still are ruining their own health and menacing the welfare of the com munity by avoiding diagnosis and cure. Health authorities estimate that less than half of all venereal disease cases are reported. Last year more than 16,000 cases were reported in the District. On this basis it was estimated that there were ap proximately 33,000 VD victims in Washing ton this year. Yet the average number of cases reported either to private physicians or public clinics this year has been little more than a thousand a month. That means that either the estimates were w'rong or thousands of VD victims are at large here without benefit of medical care. The grave probability is that the latter premise is the true one. So the urgent need for wider publicity as to the dangers of neglect and the avail ability of curative treatments is plain. The Bureau of Venereal Diseases of the District Health Department has done a good job in helping to break down the taboos which once prevented free discussion of venereal diseases and measures for stamping them out. This program of education should be carried on until every possible victim knows of the perils of delay in obtaining medical aid and the efficacy of modern methods of treatment. Any person har boring the slightest doubt as to w'hether or not he has become infected should consult his physician promptly or secure a free examination at the nearest clinic. Clinics also will give free treatment when neces sary. For information regarding this im portant community health program, call Health Department VD Information, Met ropolitan 4600. The call will be kept con fidential, and so will any service rendered by the department or its agents. Perhaps the experts shouki stop telling us that conditions In Greece couldn't be worse, as in a matter of twenty-four hours thereafter they are. An Indian fakir who lay sixty years on a bed of spikes has passed on, without knowing the worst. He never walked on the parts of an erector set at 2 a.m. This and That By Charles E. Traceicell "QUE STREET. "Dear Sir: "Will you kindly tell me how I may keep small frogs over the winter? "I. raised four from tadpoles this summer in my /small uaMgn pool and would like to keep them throqPio% the winter. "They are sturdy and amusing little creatures and add interest and amusement to their sur roundings. Throughout the summer I added to their diet big juicy worms, which they de voured with alacrity. "Thank you so very much for all the valuable information you supply us. Your daily column is a great joy. "Gratefully yours, H. M. B.” * * * * Green frogs and bullfrogs, the mast usual sorts, remain tadpoles for two years. Toad tadpoles change in two or three months. The chances, therefore, are that our corre spondent has toads, not frogs. Either, however, gets the same sort of winter treatment. In the first place, the keeper must have a terrarium. This is a combined wet and dry "aquarium,’' in a way of speaking: that is, there must be a box for the creature to live in, and this must be of glass to enable it to be watched. There also must be a lid, which is best made of glass. This cover lid should be heavy, so that it will not slip off too easily. Elevate the two front corners about one-quarter inch. One end of the tank should be made of earth and sand, about 3 or 4 inches thick, cov ered with moss, if possible, with some places left bare. The other end should be a pool of water about 3 or 4 inches deep. Since this pool must be cleaned three times a week, on the average, it should be so placed as to be reached easily. One way is to use regular concrete, and make the pool separated in this way from the land portion. Another, and this perhaps is best, is to use a large bowl, which may be set in earth or sand, and so easily be lifted out to be cleaned. In this land-and-w-ater tank, or terrarium, properly, the creatures may live with every chance of coming through the winter. They will not need to be kept as warm as tropical fishes. The food consists of earthworms, when avail able (and today supplies can be purchased from "earthworm farms”), meal wortns (also to be purchased, or may be grown in old flour), flies, beetles, moths, bugs of all, sorts, cater pillars, etc. Scraps of raw meat may be pressed around a piece of string and dangled up and down in front of the frog or toad. Frogs like water, of course, but toads must have it when young. You see. they drink through their skins. Both frogs and toads are nearer the fishes than any other creatures, closer than they are to newts and salamanders. Tadpoles, both of frogs and toads, have gills, just like the fishes. In their early stages they have gills and tails, and upper and lower Un like membranes. Toads should not be feared. That is just old country, superstition, although some of them do, indeed, secrete an acrid substance from their warty skins after they get older. Toads spawn in pools and puddles in the spring, and the eggs are in chainlike strings, whereas the frog eggs are laid in irregular masses. Toad eggs are smaller and usually laid later in the season. Care must be taken in the terrarium not to let the Inmates hop out on the floor, as they may easily become lost on tHe background of rugs and carpets, and trodden on, to the sorrow of all concerned. Therefore, the