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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, December 27, 1948, Image 6

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tQ\\e fining ffc
With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON. D. C.
, Published by
t The Evening Star Newspaper Company.
FRANK B. NOYES,
President end Chairman of the Board, 1910-1948
- FLEMING NEWBOLD, President.
» ____________
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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A—4 MONDAY, December 27, 1941
Adjusting Service Pay
It Is gratifying that someone finally
1( giving serious attention to the sadly
neglected field of military pay. That
the question has been too long side
tracked is obvious from the fact that the
study just completed by the Advisory
Commission on Service Pay is the first
comprehensive one that has been made
since 1908. There have been some in
creases in service salaries during the past
forty years, of course, but they have been
in the nature of patchwork on the original
structure. As a result there have arisen
gross inadequacies and inequities—with
officers more often the victims than en
listed men.
The commission points out, for example,
that whereas the pay of recruits com
pares favorably with the average wages
received by civilians on comparable work
in private industry, the generals and the
admirals receive far less than business
executives with comparable responsibilities,
even when rental, subsistence and other
extra allowances for officers are included.
Because of the inequities which have
developed over the years in service pay
scales, a varying scale of increases for the
several ranks and grades is recommended
by the commission, an unbiased civilian
group headed by Charles R. Hook, steel
manufacturer. The fact that some of the
higher officers would be favored under the
plan with relatively higher raises than
some of the men in the enlisted ranks is
not an Indication of partiality for the
so-called "brass.” It is merely a long
overdue recognition of the fact that the
"brass” has not been dealt with fairly in
the past when service pay legislation was
under consideration.
While recognizing the injustices done
officers in the matter of compensation, the
Hook commission also has taken proper
note of certain abuses that have occurred
in the extra-allowance field. If its advice
is adopted—as it should be—it no longer
will be possible for naval officers on shore
assignments to collect additional pay for
“sea duty” by maintaining offices aboard
ships anchored in harbor, or for ground
duty air officers to get flying pay by taking
an occasional hop for the sole-purpose of
qualifying for extra compensation. Low
basic pay has tended to encourage these
practices. The new plan calls for extra
pay only for really hazardous duties, such
as submarine and diving, military flying by
qualified personnel, demolition of explo
sives and the like. And Increased death
benefits for service personnel are a good
suggestion.
As the commission comments, the pay
scale adjustments are needed not only as
a matter of simple justice to men in the
armed forces, but in the interest of main
taining the morale and efficiency—and
hence the strength—of our national de
fense organization. It will cost added
millions, but the Investment is advisable
in the interest of the country’s security.
China's 'War Criminals'
In their radio broadcast branding a long
list of Nationalist leaders as “war crimin
als,” the Chinese Communists have indi
cated that they have little interest in ne
gotiating a peace with the government of
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Instead,
i,as if taking final victory for granted, they
aeem to have embraced a line ruling out
Aampromise and setting themselves up as
avengers pledged to impose a “just pen
alty” (presumably death) oh virtually all
the key military and political figures as
sociated with Chiang.
It may be that the Communists have
evidence to support their charges of “hein
ous crimes” against some of the individuals
on their black list. But the list itself is
so sweeping that it has all the earmarks of
being about ps honest and just as the
ones similarly compiled—and acted upon
with truth-butchering ruthlessness —
against the anti-Red opposition in places
like Soviet-dominated Bulgaria and Ro
mania. The fact that both Generalissimo
and Madame Chiang head the roster of
the condemned, which includes such other
outstanding personalities as Ambassador
Wellington Koo, speaks pretty much for
itself. To say that Chinese of this stamp
are “war criminals” is to mock history and
insult the intelligence of decent-minded
people everywhere.
In the dictionary of the Red totali
tarians, of course, “war criminal”.means
anybody who takes a lead in opposing the
dominance-seeking efforts of the Soviet
Union. The puppet regimes behind the
Iron Curtain in Europe have used the
phrase with dreary repetitiveness in their
propaganda preludes to viciously farci
cal “trials” designed to liquidate honest,
democratic political opponents—for ex
ample, Petkov in Eulgaria and Maniu in
Romania. The broadcast by the the Chin
ese Communists merely follows a pattern
that has long since grown dismally fam
iliar in every country falling under the
far-reaching shadow of the Stalin dicta
torship.
