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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON. D. C. , Published by t The Evening Star Newspaper Company. FRANK B. NOYES, President end Chairman of the Board, 1910-1948 - FLEMING NEWBOLD, President. » ____________ B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. ond Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: MO East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Dally and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly —1.20* Monthly ... 90c 10c per copy Weekly ...30c Weekly ...20c 10c per copy •10c jddltional when S Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition In those sections where delivery is made. Rates by Mall—Payable In Advance. Anywhere In United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month_1,50 1 month — 90c 1 month 60c « months— 7.50 4 months .. 5.00 4 months 3.00 1 year _15.00 1 year 10.00 1 year ..4.00 Telephone STerling 5000. Intend at the Post Office, Washington, D. C„ ob tocond'doiB mail mattor. Member ef the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the use ♦or republicetien of all the local news printed in this newspaper, os well os ell A. P. news dispatches. A—4 MONDAY, December 27, 1941 Adjusting Service Pay It Is gratifying that someone finally 1( giving serious attention to the sadly neglected field of military pay. That the question has been too long side tracked is obvious from the fact that the study just completed by the Advisory Commission on Service Pay is the first comprehensive one that has been made since 1908. There have been some in creases in service salaries during the past forty years, of course, but they have been in the nature of patchwork on the original structure. As a result there have arisen gross inadequacies and inequities—with officers more often the victims than en listed men. The commission points out, for example, that whereas the pay of recruits com pares favorably with the average wages received by civilians on comparable work in private industry, the generals and the admirals receive far less than business executives with comparable responsibilities, even when rental, subsistence and other extra allowances for officers are included. Because of the inequities which have developed over the years in service pay scales, a varying scale of increases for the several ranks and grades is recommended by the commission, an unbiased civilian group headed by Charles R. Hook, steel manufacturer. The fact that some of the higher officers would be favored under the plan with relatively higher raises than some of the men in the enlisted ranks is not an Indication of partiality for the so-called "brass.” It is merely a long overdue recognition of the fact that the "brass” has not been dealt with fairly in the past when service pay legislation was under consideration. While recognizing the injustices done officers in the matter of compensation, the Hook commission also has taken proper note of certain abuses that have occurred in the extra-allowance field. If its advice is adopted—as it should be—it no longer will be possible for naval officers on shore assignments to collect additional pay for “sea duty” by maintaining offices aboard ships anchored in harbor, or for ground duty air officers to get flying pay by taking an occasional hop for the sole-purpose of qualifying for extra compensation. Low basic pay has tended to encourage these practices. The new plan calls for extra pay only for really hazardous duties, such as submarine and diving, military flying by qualified personnel, demolition of explo sives and the like. And Increased death benefits for service personnel are a good suggestion. As the commission comments, the pay scale adjustments are needed not only as a matter of simple justice to men in the armed forces, but in the interest of main taining the morale and efficiency—and hence the strength—of our national de fense organization. It will cost added millions, but the Investment is advisable in the interest of the country’s security. China's 'War Criminals' In their radio broadcast branding a long list of Nationalist leaders as “war crimin als,” the Chinese Communists have indi cated that they have little interest in ne gotiating a peace with the government of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Instead, i,as if taking final victory for granted, they aeem to have embraced a line ruling out Aampromise and setting themselves up as avengers pledged to impose a “just pen alty” (presumably death) oh virtually all the key military and political figures as sociated with Chiang. It may be that the Communists have evidence to support their charges of “hein ous crimes” against some of the individuals on their black list. But the list itself is so sweeping that it has all the earmarks of being about ps honest and just as the ones similarly compiled—and acted upon with truth-butchering ruthlessness — against the anti-Red