cover lid must be kept on tight. Wire screening may be substituted for a glass lid, if desired. Some sunshine should be accorded the crea tures, but not too much. They must have as much live food as possible. Meal worms may be purchased by the thousand at pet stores. Earthworms are best, however, and inquiry should be made of earthworm farms, of which one is in nearby Arlington. Va. The role of the earthworm in agriculture is becoming increasingly known. It is a good thing that this humble creature is being culti vated, even if it ends up as food for other creature*. Letters to The Star Western Germany’s Economic Ills To the Editor of The Star. This week, ending with tomorrow’s elec tions in Berlin, probably will bring the last chapter in a story which already ha* lost a great deal of its news value on a day-to-day basis. Our attention will be shifting to West ern Germany, where already most of our im portant headquarter* quietly have moved dur ing the past few months. It might be of in terest for a change to read an analysis of the a European observer on the spot, the foreign German situation as seen through the eye* of correspondent of one of the leading Danish newspapers. This account supplies many in teresting sidelights, which I have failed to detect in our own newspaper reports from Germany: “Western Germany ha* experienced tre mendous improvements since the introduction of the currency reform—living standards have gone up lor those who can afford it, food sup plies have improved except for meat, vegetable* and potatoes are unrationed, production in gen eral has gone up. steel production has doubled, coal production has gone up 20 per cent and shops are full of luxury goods and even some household goods. The reasons for this im provement, aside from the currency reform, are ERP, a good harvest, better labor efficiency and * • • the blockade. “All of these developments, however, have prompted M. G. spokesmen to paint an over optimistic picture of the German economic sit uation. Even Gen. Clay's statement on his recent trip to the States, as quoted in over seas editions, that steel production is now 7, 500,000 tons a year, does not entirely bear out the facts. This figure would be correct if the October rate of 610,000 tons is kept up for 12 months, which is not likely to happen. Pro duction during the first six months of 1948 was quite good, and it is expected to come to a high before Christmas, when the workers need more money. The total estimate for 1948, how - ever, is only 5,500,000 tons, while production is sure to fall rather sharply during the first part of 1949. “Labor efficiency, which was another reason for good production, is getting a setback due to the present gap between prices and wages, discouraging the workers. “The German Economic Administration does not cope efficiently with its problems. The Frankfurt administration removed price con trols and the gap between prices and wages is getting bigger and bigger. Prices constantly are rising and are now far beyond the general public's reach. Industry and business had hoarded considerable stocks and the currency reform left them largely untouched. Right after the currency reform the hoarded stocks were sold at reasonable prices because industry needed cash. Some of the money was put into reconstruction of their business, but there was plenty of money left, which made business and industry put up prices in order to limit sales. Their reason is fear of the second phase of the currency reform, the capital adjustment <Las tenausgleich). As a result a dangerous situa ation is developing, business and industry are holding back stocks while buying wildly, and goods are unobtainable for the public because prices are prohibitive. Business invests all its surplus money in goods and goes to the banks for credits, which the banks are foolish enough to grant them. • • • "If the new German government to be In stalled in March is not composed of extraor dinary personalities with extraordinary energy and courage, with extraordinary powers and au thority, there are great chaneea that the 1»U heartedness of the present Vichy-Frankfurt Economic Administration shall be carriecLibn by a government which pretends to be sovereign without the authority and responsibility of sovereignty. Will such personalities be found? If not, the situation might well get out of hand and become dangerous.” URSULA CROWLEY. Teachers Without M. A. Degree To the Editor ot The 8t»r: The people of Washington have learned that the salaries paid to their teachers are very low. Still, they may not be aware that, low as the District of Columbia salary scale is in com parison with that paid by other American cities of comparable size, no classroom teacher actually is drawing the maximum pay that exists on paper. Part of the difficulty Is that the last salary act passed by Congress made a fetish of the M.A. degree. No Washington public school teacher may aspire to the princely income of $4,500 a year unless he possesses that degree. Let us see how it is that none of them have reached this maximum yet. Many of the sufferers are teaching music and other arts. No matter how distinguished a musician or artist an instructor in our schools may be, he cannot get $4,500 a year unless