What remains to be seen is whether the
Reds in China will win a military victory
complete enough to carry out their threat.
At the moment there seems to be little
standing in their way, but since they
show no interest in the idea of a nego
tiated peace, and since they have declared
their intention to liquidate the most high
ly placed Nationalist leaders, the latter
may be spurred into organizing stiffer and
more effective resistance against deci
sive new Communist advances. In case
the worst happens, of course, “war crim
inals” like the Chiangs need have no
doubt that they will be offered an asylum
with honors in America. After all, as
the historical record proves, they are
"criminals” only because they are on the
side of the free, non-Soviet world.
Catching Spies Today
If the disclosures coming out of the
Hiss-Chambers showdown have done noth
ing more, they have established beyond
doubt that it was possible a decade ago
for spies to operate successfully in this
country. And if that was the case in
1938 there is a possibility, if not a proba
bility, that the same thing is true today.
It is reasonable to suppose that Com
munist agents are trying as hard today
as they were ten years ago to gain access
to secret information in this country.
Certainly, given the deterioration in rela
tions between the United States and Rus
sia, there is more reason for it now than
there was a decade ago. If foreign agents
are operating successfully in this country,
however, the public has been told little
or nothing about it.
The story recited by Elizabeth Bentley,
if true, tends to establish that espionage
activities were measurably successful dur
ing the war. And the report of the
Canadian spy commission, which told of
links with alleged Communist spies in the
United States, would lead one to believe
that successful espionage was being con
ducted after the war. There can be no
certainty about this because there has been
no public announcement whether the leads
from Canada were followed up, and, If so,
what if anything was done with the sus
pects. When all of the factors are bal
anced, however, the reasonable Inference
is that Communist agents are still at work
within our borders, and it is not illogical
to suppose that they are working through
confederates who have managed to stay in
Government service.
Given this background, the announce
ment that the House Un-American Activ
ities Committee intends to recommend'1
tighter security legislation will be more
favorably received than might otherwise
have been the case. For the day when
any such proposal from this committee
could be dismissed as another Red hunt
or manufactured spy scare has passed.
The committee has shown beyond reason
able doubt that Communist agents, neces
sarily aided by trusted Government em
ployes, have been able to pry into our offi
cial secrets.
If this be granted, however, the fact
remains that any tightening up of the
espionage statutes will be a difficult mat
ter. The essence of the problem is to find
means of reinforcing national security
without unnecessary and unconstitutional
impairment of individual liberties. The
Attorney General has announced that his
department is at work on the problem.
Events have indicated the inadequacy
of existing statutes. This being so, the rec
ommendations expected from the House
committee may serve a useful purpose as
a kind of yardstick for measuring the ef
fectiveness of the Attorney General’s pro
posals. In any event they can do no harm,
for the primary purpose of any new legis
lation should be to erect for the future
the tightest possible barriers against con
tinuation of successful espionage tactics
such as those used by Whittaker Chambers
when he was working for the Communists.
'Look, No Hands!'
In christening its new automatically
piloted transport plane “Look, No Hands,’’ j
the Navy was not merely having fun with
a name. For the big two-motored plane |
goes further in flying without the touch
of human hands than any military plane
has gone before. Announcement of the
remarkable Improvement on automatic
piloting devices follows close upon the dis
closure of another amazing aid to pilots,
known as the zero reader. Used in con
junction, the two instruments should bring
nearer to realization the day when “human
error” no longer will be a serious factor
in air accidents.
The uncanny capacities of the zero
reader were publicly described for the first
time in last week’s issue of the Saturday
Evening Post. An article by Captain Hiram
Wilson Sheridan, American Airlines pilot,
representing the Air Line Pilots’ Associa
tion, reported that the gadget, developed
by the Sperry Gyroscope Company, “takes
all the sweat out of blind landing ap
proaches.” All that the pilot has to do is
to keep a pair of crossed lines on the
instrument panel in a zero position and a
safe “blind” landing is assured. The pilot
does have to use the controls occasionally,
to keep the plane in zero position.