opposition in places like Soviet-dominated Bulgaria and Ro mania. The fact that both Generalissimo and Madame Chiang head the roster of the condemned, which includes such other outstanding personalities as Ambassador Wellington Koo, speaks pretty much for itself. To say that Chinese of this stamp are “war criminals” is to mock history and insult the intelligence of decent-minded people everywhere. In the dictionary of the Red totali tarians, of course, “war criminal”.means anybody who takes a lead in opposing the dominance-seeking efforts of the Soviet Union. The puppet regimes behind the Iron Curtain in Europe have used the phrase with dreary repetitiveness in their propaganda preludes to viciously farci cal “trials” designed to liquidate honest, democratic political opponents—for ex ample, Petkov in Eulgaria and Maniu in Romania. The broadcast by the the Chin ese Communists merely follows a pattern that has long since grown dismally fam iliar in every country falling under the far-reaching shadow of the Stalin dicta torship. What remains to be seen is whether the Reds in China will win a military victory complete enough to carry out their threat. At the moment there seems to be little standing in their way, but since they show no interest in the idea of a nego tiated peace, and since they have declared their intention to liquidate the most high ly placed Nationalist leaders, the latter may be spurred into organizing stiffer and more effective resistance against deci sive new Communist advances. In case the worst happens, of course, “war crim inals” like the Chiangs need have no doubt that they will be offered an asylum with honors in America. After all, as the historical record proves, they are "criminals” only because they are on the side of the free, non-Soviet world. Catching Spies Today If the disclosures coming out of the Hiss-Chambers showdown have done noth ing more, they have established beyond doubt that it was possible a decade ago for spies to operate successfully in this country. And if that was the case in 1938 there is a possibility, if not a proba bility, that the same thing is true today. It is reasonable to suppose that Com munist agents are trying as hard today as they were ten years ago to gain access to secret information in this country. Certainly, given the deterioration in rela tions between the United States and Rus sia, there is more reason for it now than there was a decade ago. If foreign agents are operating successfully in this country, however, the public has been told little or nothing about it. The story recited by Elizabeth Bentley, if true, tends to establish that espionage activities were measurably successful dur ing the war. And the report of the Canadian spy commission, which told of links with alleged Communist spies in the United States, would lead one to believe that successful espionage was being con ducted after the war. There can be no certainty about this because there has been no public announcement whether the leads from Canada were followed up, and, If so, what if anything was done with the sus pects. When all of the factors are bal anced, however, the reasonable Inference is that Communist agents are still at work within our borders, and it is not illogical to suppose that they are working through confederates who have managed to stay in Government service. Given this background, the announce ment that the House Un-American Activ ities Committee intends to recommend'1 tighter security legislation will be more favorably received than might otherwise have been the case. For the day when any such proposal from this committee could be dismissed as another Red hunt or manufactured spy scare has passed. The committee has shown beyond reason able doubt that Communist agents, neces sarily aided by trusted Government em ployes, have been able to pry into our offi cial secrets. If this be granted, however, the fact remains that any tightening up of the espionage statutes will be a difficult mat ter. The essence of the problem is to find means of reinforcing national security without unnecessary and unconstitutional impairment of individual liberties. The Attorney General has announced that his department is at work on the problem. Events have indicated the inadequacy of existing statutes. This being so, the rec ommendations expected from the House committee may serve a useful purpose as a kind of yardstick for measuring the ef fectiveness of the Attorney General’s pro posals. In any event they can do no harm, for the primary purpose of any new legis lation should be to erect for the future the tightest possible barriers against con tinuation of successful espionage tactics such as those used by Whittaker Chambers when he was working for the Communists. 