he has a master's degree. As a prac tical matter, few of them get that particular academic degree, because the institutions where they study do not grant it. Very few of the world's great artists or musicians could make more than $4,000 a year in the Washington public school system. Another injustice is suffered by high school teachers who entered the Washington school system before one needed the M.A. for such a position. They accordingly entered on the un derstanding that they might proceed to the maximum salary without getting the M.A. They based their careers on this assumption. Now, however, the rules of the game have been changed on them. No matter how long they have taught and no matter how good their work has been, they cannot get $4,500 a year unless they go to .school again and get an M.A. degree. This ex post facto legislation virtually has forced the school board to abrogate a con tract entered into with teachers whom it em ployed before the present salary act was passed That is not all. Some teachers who actually are masters of art are $1,000 short of the maxi mum salary. Their eligibility to the top salary has just been established; and, under the | present law, it will take them 10 years to get I it. This is true, even if one already has given 20 or more years of satisfactory service in the school. So, all of^iur teachers fall short of the theo retical maximum for some reason. Some do not have an M.A. degree. Others cannot get it. Others have not had it long enough.' They all fall short, when measured by the magic yardstick. 'Certainly the District is going to suffer from this situation, unless the preserr salary act is drastically revised by Congress. DON B. GOODLE, Legislative Representative, Local 27, Ameri can Federation of Teachers. Objects to Cemetery Proposal To the Editor of The Star: In your paper of November 27, the Rev. Mi Spalding calls attention to the fact that we havi no place comparable to Arlington Cemetery foi placing the remains of our distinguished civil ians and asks: ‘Should we not have such s national place and call it Westminster Ceme tery?”; "And should it not be in or near thi I District of Columbia?” To these queries I say: "No! No! A thousan times no!” First, people quite generally feel an attach ment for some particular community and it therefore would not be in accordance with the desire and wishes of any very considerable number to be laid to rest elsewhere. Second, whatever made the Rev. Mr. Spalding Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. think that such a national shrine should be called “Westminster. Cemetery”? Can It be that all the people who still think that the United States are still a British colony are not in the British Isles? Third, just why should suCh a place be lo cated in or near the District of Columbia? The District of Columbia never was the geographical center of the United States by more than a thousand miles, and has long since ceased to be anywhere approximating the center of pop ulation. H. K. LONG V __ Domestic Shipping Needs To th« Iditor ol The Slur: Current news items announcing the liquida tion of the Norfolk & Washington Steam boat Co. have carried expressions of re gret at the passing of a picturesque service which, for more than half a century, brought satisfaction to the thousands who patronized it. Far more serious than its loss in terms of convenience, usefulness and pleasure, however, is the trend that it reflects in the decline of domestic shipping generally. The late world conflict found our Nation woefully lacking in water transportation. Vessels of inland steam ship companies, such as the Old Bay Line, the Colonial Line and the Norfolk <fc Washington Steamboat Co. rapid!?’ were requisitioned by the Government to assist in carrying on the war abroad. With only one of its three vessels remaining, the Norfolk & Washington line continued to move substantial quantities of war materials and hundreds of service and civilian passengers nightly So important to the war effort was this service that, in order to expedite the placing of additional tonnage on this route, the line was taken over and operated by the War Shipping Administration until eight months after hostilities ceased. However fair the compensation may have been which was awarded for the vessels req uisitioned by the Government, in the light of original cost and depreciation it was hopelessly inadequate in returning the owners to status quo. As forcibly stated by Mr. Kennedy in his article in The Sunday Star of November 28, the inflated ship construction costs of today make it impossible for the Norfolk line to re nlace its tonnage losses and operate at a proflt. The Merchant Marine Act of 1936, as amended, declares it to be the policy of the United States to foster the development and encourage the maintenance of a merchant marine sufficient to carry its domestic water borne commerce, as well as its foreign water borne commerce; yet the benefits of this Act are devoted almost exclusively to shipping that competes in foreign trade.' Witness the fate of the Merchants & Miners Transportation Co., which operated coastwise freight and passenger vessels until the war, as well as the fates of the Nor folk & Washington line and the Hudson River Day Line, together