The “Look, No Hands” is equipped with
an automatic pilot to which something
extra has been added. The extra device
even relieves the pilot of the necessity of
adjusting the controls to keep the plane
in the correct position. Once the instru
ment is set for the proper beam, it pro
ceeds to keep the plane on course and to
adjust the power and surface controls as
necessary to bring the ship to a safe land
ing—at the proper altitude of approach and
at the proper landing speed. Even if a gust
should tip the plana as it is about to land,
the automatic device will give the plane
the exact amount of power and set the tail
surfaces at the correct angle to counteract
the unexpected wind factor. Literally, no
hands are needed, for the machine can
make the adjustments quicker and more
accurately than the pilot can.
Actually, the Navy equipment is a refine
ment for carrier-landing purposes of a
device with which the Navy, the Civil
Aeronautics Administration and the Min
neapolis-Honeywell Company have been
experimenting for more than a year. It
may be several years before it is ready for
installation in airliners. The manually
operated zero reader is expected to be ready
for airline use in a year or so. The news
of these steps forward in safety research
is indicative of the intensive efforts being
made by military and civilian aviation
authorities to make plane operation more
automatic than ever—and hence safer for
crews and passengers. The day may come
a
when the pilot will have nothing to do
but keep himself in standby readiness to
take over in event of a mechanical failure.
It might be boresome for him on a long
trip, but it should mean safer flying for
everybody.
Overdoing Christmas Music
Now that Christmas, 1948, is history,
perhaps it would be just as well to con
sider whether the indiscriminate use of
Christmas music from Thanksgiving on
ward was not overdone. Some rather
sharp complaints have been registered
about the unlimited repetition of Christ
mas hymns on radio programs and “piped
in” music distribution systems in shops
and stores, and it seems that there is
certain merit in the protest. “O, Little
Town of Bethlehem” is a beautiful com
position, but when one has heard it played
and sung on four different broadcasts in
a single hour, one’s appreciation of it may
yield to impatience. As for the longing
-for a white Christmas and the pleasure
of wandering in winter’s wonderland—de
fensible sentiments in themselve^, surely—
even the disc jockeys must be weary to
death. The song about wanting two teeth
for Christmas was something horrible at
its start; it became a variety of crime after
having been worked day and night for a
month.
Maybe it would be a good idea for the
radio industry to devote some of its
acknowledged genius to the job of checking
program material against irritating repe
tition. Great numbers of people undoubt
edly remember the ASCAP strike of 1941,
when the melodies of Stephen Collins
Foster were exploited around the clock
until ‘‘Jeanie With the Light Brown Hair”
became a disaster. The Christmas music
gradually accumulated through the cen
turies ought not to be subjected to any
such tortureu What happened this year
should be taken as a warning of what
might happen next Christmas, unless sweet
reasonableness guides the purveyors of
mass-harmonies.
On the other hand, there can be no
question about the service rendered by
broadcasting enterprises of every variety
in furnishing well-selected Christmas pro
grams to homes and places of public as
sembly which otherwise would have lacked
them. Part of the miracle of radio is the
fact that when it is good, it is very good
Indeed.
“A new electronic calculator, designed
for the Air Force, solves mathematical
problems before they come up.” But is
this safe? Remember Gallup.
And still it takes a lot of Industrial
know-how just to put together a motorcar
capable of carrying Its own weight in
extras.
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell
Biggest little fish in the world is the guppy.
At this time of the year he is likely to show
up in many gift aquariums.
What to do with him? The guppy is pe
culiarly the beginner’s fish because he Is so
hardy and will survive much wrong manage
ment. Like a great many other things which
are so good that they have become common and
cheap, this little fish suffers in the popular
mind because of his good points. Some at
tempts were made several years ago to use his
odd name to mean a man who is not popular
with the ladies, but this effort failed, as it
deserved to fail.
The word “guppy” still means the little fish
about an inch long originally found in Hon
duras. The male is a colorful and giddy one,
the female a slightly larger silvery fish which
attends strictly to its duties of living.
It must be admitted that the male guppy
attracts the most attention. He is always swim
ming around, almost always in pursuit of the
ladies, and he is quite colorful, in a mild sort
of way. He is a little “wolf” of the water. But
after one has kept and watched these creatures
for a time, the female of the species often
stands out in the mind as the better of the two.
Teen-age guppies are as fine little creatures as
the aquarium-minded person will want to see.