'Look, No Hands!' In christening its new automatically piloted transport plane “Look, No Hands,’’ j the Navy was not merely having fun with a name. For the big two-motored plane | goes further in flying without the touch of human hands than any military plane has gone before. Announcement of the remarkable Improvement on automatic piloting devices follows close upon the dis closure of another amazing aid to pilots, known as the zero reader. Used in con junction, the two instruments should bring nearer to realization the day when “human error” no longer will be a serious factor in air accidents. The uncanny capacities of the zero reader were publicly described for the first time in last week’s issue of the Saturday Evening Post. An article by Captain Hiram Wilson Sheridan, American Airlines pilot, representing the Air Line Pilots’ Associa tion, reported that the gadget, developed by the Sperry Gyroscope Company, “takes all the sweat out of blind landing ap proaches.” All that the pilot has to do is to keep a pair of crossed lines on the instrument panel in a zero position and a safe “blind” landing is assured. The pilot does have to use the controls occasionally, to keep the plane in zero position. The “Look, No Hands” is equipped with an automatic pilot to which something extra has been added. The extra device even relieves the pilot of the necessity of adjusting the controls to keep the plane in the correct position. Once the instru ment is set for the proper beam, it pro ceeds to keep the plane on course and to adjust the power and surface controls as necessary to bring the ship to a safe land ing—at the proper altitude of approach and at the proper landing speed. Even if a gust should tip the plana as it is about to land, the automatic device will give the plane the exact amount of power and set the tail surfaces at the correct angle to counteract the unexpected wind factor. Literally, no hands are needed, for the machine can make the adjustments quicker and more accurately than the pilot can. Actually, the Navy equipment is a refine ment for carrier-landing purposes of a device with which the Navy, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Min neapolis-Honeywell Company have been experimenting for more than a year. It may be several years before it is ready for installation in airliners. The manually operated zero reader is expected to be ready for airline use in a year or so. The news of these steps forward in safety research is indicative of the intensive efforts being made by military and civilian aviation authorities to make plane operation more automatic than ever—and hence safer for crews and passengers. The day may come a when the pilot will have nothing to do but keep himself in standby readiness to take over in event of a mechanical failure. It might be boresome for him on a long trip, but it should mean safer flying for everybody. Overdoing Christmas Music Now that Christmas, 1948, is history, perhaps it would be just as well to con sider whether the indiscriminate use of Christmas music from Thanksgiving on ward was not overdone. Some rather sharp complaints have been registered about the unlimited repetition of Christ mas hymns on radio programs and “piped in” music distribution systems in shops and stores, and it seems that there is certain merit in the protest. “O, Little Town of Bethlehem” is a beautiful com position, but when one has heard it played and sung on four different broadcasts in a single hour, one’s appreciation of it may yield to impatience. As for the longing -for a white Christmas and the pleasure of wandering in winter’s wonderland—de fensible sentiments in themselve^, surely— even the disc jockeys must be weary to death. The song about wanting two teeth for Christmas was something horrible at its start; it became a variety of crime after having been worked day and night for a month. Maybe it would be a good idea for the radio industry to devote some of its acknowledged genius to the job of checking program material against irritating repe tition. Great numbers of people undoubt edly remember the ASCAP strike of 1941, when the melodies of Stephen Collins Foster were exploited around the clock until ‘‘Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair” became a disaster. The Christmas music gradually accumulated through the cen turies ought not to be subjected to any such tortureu What happened this year should be taken as a warning of what might happen next Christmas, unless sweet reasonableness guides the purveyors of mass-harmonies. On the other hand, there can be no question about the service rendered by broadcasting enterprises of every variety in furnishing well-selected Christmas pro grams to homes and places of public as sembly which otherwise would have lacked them. Part of the miracle of radio is the fact that when it is good, it is very good Indeed. “A new electronic calculator, designed for the Air Force, solves mathematical problems before they come up.” But is this safe? Remember Gallup. And still it takes a lot of Industrial know-how just to put together a motorcar capable of carrying Its own weight in extras. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell Biggest little fish in the world is the guppy. At this time of the year he is likely to show up in many gift aquariums. What to do with him? The guppy is pe culiarly the beginner’s fish because he Is so hardy and will survive much wrong manage ment. Like a great many other things which are so good that they have become common and cheap, this little fish suffers in the popular mind because of his good points. Some at tempts were made several years ago to use his odd name to mean a man who is not popular with the ladies, but this effort failed, as it deserved to fail. The word “guppy” still means the little fish about an inch long originally found in Hon duras. The male is a colorful and giddy one, the female a slightly larger silvery fish which attends strictly to its duties of living. It must be admitted that the male guppy attracts the most attention. He is always swim ming around, almost always in pursuit of the ladies, and he is quite colorful, in a mild sort of way. He is a little “wolf” of the water. But after one has kept and watched these creatures for a time, the female of the species often stands out in the mind as the better of the two. Teen-age guppies are as fine little creatures as the aquarium-minded person will want to see. They are pure silver. Their eyes are peculiarly bright and look as if they understood what is going on Inside their world as well as outside. The young female guppy seems to know who is out there, her keeper and protector. There is no parallel for this as far as mankind is con cerned. Man talks about his God and bows to Him, but is denied the certitude of the guppy in its bowl. » * w w Guppies are good for the old hand as well as for the beginner. During the war, when houses were not so warm, guppies were among the few tropicals that managed to survive without the use of electrical heaters. They still are the best for people who do not want to bother, and this includes children. They are really much easier to keep than gold fish and can get along in a much smaller aquarium. Many persons who take on the aquarium hobby at last find themselves tired of It. They may like to keep a guppy tank, however. This little fish gives you about all any fish can. It is easily fed. There is not so much danger that they will overeat (the common goldfish failing), and if they do, there is where spinach comes in. A leaf of spinach boiled for a minute and then cooled off makes excellent guppy medicine. Suspended at one comer of the aquarium and allowed to trail In the water, It is the object of all eyes. Although the guppy can stand water tem peratures from 40 to 90 degrees, these extremes are not recommended. The nearer any home aquarium is kept at practically the same tem perature day and night, the better it is for all concerned. An average of 68 or 70 degrees is enough for guppies, and if it can be held Within reasonable limits, the creatures should thrive, If the rest of their care is correct. This means proper balance between plants, food and fish. Most people who get an aquarium for the first time want to put too many fish In It. Well, it can be done with the guppies. At least 60 can be kept in a two-gallon tank. Not only kept, but kept well, provided the sand is clean and the plants thriving. Excess food must be cleaned up along with other debris. Do not bother too much about the green algaa that grow on the inside of the glass. They do no harm, and the guppies like them. Like spinach, they are good for them. They are best scraped off the front panel, however. This type of algae will not make the water green. Algae which make the water green are other types and are caused by too much sunlight and too much fish food. Tlie remedy Is plain. A few guppies to start off with soon result in scores of little guppies, since this fish Is what is called a "live bearer," bringing forth Its young perfectly formed and able to swim. The first time any one, whether old or young, sees this sight In an aquarium, it Is almost un believable. This is where the plants come In. If there are no plants, the parents will eat up all the babies. With plants, practically all survive. The guppy bowl furnishes an interesting object lesson in nature and is a picturesque ornament. It should be stressed that it is not just something for children. The mature per son. with more than just an iriterest in his job, is sure to love it, too. Many, a lonely person would be benefited by taking on the care of a few of these little strangers in our land—er, water. If you are dissatisfied with the world. If the Russians worry you, if some people talk too much to suit you and others do not talk enough, then take refuge in a bowl of guppies. Letters to The Star Eye Bank Appeal To tht Editor of The Star: A miracle of modem surgical science now empowers us to leave our fellowmen, when we die, a gift like the gifts of the Almighty. , By one generous act costing us nothing, and involving no sacrifice, you or