withvthe present plight of the Old Bay Line, and we may well ask ourselves if the time is not near when there will be no domestic water-borne commerce. Yet we need only note that the vessels and ship ping facilities fostered by a vigorous domestic commerce were utilized to the utmost by our Nation in prosecuting the war to realize that this shipping is as v*al to our defense as ever. The Maritime Commission is authorized and directed to recommend to Congress such fur ther legislation as it deems necessary to ef fectuate the purpose and policy of the Mer chant Marine Act. Whether it makes a recom mendation or' not, Congress and the adminis tration must recognize that if this important arm of our national defense, which serves mil lions of grateful users in peace and.in war, is to survive, the act must provide assistance to domestic shipping, comparable to that which it renders to shipping in the foreign trade. La Plata, Md. ROBERT T. BARBOUR. Proposed Civilian Police To th* Editor ol The St«r: Even before reading your editorials on the subject, I was suspicious about the civilian police reserve that was being planned for us voteless District citizens. Training in the use of small arms suggests preparations for duties more arduous than the direction of vehicular and pedestrian traffic at parades and inaugurations. Then Thursday’s report on the existence of a ”goon squad” within the District Police De partment provided a suggestion and perhaps even the ultimate explanation about the re serve’s purpose. Did the Congress which appropriated $25,000 to equip and organize the squad anticipate that this year's election would bring the state of the Nation to a level where there would be periodic marches on the Cap ital? Is that why the numerical strength of the squad was to be a secret? Or do we have a strongarm squad to quell labor unrest, here in the Capital where Government employes don't strike? Or are there racial tensions in Washington which the District fathers want to settle without inquiring into the causes? It would seem to me that other citizens besides myself would be concerned about these things. I think you are to be commended for your complete news coverage of this issue so far and for your editorial position on it. Keep on giving us the facts as they develop and let us see what public reaction is. E. K. To th« Editor of The St»r: The proposed civilian reserve of the Metro politan Police brings to mind the fact that Congress in 1924 endeavored to provide a simi lar force by enabling the agency controlling the Federal building guards to screen that force and appoint selected numbers as special police. This resulted only in changing the title of •he force, with not even an attempt at screen ing, let alone police training. The proposed civilian reserve will be noth ing but a headache for Maj. Barrett and every member of the police force and will do no good whatever. An adequate police force in the District would number three times the present force, and this can be obtained only by making the -.alary commensurate with the job. If it Is desired to have an auxiliary force, he act of Congress dated 1924 never has been ■epealed. It still could be revised as desired nd used. THE GOOSE-TOWN GROWLER. Pay Increase for Army Officer* j thf Editor of Thr Star: I wonder if, with talk of labor ‘'pushing" or a fourth Increase in wages, when Congress meets again, they won't consider a problem which also is important to a good many people hese days—a long-overlooked and much needed increase in pay for officers of the Jnited States Army. There isn’t much publicity given to thP act that these men and their families also lave to live, and pay the doubled (and more) >rices for food, clothing, etc. Let us hope that Congress and President Truman, too, will remember these men at long last, whose services are so necessary to the welfare of our country. JU8T AN OFFICERS WIFE. I The Political Mill Electoral College Slated To Disappear Before 1952 Lodge Plan to Amend Constitution Has Support in Both Parties By Gould Lincoln For years the electoral college has been under attack as a kind of fifth wheel—needless in ths extreme and Sometimes unfair—in our system of electing Presidents and Vice Presidents of the United States. With any kind of a break at all, the electoral college—and also the pos sibility of the election of a President be*ng tossed into the House of Representatives—will be eliminated before the 1952 election rolls around. The change, if it takes place, will be brought about by the adoption and ratification of a constitutional amendment proposed by Sena tor Henry Cabot Lodge, jr., Republican, of Massachusetts. Mr. Lodge is one of the more progressive-minded Republicans of the Upper House, and he believes that presidential eler tions should more nearly reflect the popula will—expressed by the popular vote. He d o not believe, for example, that the statement President Truman defeated Gov. Dewey of New York in the recent election 304 electoral votes to 189—with Gov. Thurmond of South Caro lina, the Dixiecrat candidate, receiving 38 and Henry Wallace receiving none—gives a correct or reasonable picture of what actually hap pened. Nor does it, as a matter of fact. What Figures Show. Under the Lodge amendment, it