They are pure silver. Their eyes are peculiarly
bright and look as if they understood what is
going on Inside their world as well as outside.
The young female guppy seems to know who is
out there, her keeper and protector. There is
no parallel for this as far as mankind is con
cerned. Man talks about his God and bows to
Him, but is denied the certitude of the guppy
in its bowl.
» * w w
Guppies are good for the old hand as well as
for the beginner.
During the war, when houses were not so
warm, guppies were among the few tropicals
that managed to survive without the use of
electrical heaters.
They still are the best for people who do not
want to bother, and this includes children.
They are really much easier to keep than gold
fish and can get along in a much smaller
aquarium.
Many persons who take on the aquarium
hobby at last find themselves tired of It. They
may like to keep a guppy tank, however. This
little fish gives you about all any fish can. It
is easily fed. There is not so much danger
that they will overeat (the common goldfish
failing), and if they do, there is where spinach
comes in. A leaf of spinach boiled for a minute
and then cooled off makes excellent guppy
medicine. Suspended at one comer of the
aquarium and allowed to trail In the water, It
is the object of all eyes.
Although the guppy can stand water tem
peratures from 40 to 90 degrees, these extremes
are not recommended. The nearer any home
aquarium is kept at practically the same tem
perature day and night, the better it is for all
concerned. An average of 68 or 70 degrees is
enough for guppies, and if it can be held Within
reasonable limits, the creatures should thrive,
If the rest of their care is correct. This means
proper balance between plants, food and fish.
Most people who get an aquarium for the first
time want to put too many fish In It. Well, it
can be done with the guppies. At least 60 can
be kept in a two-gallon tank. Not only kept,
but kept well, provided the sand is clean and
the plants thriving. Excess food must be
cleaned up along with other debris.
Do not bother too much about the green
algaa that grow on the inside of the glass. They
do no harm, and the guppies like them. Like
spinach, they are good for them. They are best
scraped off the front panel, however. This type
of algae will not make the water green. Algae
which make the water green are other types
and are caused by too much sunlight and too
much fish food. Tlie remedy Is plain.
A few guppies to start off with soon result
in scores of little guppies, since this fish Is
what is called a "live bearer," bringing forth
Its young perfectly formed and able to swim.
The first time any one, whether old or young,
sees this sight In an aquarium, it Is almost un
believable. This is where the plants come In.
If there are no plants, the parents will eat up
all the babies. With plants, practically all
survive.
The guppy bowl furnishes an interesting
object lesson in nature and is a picturesque
ornament. It should be stressed that it is not
just something for children. The mature per
son. with more than just an iriterest in his job,
is sure to love it, too. Many, a lonely person
would be benefited by taking on the care of a
few of these little strangers in our land—er,
water.
If you are dissatisfied with the world. If the
Russians worry you, if some people talk too
much to suit you and others do not talk enough,
then take refuge in a bowl of guppies.
Letters to The Star
Eye Bank Appeal
To tht Editor of The Star:
A miracle of modem surgical science now
empowers us to leave our fellowmen, when we
die, a gift like the gifts of the Almighty. ,
By one generous act costing us nothing,
and involving no sacrifice, you or I can let
in the light to a child now locked in dark
ness, or to a soldier blind because he fought
for us where steel was flying, and is groping
now through perpetual night. No other gen
eration has held in its. keeping so precious and
profound a legacy, to be given freely by a
man at death, as God gave it to him at birth.
Curved in front of the^ irises and pupils of
our eyes are the corneas, no bigger or thicker
than a ~dlipe. If healthy, they are not im
paired by otherwise defective vision, and the
age, sex, race or blood types of the donors
make no difference.
The procedure is simply to write to the
Eye Bank for Bight Restoration, Inc., 210 East
64th street, New York 21, N. Y„ or to the
Eye Banks in Boston or New Orleans, for the
release form and booklet. The pledge is vol
untary, a part of no will, is not notarized, and
constitutes no obligation if subsequent cir
cumstances Intervene. Nothing compels it but
mercy.
Ruskin said, “God has lent us the earth for
our life. It is a great entail. It belongs as
much to those who come after us, as to us,
and we have no right to deprive them of the
benefit which it was in our power to bequeath.’’