I can let in the light to a child now locked in dark ness, or to a soldier blind because he fought for us where steel was flying, and is groping now through perpetual night. No other gen eration has held in its. keeping so precious and profound a legacy, to be given freely by a man at death, as God gave it to him at birth. Curved in front of the^ irises and pupils of our eyes are the corneas, no bigger or thicker than a ~dlipe. If healthy, they are not im paired by otherwise defective vision, and the age, sex, race or blood types of the donors make no difference. The procedure is simply to write to the Eye Bank for Bight Restoration, Inc., 210 East 64th street, New York 21, N. Y„ or to the Eye Banks in Boston or New Orleans, for the release form and booklet. The pledge is vol untary, a part of no will, is not notarized, and constitutes no obligation if subsequent cir cumstances Intervene. Nothing compels it but mercy. Ruskin said, “God has lent us the earth for our life. It is a great entail. It belongs as much to those who come after us, as to us, and we have no right to deprive them of the benefit which it was in our power to bequeath.’’ It is your privilege, as you read this, to try to convey to one among the thousands of our blind compatriots, so ecstatic and divine a blessing. EAMES MacVEAGH. Politics in Foreign Affairs To the Editor of The Stir: Our foreign policy has sunk to a new low. The pressure we are placing on the Dutch Government to withdraw its troope from the so-called Indonesian Republic is just pure politics. How different it was when the Israelites in an almost identical manner broke their truce with the Arabs and conquered territory not included in the Bernadotte plan. Did we put pressure on them to withdraw to their former lines? No indeed! We sup ported them to the hilt. The Arab vote in this country is very small. So also is the Dutch vote. Our foreign policy thus seems to be merely a continuation of the recent cam paign in its appeal to votes of various pres sure groups. Apparently it makes no differ ence to the President that the so-called In donesian Republic was rapidly being taken over by the Communists. OBSERVER. Marx and the Cold War To th* Editor of Hi* 8t»r: Are we a leading nation or are we a door mat? To prove our friendliness should we discard all defense and bare our bosom to a neighbor who has vowed to "get” us? It is high time for our fellow-travelers to make up their minds. We are helping others to regain their foot ing and their self, respect while the Commies seek to tear down every one and everything not their own. Which is the better way? Yet there are many who denounce the Marshall Plan as diabolical strategy! To some the situation in Berlin is the acme of clever tactics oft our part, a window in the Iron Curtain through which flows evidence of far better living to the West, leading in time to better living everywhere. To others it is a mess of diplomatic bungling. Which is correct? Some still fail to see the fatal errors in the writing of Karl Marx, a worthless pau per who all his life sought to tear down the success of others that he was unable to attain for himself. Though he gained publicity, he was a dismal failure as a man. Prom those who accept such leadership we ean expect only failure and trouble-making. P. O. NUTTING. Seeks Gifts for Navahos Te th* Editor of Th* Star: I have been hoping some one would write a letter, advertising to the public the miserable way the United States Government is neglect ing the Navahos around Flagstaff, Arizona. Since I have seen none, I feel it my Christian duty to bring the subject to the attention of educated, responsible citizens. Mrs. E. W. S., of Washington, knows a mis sionary in Flagstaff, Shine Smiths who asks for gifts for the neglected Indians—money for medicines, clothing for desperate mothers and children suffering in the cold climate. The white man stole the lands of the Indians; grafters still cheat the simple, good-hearted red man. So, when we send donations, food and clothing to the needy overseas, let us also think first of the needy In our own country. The Indians are law-abiding Americans. The Indian children have no picture books like our children have, and would appreciate gifts of magazines. MRS. DOROTHY M. MYERS. Impressions of the Ozarks To th« editor of Th« Star: Back in May my next-door neighbors had to give up their home here in the District of Columbia, take the barest necessities, and leave their many friends behind, because the doctor told them that if the husband were to live a little longer, he must spend the rest of his life out West. Tor the dread disease, tuberculosis, had gotten a lasting hold on him. Today I received a Christmas letter from them. To me it is like a beautiful poem, a musical classic, or perhaps a gorgeous painting It gave me the kind of lift that one.just cannot put in words. I’m passing it on to you and your readers that you all may enjoy its beauty: "Eight months