has now been figured out by the Massachusetts Senator, aided by the Legislative Reference Bureau of the Library of Congress, the electoral vote would have stood, Truman 259.9, Dewey 222.3, Thurmond 39.5 and Wallace 3.9. The result is based on the percentages of the popular vote each get in the 48 States. These figures show Mr. Truman failing to receive a majority of the total electoral vote of the 48 States, or 266, necessary to win under the old system. The Lodge amendment abolishes the electoral college but retains for each State its electoral votes, based on the number of Representatives in the House each State h*S plus two votes for its Senators. In addition, the Lodge amendment does away with the re quirement that a candidate, to be chosen in an election, must have a majority of all the electoral votes. The candidate receiving the largest number of electoral votes will be Presi dent—so Mr. Truman would have won anyway. And there would have been no chance of throwing the election into the House o£ Rep resentatives, a bad business and one that hap pened several times in the history of the United States. The original theory was that the States would pick outstanding men as presidential electors, and the electors would meet and select the best qualified man for President and the second best for Vice President. After George Washington's two terms, this plan went awry. Politics and political parties crept in. The electors finally had no discretion—but were either morally or legally bound to vote for the candidate receiving the largest popular vote In their respective States. The delegated, author ity has virtually passed, although the Consti tution has not yet been changed. Denial of People's Will. The Dixiecrats in the last election backed Gov. Thurmond in ^he expressed hope that his candidacy would cause the election to be thrown into the House, and by trading in that body, some one other than President Truman, and preferably a man like Senator Byrd of Virginia, would be chosen President. This might have been a denial of the will of the people taken as a whole. The Lodge am&hjl ment prevents such an operation. It also elimi nates the danger of a candidate winning who received a minority of the popular vote—which has happened three times in. .the past; First, in 1824, when Jackson received 50.0Q0 more votes than did Adams, but lost when the elec tion went into the House; second, when Tilden received 264,292 more votes than Hayes; and third, in 1888. when Cleveland had 380,W1 more votes than Harrison. Harrison won in the illogical operation of the electoral college system. Under the Lodge plan there would be greater incentive for the Republicans to get out their vote in the States of the South, and'for the Democrats to get out their vote in Vermont and Maine. The bigger the popular vote for the candidates, the more they would score m the electoral vote. Widespread support exists for this pro posed constitutional amendment—and It comes from Democrats and Republicans alike. In the present Congress the resolution proposing the amendment received the approval of the Ju diciary Committees of both Senate and House, but there was no opportunity to bring it up for consideration. In the coming Congress the resolution will be reintroduced and pressed for action. Election by plurality is the general rule in this country, and the Lodge amendment pro poses the same thing for the election of a President. i _ _ ■ - — Questions and Answers A reader can get the answer to any aueMtoti of fart by writing The Washington Star Informa'ion Bureau, .tltf I street N.E.. Washington C. D. C. Please lncloae a cents for return postage. BV THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Why Is there such a large number of persons of voting age whodo not vote?—D. F. R, A. The population of voting age includes a great many persons who, although old enough to vote, may not do so because they have not satisfied State requirements as to citizenship, residence, registration or the payment of poll taxes. There are also those confined in penal institutions, mental hospital* and kin dred institutions. Q. What has happened to Edda Ciano, Mus solini’s daughter?—H. P. A. Countess Edda Ciano. daughter of fhe former Duce, is reported to be on the Isle of Capri, Italy. f ~~ Q. How many handicapped persons are em ployed in the United States?—E- L. A. A. There are at least 6.000.000 handicapp'd persons in the labor force of the United States. V v Q. How many municipalities own tlrir own transportation facilities?—P. S. V. A. According to the Municipal Finance Officers’ Association, some or ail of the trans portation facilities of 29 cities over 10,000 popu lation in the United States are municipally owned. December By the barren meadow trees, Near the spiraled purple smoke, Old and bent, December stands, In her trailing dull gray cloak. Cold and bleak her withered face, Chill her breath upon the air; Note her sunken eyes peer down On her cauldron boiling there. • And her laughter, cracked and grim, Rises to the windy sky Where the hungry winter wrens Chirp their plaintive begging cry. Gaunt and old, December stands, Where the sweet moss rose once grew, Huddled in her dull gray cloak, Stirring now her bitter brew. WILLIAM ARNETT* WOFFORD.