It is your privilege, as you read this, to try
to convey to one among the thousands of our
blind compatriots, so ecstatic and divine a
blessing. EAMES MacVEAGH.
Politics in Foreign Affairs
To the Editor of The Stir:
Our foreign policy has sunk to a new low.
The pressure we are placing on the Dutch
Government to withdraw its troope from the
so-called Indonesian Republic is just pure
politics. How different it was when the
Israelites in an almost identical manner broke
their truce with the Arabs and conquered
territory not included in the Bernadotte plan.
Did we put pressure on them to withdraw to
their former lines? No indeed! We sup
ported them to the hilt. The Arab vote in
this country is very small. So also is the
Dutch vote. Our foreign policy thus seems to
be merely a continuation of the recent cam
paign in its appeal to votes of various pres
sure groups. Apparently it makes no differ
ence to the President that the so-called In
donesian Republic was rapidly being taken
over by the Communists. OBSERVER.
Marx and the Cold War
To th* Editor of Hi* 8t»r:
Are we a leading nation or are we a door
mat? To prove our friendliness should we
discard all defense and bare our bosom to a
neighbor who has vowed to "get” us? It is
high time for our fellow-travelers to make up
their minds.
We are helping others to regain their foot
ing and their self, respect while the Commies
seek to tear down every one and everything not
their own. Which is the better way?
Yet there are many who denounce the
Marshall Plan as diabolical strategy!
To some the situation in Berlin is the acme
of clever tactics oft our part, a window in the
Iron Curtain through which flows evidence of
far better living to the West, leading in time to
better living everywhere. To others it is a
mess of diplomatic bungling. Which is
correct?
Some still fail to see the fatal errors
in the writing of Karl Marx, a worthless pau
per who all his life sought to tear down the
success of others that he was unable to attain
for himself. Though he gained publicity, he
was a dismal failure as a man. Prom those
who accept such leadership we ean expect only
failure and trouble-making.
P. O. NUTTING.
Seeks Gifts for Navahos
Te th* Editor of Th* Star:
I have been hoping some one would write
a letter, advertising to the public the miserable
way the United States Government is neglect
ing the Navahos around Flagstaff, Arizona.
Since I have seen none, I feel it my Christian
duty to bring the subject to the attention of
educated, responsible citizens.
Mrs. E. W. S., of Washington, knows a mis
sionary in Flagstaff, Shine Smiths who asks
for gifts for the neglected Indians—money for
medicines, clothing for desperate mothers and
children suffering in the cold climate. The
white man stole the lands of the Indians;
grafters still cheat the simple, good-hearted red
man. So, when we send donations, food and
clothing to the needy overseas, let us also
think first of the needy In our own country.
The Indians are law-abiding Americans. The
Indian children have no picture books like
our children have, and would appreciate gifts
of magazines. MRS. DOROTHY M. MYERS.
Impressions of the Ozarks
To th« editor of Th« Star:
Back in May my next-door neighbors had to
give up their home here in the District of
Columbia, take the barest necessities, and leave
their many friends behind, because the doctor
told them that if the husband were to live a
little longer, he must spend the rest of his life
out West. Tor the dread disease, tuberculosis,
had gotten a lasting hold on him.
Today I received a Christmas letter from
them. To me it is like a beautiful poem, a
musical classic, or perhaps a gorgeous painting
It gave me the kind of lift that one.just cannot
put in words. I’m passing it on to you and
your readers that you all may enjoy its beauty:
"Eight months or 232 days in the Ozarks.
"We have come to know all about the dew;
mornings and the starry nights. These hlgn
old tree-covered hills that they call the Ozarks
look very blue in the mist and to the east
stands Horseshoe Mountain looking out on us.
the simple folk, living here in this valley.
“We know the joy of a lovely sunset; we’ve
heard the'chorus of the birds in the morning:
we know the honeysuckle loves it here and we
know all about a blackberry winter. We have
seen the silver ash tree rustle its leaves in the
Ozark breeze and we’ve raced the mockingbird
to the cherry tree!
“We’ve been ‘baby sitters’ to a flock of
chickens. We have carried tons of feed and
buckets of fresh water for their enjoyment.
And our salary? Did you ever experience the
aroma of a fried chicken browning in the pan
and know that out there in the yard were
several more just like It and yours for the
taking?