or 232 days in the Ozarks. "We have come to know all about the dew; mornings and the starry nights. These hlgn old tree-covered hills that they call the Ozarks look very blue in the mist and to the east stands Horseshoe Mountain looking out on us. the simple folk, living here in this valley. “We know the joy of a lovely sunset; we’ve heard the'chorus of the birds in the morning: we know the honeysuckle loves it here and we know all about a blackberry winter. We have seen the silver ash tree rustle its leaves in the Ozark breeze and we’ve raced the mockingbird to the cherry tree! “We’ve been ‘baby sitters’ to a flock of chickens. We have carried tons of feed and buckets of fresh water for their enjoyment. And our salary? Did you ever experience the aroma of a fried chicken browning in the pan and know that out there in the yard were several more just like It and yours for the taking? “We’ve come to know that money doesn't count so much here. Every one aims to get a heap of living done without worry. Don’t they say money causes worry and worry causes ulcers? Ulcers wouldn’t dare show their faces! The shade of a big persimmon tree and a stick to whittle is soothing to some, and then others like company and go to the village store, sit on the bench out front and whittle! “Many of these things that the Ozarks have given us we would love to give to you. We’d like to send you a picture of Jerry and his little sister trudging down the road at sunset with a quart of fresh milk in a ‘poke.’ “Or we would like to give you a pick of oui cans of green beans or black-eyed peas or wild plum butter, or maybe you would rather choose from the frozen food packages—little red straw berries winking up out of their boxes or the dewberries, luscious in their own juice, or those deep purple boysenberriee, plump and full of Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. juice, so that when covered with cream they turn a deep orchid and taste like nectar of the fairies. Fairies of the Ozarks, of course. “We wish you could hear the bell ring out from the little white steeple of the church that sits high on the mountain. Clear and simple it rings out across the valley and we know God’s in His Heaven, all’s right with the world and it is going to be a Merry Christmas!’’ Do you agree that my^descrpition of its beauty was not overrated? MRS. NAOMI O. JONES. Seeing Communists as They Are To th« Editor of The Star: In a radio debate, a distinguished author argued that the success of the Communists in China is due to the fact that they furnish re forms as they go along whereas the Nationalist government dissipates American aid without implementing reforms. Certainly, the Communists seduce gullible men of good will into co-operation by institut ing reforms at the start. It is only when they have a newly conquered nation under complete control and the trap is sprung that they dis card theif benevolent sheep's clothing and terror-stricken citizens begin to flee their own country. Why is it that fatuous intellectuals always complain about the depravity of the status quo in every country outside the Soviet orbit and never point to the vicious brutality of es tablished Communist regimes? Chiang Kai shek or no Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese peas ants are living on the land in China. It takes no stretch of the imagination to perceive the tremendous reservoir of slave labor which help less Chinese would provide for Russian mills and mines should the Communists gain com plete control of China. What should be done for the Chinese Na tionalist government, this writer does not pre tend to know. But it seems to me altogether too many people, who should know better, do confused humanity a miserable disservice when they contend that all Communists are not the fatal political disease carriers which they really are. And it doesn't make a bit of difference whether they are operating in Minsk, Peiping, Rome, Washington or Detroit. MABEL G. BLISS. Explains Trouble in Kashmir To tho Editor of The Star: In your editorial of November 25. on Kash mir and Hyderabad, you are reported to have ; given the following as “basic facts": (1) Trouble began when a revolt broke out among Kashmir Moslems and the Hindu Ma haraja applied for union with India. (2) India's government sent in troops to sup port the Maharaja, whereupon aid was given to Moslem insurgents, both from Pakistan and the hill tribes of the Pakistan border area. As I am convinced that you and your read ers are interested in a correct statement of facts, I venture to say the following: (1) It is true that Kashmir has a very large Moslem majority and the ruler is a Hindu. (2) Over a period of 10 years there have been two groups among Moslems. Group (a) was against autocracy, and for a secular democratic state. They did not want to become part of Pakistan because they did not think it to be a progressive, modem, demo cratic state. Group (b) was not against autocracy as