“We’ve come to know that money doesn't
count so much here. Every one aims to get a
heap of living done without worry. Don’t they
say money causes worry and worry causes
ulcers? Ulcers wouldn’t dare show their faces!
The shade of a big persimmon tree and a stick
to whittle is soothing to some, and then others
like company and go to the village store, sit on
the bench out front and whittle!
“Many of these things that the Ozarks have
given us we would love to give to you. We’d
like to send you a picture of Jerry and his
little sister trudging down the road at sunset
with a quart of fresh milk in a ‘poke.’
“Or we would like to give you a pick of oui
cans of green beans or black-eyed peas or wild
plum butter, or maybe you would rather choose
from the frozen food packages—little red straw
berries winking up out of their boxes or the
dewberries, luscious in their own juice, or those
deep purple boysenberriee, plump and full of
Letters for publication must bear
the signature and address of the
writer, although it is permissible for
a writer known to The Star to use
a nom de plume. Please be brief.
juice, so that when covered with cream they
turn a deep orchid and taste like nectar of the
fairies. Fairies of the Ozarks, of course.
“We wish you could hear the bell ring out
from the little white steeple of the church that
sits high on the mountain. Clear and simple it
rings out across the valley and we know God’s
in His Heaven, all’s right with the world and
it is going to be a Merry Christmas!’’
Do you agree that my^descrpition of its
beauty was not overrated?
MRS. NAOMI O. JONES.
Seeing Communists as They Are
To th« Editor of The Star:
In a radio debate, a distinguished author
argued that the success of the Communists in
China is due to the fact that they furnish re
forms as they go along whereas the Nationalist
government dissipates American aid without
implementing reforms.
Certainly, the Communists seduce gullible
men of good will into co-operation by institut
ing reforms at the start. It is only when they
have a newly conquered nation under complete
control and the trap is sprung that they dis
card theif benevolent sheep's clothing and
terror-stricken citizens begin to flee their own
country.
Why is it that fatuous intellectuals always
complain about the depravity of the status
quo in every country outside the Soviet orbit
and never point to the vicious brutality of es
tablished Communist regimes? Chiang Kai
shek or no Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese peas
ants are living on the land in China. It takes
no stretch of the imagination to perceive the
tremendous reservoir of slave labor which help
less Chinese would provide for Russian mills
and mines should the Communists gain com
plete control of China.
What should be done for the Chinese Na
tionalist government, this writer does not pre
tend to know. But it seems to me altogether
too many people, who should know better, do
confused humanity a miserable disservice
when they contend that all Communists are
not the fatal political disease carriers which
they really are. And it doesn't make a bit of
difference whether they are operating in Minsk,
Peiping, Rome, Washington or Detroit.
MABEL G. BLISS.
Explains Trouble in Kashmir
To tho Editor of The Star:
In your editorial of November 25. on Kash
mir and Hyderabad, you are reported to have ;
given the following as “basic facts":
(1) Trouble began when a revolt broke out
among Kashmir Moslems and the Hindu Ma
haraja applied for union with India.
(2) India's government sent in troops to sup
port the Maharaja, whereupon aid was given
to Moslem insurgents, both from Pakistan and
the hill tribes of the Pakistan border area.
As I am convinced that you and your read
ers are interested in a correct statement of
facts, I venture to say the following:
(1) It is true that Kashmir has a very large
Moslem majority and the ruler is a Hindu.
(2) Over a period of 10 years there have
been two groups among Moslems.
Group (a) was against autocracy, and for a
secular democratic state. They did not want
to become part of Pakistan because they did
not think it to be a progressive, modem, demo
cratic state.
Group (b) was not against autocracy as such;
but only against the ruler being a Hindu.
Lately they were in favor of a religious as
distinct from a secular state and therefore
wanted to be part of Pakistan. ,
(3) There was no revolt Inside Kashmir.
The revolt was not thr starting point. The
starting point was that Afghan (Pathan) tribes
from Pakistan territory crossed into Kashmir
and raided Kashmir. Part of the local popu
lation, some willingly and some unwillingly,
aided the invaders.
(4) The ruler applied for aid from India.
(5) India made its aid conditional on the
ruler handing over power to the leader of
Kashmir’s democratic movement. The ruler
agreed to hand over power and installed Sheik
Abdullah (a Moslem) as chief executive. Ab
dullah has always been the leader of the demo
cratic forces which have been fighting the
ruler for over 12 years. Today the ruler is only
a titular ^head like the British King.
(6) The tribal raiders were inspired and
aided by Pakistan.
(7) The six facts mentioned above must give
you an idea of the origin of the trouble. Since
then Pakistan has been directly participating
in the aggression, which (as the U. N. Com
mission has pointed out) Is under its over-all
command and direction.
(8) It is not true to say that the U. N. Com
mission criticizes “both contestants for their in
transigence.” The Commission’s report has not
charged India with intransigence.
A. N. SIVARAMAN,
Editor, Diamani, Madras, India.
Censorship of Correspondents
To th* Editor ot The Stir:
Being a journalism student, I greatly appre
ciated the survey in Sunday’s Star dealing
with the degrees of press freedom existing in
various nations throughout the world. But I
was much disturbed by a glaring weakness in
the article—its failure to include any discussion
of-press freedom in the United States.
No doubt the American press is relatively
free from censorship and other coercive .In
fluences from the outside; but it has not as
yet reached such an absolute state of perfec
tion, it is not yet so completely free that It
can be omitted from any discussion regarding
suppression and censorship.
To be specific, the Associated Press survey
cited as its chief gripe the fact that most
foreign countries impose stifling restrictions
on the movements of foreign correspondents
and strictly censor what they write. Well,
United States policy toward foreign corre
spondents here is no more liberal. To corre
spondents of unfriendly nations, our country
is al unaccessible as Russia proper is to our
writers. Few correspondents of other nations
are allowed to roam the country at will.
In light of our own policy, how can we,
without murky conscience, condemn what we
ourselves do not permit to any degree? The
free flow* of information demands two-way
movement among nations. We should open the
gates of our country to foreign correspondents
of all nations, if we expect the same privilege
extended to us abroad.
GEORGE M. RIVIERE.
No Trouble in Uruguay
To th« Editor ot Tbo Star:
In an editorial of The Star of December 23,
entitled “Force in Latin America,’’ I find that
the government of Uruguay is listed among the
Latin American governments menaced by
“uprisings or incipient revolts.”
I would appreciate it if you make it public
that in my country not only there has been no
alteration of order, or the least sign of it, but
on the contrary the consolidation of our demo
cratic political and institutional order is so
deeply founded, and is of such nature, that
any version on the alteration, or possible al
teration of order, must be taken as totally a»d
absolutely unbelievable.
ALBERTO DOMINGUEZ-CAMPORA,
Ambassador of Uruguay.
Stars, Men and Atoms
Plant 'Milk' Discovered
To Be Growth-Stimulating
Experiments Show Coconut Substance
Speeds Development 10 Fold
By Thomas R. Henry
Mother’s milk of the plant world contains
an extremely powerful and hitherto unknown
growth-stimulating substance.
It has been demonstrated in coconut milk.
Some of it also exists in com in the “milk’’
stage. Both these milks are intended by na
ture for the nourishment of plant nurslings,
seedlings in the embryonic stage.
Presence of this powerful growth substance
has been reported to the American Associa
tion foi' the Advancement of Science by Drs.
S. M. Caplin and P. C. Steward of the
University of Rochester. They were trying
to make tissue cultures of carrot root cells.
In ordinary culture preparations they grew
very slowly, even with the addition of indole
acetic acid, one of the most powerful of plant
hormones.
Growth Speeded.
Addition of the coconut milk speeded the
growth tenfold. The substance may prove to
be one of nature’s essential life chemicals.
The nature of the material, the two botanists
report, cannot be determined but they have
carried out experiments which demonstrate
that It is none of the known growth vitamins
and none of the plant hormones. It is pres
ent only in the liquid milk and cannot be
found in the milk ash.
The experiments indicate, they say, that it
has quite a small molecule, compared to any
of the known vitamins or hormones. It ap
parently acts, however, in a vitamin-like fash
ion, its essential function being to harness
energy for the creation of proteins, the build
ing blocks of tissue. There also are some in
dications that it acts in conjunction with
Vitamin A.