such; but only against the ruler being a Hindu. Lately they were in favor of a religious as distinct from a secular state and therefore wanted to be part of Pakistan. , (3) There was no revolt Inside Kashmir. The revolt was not thr starting point. The starting point was that Afghan (Pathan) tribes from Pakistan territory crossed into Kashmir and raided Kashmir. Part of the local popu lation, some willingly and some unwillingly, aided the invaders. (4) The ruler applied for aid from India. (5) India made its aid conditional on the ruler handing over power to the leader of Kashmir’s democratic movement. The ruler agreed to hand over power and installed Sheik Abdullah (a Moslem) as chief executive. Ab dullah has always been the leader of the demo cratic forces which have been fighting the ruler for over 12 years. Today the ruler is only a titular ^head like the British King. (6) The tribal raiders were inspired and aided by Pakistan. (7) The six facts mentioned above must give you an idea of the origin of the trouble. Since then Pakistan has been directly participating in the aggression, which (as the U. N. Com mission has pointed out) Is under its over-all command and direction. (8) It is not true to say that the U. N. Com mission criticizes “both contestants for their in transigence.” The Commission’s report has not charged India with intransigence. A. N. SIVARAMAN, Editor, Diamani, Madras, India. Censorship of Correspondents To th* Editor ot The Stir: Being a journalism student, I greatly appre ciated the survey in Sunday’s Star dealing with the degrees of press freedom existing in various nations throughout the world. But I was much disturbed by a glaring weakness in the article—its failure to include any discussion of-press freedom in the United States. No doubt the American press is relatively free from censorship and other coercive .In fluences from the outside; but it has not as yet reached such an absolute state of perfec tion, it is not yet so completely free that It can be omitted from any discussion regarding suppression and censorship. To be specific, the Associated Press survey cited as its chief gripe the fact that most foreign countries impose stifling restrictions on the movements of foreign correspondents and strictly censor what they write. Well, United States policy toward foreign corre spondents here is no more liberal. To corre spondents of unfriendly nations, our country is al unaccessible as Russia proper is to our writers. Few correspondents of other nations are allowed to roam the country at will. In light of our own policy, how can we, without murky conscience, condemn what we ourselves do not permit to any degree? The free flow* of information demands two-way movement among nations. We should open the gates of our country to foreign correspondents of all nations, if we expect the same privilege extended to us abroad. GEORGE M. RIVIERE. No Trouble in Uruguay To th« Editor ot Tbo Star: In an editorial of The Star of December 23, entitled “Force in Latin America,’’ I find that the government of Uruguay is listed among the Latin American governments menaced by “uprisings or incipient revolts.” I would appreciate it if you make it public that in my country not only there has been no alteration of order, or the least sign of it, but on the contrary the consolidation of our demo cratic political and institutional order is so deeply founded, and is of such nature, that any version on the alteration, or possible al teration of order, must be taken as totally a»d absolutely unbelievable. ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ-CAMPORA, Ambassador of Uruguay. Stars, Men and Atoms Plant 'Milk' Discovered To Be Growth-Stimulating Experiments Show Coconut Substance Speeds Development 10 Fold By Thomas R. Henry Mother’s milk of the plant world contains an extremely powerful and hitherto unknown growth-stimulating substance. It has been demonstrated in coconut milk. Some of it also exists in com in the “milk’’ stage. Both these milks are intended by na ture for the nourishment of plant nurslings, seedlings in the embryonic stage. Presence of this powerful growth substance has been reported to the American Associa tion foi' the Advancement of Science by Drs. S. M. Caplin and P. C. Steward of the University of Rochester. They were trying to make tissue cultures of carrot root cells. In ordinary culture preparations they grew very slowly, even with the addition of indole acetic acid, one of the most powerful of plant hormones. Growth Speeded. Addition of the coconut milk speeded the growth tenfold. The substance may prove to be one of nature’s essential life chemicals. The nature of the material, the two botanists report, cannot be determined but they have carried out experiments which demonstrate that It is none of the known growth vitamins and none of the plant hormones. It is pres ent only in the liquid milk and cannot be found in the milk ash. The experiments indicate, they