Although the practice has been without any
known medical basis, it is pointed out, coconut
milk often has been used for nourishment of
human babies in the tropics. The newly de
termined substance may have an effect on all
growing cells.
* * * *
An apparently successful start has been mads
under an Office of Naval Research contract in
the synthesis of the vitally important strate
gic mineral tourmaline, essential in all sorta
of electric appliances and highly valued, in
various colored forms, as a gem stone.
Its significance as a strategic mineral is due
to the phenomenon of piezzo electricity. When
pressure is applied to one of its crystals a
minute current of electricity is generated. This
constitutes probably the most delicate known
means of detecting pressure differences such as
would be encountered in the ascent of a plana
or the descent of a submarine.
Tourmaline crystals combine with this tha
phenomenon of pyroelectricity, the generation
of an electric current with heating. This makea
them among the‘most sensitive heat detector*
known.
Material Is Rare.
It is essential, however, to use pure, high
grade material which is extremely rare. A little
is found In Maine and California. Brazil sup
plied a great deal of our war supply. One of
the best sources is the island of Elba, scene of
Napoleon’s exile northeast of Corsica.
The efforts to synthesize the material for th*
Navy are being carried out at Rutgers Univer
sity at New Brunswick, N. J. Methods being
used are similar to those which have proved
successful for some time in the synthesis of
various precious gems.
Tourmaline is a. compound of silica and
boron, with various impurities in different
forms of the mineral which account for its
color range of red, yellow, green, blue and
black. Silica and boron dust are being blown
through an extremely hot flame. The difficulty
is that the melting point is so low.
Up to now, Navy scientists say, it has been
possiMe to produce single crystals but these
have ' not yet positively been identified as
tourmaline. There is little reason to believe,
however, that they could be any other sub
stance.
The method holds forth the possibility of
producing cheap gems of great beauty. The
green forms, obtained in Brazil, are widely
known as "Brazilian emeralds.”
Questions and Answers
. A ieader can get the answer to any Question of
fart by writing The Evening Star Information
Bureau. 316 I street N.E.. Washington 2. £> C.
Please inclose three (3> cent! for return poatagg.
By THE HASKIN SERVICE.
Q. Where Is the world’s official standard
meter kept?—E. Y.
A. The international prototype meter is
measured cm a platinum-iridium bar that la
kept in a vault at Sevres, near Paris, Prance.
On October 13, 1848, the bar was examined
by world scientists for the first time since
1933,
Q. What was done with the ships that wera
used in the underwater atomic bomb teat?
—P. O. R.
A. Of the 76 ships that were used in the
, underwater test at Bikini, 12 are still afloat,
according to a recent report of the Navy. It
wa$ planned, however, to sink the cruiser
Pensacola and the destroyer Hughes because
they were still dangerously radio-active. A
third radioactive vessel was to be retained as
a laboratory. The remaining nine were com
pletely decontaminated.
Q. How does the brain of a gorilla compare
in size with that of a man?—E. McB. '
A. “Animals Alive,” by Austin H. Clark of
the Smithsonian Institution (D. Nostrand Co.,
New York) says that the largest of all the
apes are the gorillas of West Africa. They
reach a maximum height of about 5 feet 6
inches and a weight of about 550 pounds. In
spite of their great bulk their brain is rela
tively small, the cranial capacity being about*
600 cubic centimeters, in contrast to the
cranial capacity of from 1,500 to 2,000 cubio
centimeters of normal adult men.
Angel With the Tilted Halo
The little angel on that Holy Night
Lifted his voice with joyous main and
might,
For was it, not a truly glorious thing
To join the heavenly chorus carolingf
As “In Sxcelsis, gloria,” they sang,
Till sleeping Bethlehem with music rang,
His pure young treble soared divinely
sweet.
(But—filled his heart with ecstasy com
plete,
How could he know that, over one bright
eye
His halo, first-time worn, tilted awry?)
And Mary Mother, with a tender grace
Herself leaned near, his nimbus to re
place.
“Blessings be thine, dear tiny one,” she
smiled,
“For welcoming the birthday of my
Child!”
The host of angels dipped white wings
to Her,
Who honored so their youngest chorister,
Then "Gloria in Sxcelsis, Deo,” song
Of exultation, echoed all night longf
’ MAZIE V. CARUTHER*.

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