say, that it has quite a small molecule, compared to any of the known vitamins or hormones. It ap parently acts, however, in a vitamin-like fash ion, its essential function being to harness energy for the creation of proteins, the build ing blocks of tissue. There also are some in dications that it acts in conjunction with Vitamin A. Although the practice has been without any known medical basis, it is pointed out, coconut milk often has been used for nourishment of human babies in the tropics. The newly de termined substance may have an effect on all growing cells. * * * * An apparently successful start has been mads under an Office of Naval Research contract in the synthesis of the vitally important strate gic mineral tourmaline, essential in all sorta of electric appliances and highly valued, in various colored forms, as a gem stone. Its significance as a strategic mineral is due to the phenomenon of piezzo electricity. When pressure is applied to one of its crystals a minute current of electricity is generated. This constitutes probably the most delicate known means of detecting pressure differences such as would be encountered in the ascent of a plana or the descent of a submarine. Tourmaline crystals combine with this tha phenomenon of pyroelectricity, the generation of an electric current with heating. This makea them among the‘most sensitive heat detector* known. Material Is Rare. It is essential, however, to use pure, high grade material which is extremely rare. A little is found In Maine and California. Brazil sup plied a great deal of our war supply. One of the best sources is the island of Elba, scene of Napoleon’s exile northeast of Corsica. The efforts to synthesize the material for th* Navy are being carried out at Rutgers Univer sity at New Brunswick, N. J. Methods being used are similar to those which have proved successful for some time in the synthesis of various precious gems. Tourmaline is a. compound of silica and boron, with various impurities in different forms of the mineral which account for its color range of red, yellow, green, blue and black. Silica and boron dust are being blown through an extremely hot flame. The difficulty is that the melting point is so low. Up to now, Navy scientists say, it has been possiMe to produce single crystals but these have ' not yet positively been identified as tourmaline. There is little reason to believe, however, that they could be any other sub stance. The method holds forth the possibility of producing cheap gems of great beauty. The green forms, obtained in Brazil, are widely known as "Brazilian emeralds.” Questions and Answers . A ieader can get the answer to any Question of fart by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 316 I street N.E.. Washington 2. £> C. Please inclose three (3> cent! for return poatagg. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Where Is the world’s official standard meter kept?—E. Y. A. The international prototype meter is measured cm a platinum-iridium bar that la kept in a vault at Sevres, near Paris, Prance. On October 13, 1848, the bar was examined by world scientists for the first time since 1933, Q. What was done with the ships that wera used in the underwater atomic bomb teat? —P. O. R. A. Of the 76 ships that were used in the , underwater test at Bikini, 12 are still afloat, according to a recent report of the Navy. It wa$ planned, however, to sink the cruiser Pensacola and the destroyer Hughes because they were still dangerously radio-active. A third radioactive vessel was to be retained as a laboratory. The remaining nine were com pletely decontaminated. Q. How does the brain of a gorilla compare in size with that of a man?—E. McB. ' A. “Animals Alive,” by Austin H. Clark of the Smithsonian Institution (D. Nostrand Co., New York) says that the largest of all the apes are the gorillas of West Africa. They reach a maximum height of about 5 feet 6 inches and a weight of about 550 pounds. In spite of their great bulk their brain is rela tively small, the cranial capacity being about* 600 cubic centimeters, in contrast to the cranial capacity of from 1,500 to 2,000 cubio centimeters of normal adult men. Angel With the Tilted Halo The little angel on that Holy Night Lifted his voice with joyous main and might, For was it, not a truly glorious thing To join the heavenly chorus carolingf As “In Sxcelsis, gloria,” they sang, Till sleeping Bethlehem with music rang, His pure young treble soared divinely sweet. (But—filled his heart with ecstasy com plete, How could he know that, over one bright eye His halo, first-time worn, tilted awry?) And Mary Mother, with a tender grace Herself leaned near, his nimbus to re place. “Blessings be thine, dear tiny one,” she smiled, “For welcoming the birthday of my Child!” The host of angels dipped white wings to Her, Who honored so their youngest chorister, Then "Gloria in Sxcelsis, Deo,” song Of exultation, echoed all night longf ’ MAZIE V. CARUTHER*.