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Sunny today, highest about 42. Increasing cloudiness, lowest about 27 tonight. Cloudy, cold tomorrow probably followed by snow or rain. < Full report on Page A-2.1 Midnight _ 41 4 a.m-36 9 a.m_.-33 2 a.m..38 6 a.m-34 11 a.m_38 3 a.m_ .37 8 am_31 Noon.38 New York Markets, Page A-31. [Guide for Readers’ Page, j ! After Dark..C-7 | ! Amusements C-6 l j Comics_D-22-23 j Editorial -A-12 | Edit! Articles A-13 i Finance _A-311 rage. Lost and Founds.A-3 Obituary _A-14 Radio . -D-Z3 Society, Clubs—B-3 Sports _C-l-3 Woman's Page.D-8-9 An Associoted Press Newspaper 97th Year. No. 19. Phone ST. 5000 SSS ★ WASHINGTON, D. C., THURSDAY, JANUARY 20, 1949-100 PAGES. City Home Delivery. Pally and Sunday. fl.CO a Month. When 5 /"''TTXTT’S Sundavi, $1.80. Nlfbt Final Edition. $1.30 and $1.40 per Month ** X U Blunt Warning Of Nation's Aim Handed Soviets Epochal Address Hits 'False Philosophy' Of Communism By Gould Lincoln President Truman today de nounced communism as a “false philosophy” and’ pledged that his administration will draw deeply on America's resources to attain “peace, plenty and free dom” throughout the world. In an epochal inaugural address after taking the. oath of office, Mr Truman bluntly warned Communist Russia and her satellites that the aim of the United States is "a world in which all nations and all peoples are free to govern them selves as they see fit" and to achieve a “just and lasting peace.” The President charged that com munism "holds that war is inevit able” and is endangering attempts to keep world peace. But, he declared, as a result of America’s efforts, “hundreds of mil lions of people all over the world now agree with us that we need nol have war.” Four Courses Outlined. Mr. Truman listed four major courses of action as the basis of this Nation's foreign policy: 1. Support the United Nations and its agencies to the hilt. 2. Continue the American pro gram of aid for world economic re covery—in particular the Marshall Plan. 3. Strengthen the freedom-loving nations of the world against the dangers of aggression. A new step toward this end will be a treaty of collective defense for the security of the North Atlantic area—within the terms of the United Nations Charter and similar to the joint defense pact for the Western Hemi sphere, the treaty of Rio de Janeiro. Under this new treaty, the United States will provide military advtee and equipment. 4. “A bold new program" for im proving the backward regions and peoples of the world, on the theory that “their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas.” Mr. Truman made it clear that there is to be no weakening in the policy of the United States toward Soviet Russia. That Com munist regime, he said, direetly op poses the aims of America and other like-minded nations. It adheres, he continued, to "a false philosophy which purports to offer freedom, security and greater opportunity to mankind” "That false philosophy is commu nism,” he declared in measured' terms. To Combat Threat. The United States, the President asserted, will use all its materials and other resources, if necessary, to combat the threat of that regime. Mr. Truman, the 32d President of the United States, took the oath and delivered his address on the east front of the Capitol to a huge throng of invited guests of Con gress, seated in especially erected stands, and of more humble citi zens who stood behind the barriers in the Capitol grounds His address, delivered on the spot where Presidents have taken the oath of office since the days of Thomas Jefferson, was carried by radio or television to every nook and cranny of the United States and to peoples all over the w’orld. To all, it bore a message of hope, a promise of aid and of peace. Throughout the address ran an undercurrent—coming to the sur face on occasion—of deep religious faith. His concluding sentence was the very epitome of his theme: “With God's help, the future of mankind will be assured in a world of justice, harmonv and peace.” “Fair Deal" for All. Mr. Truman stood before the throng of people, a leader, fully conscious of the great office he fills and its power, but also conscious of personal humility. His address was his first full discussion of foreign policy since his recent election. It was, in effect, a message on the state of the world, with a promise of a “fair deal" for all peoples. The man who came from be hind in an almost unprecedented manner to win election began his address with a simple statement that he accepted “with humility the honor which the American people have conferred upon me." “I accept it,” he said. ‘(with a deep resolve to do all I can for the welfare of this Nation and for the peace of the world. In per forming the duties of my office I need the help and prayers of every one of you ” Mr. Truman called attention to - (See SPEECH, Page A-2j Trohan to Head Bureau Of ChicagoTribune Here By the Associated Press CHICAGO. Jan. 20 —The Chicago Tribunte announced today the ap pointment of Walter Trohan as chief of the newspaper’s Washing ton bureau, succeeding Arthur Sears Henning. Mr. Henning in his 50th year with the Tribune, has headed the bureau since 1914. Mr. Trohan has been with the Washington bureau since 1934. Mr. Henning will remain with the Washington bureau at full pay U correspondent emeritus. THE BIG MOMENT—President Truman (arrow) takes the oath of office at the east portico of the Capitol for his full four-Jear term. With Chief Justice Vinson administering the oath, the President $£peats the pledge to “preserve. protect and defend, the Constitution.” The President’s right hand is raised as hi* left rests on two Bibles. ; ~Star Staff Photo. Inaugural Address The text of President Truman’s inaugural address follows: i Mr. Vice President, Mr. Chief Justice, and Fellow Citizens: I accept with humility the honor which the American people have conferred upon me. I accept it with a deep resolve to do all that I can for the welfare of this Nation and for the peace of the world. * In performing the duties of my office. I need the help and prayers of every one of you. I ask for your encouragement and your support. The tasks we face are difficult, and we can accomplish them only if we work together. Each period of our national history has had its special challenges. Those that confront us now are as momentous as any in the past. Today marks the beginning not only of a new administration, but of a period that will be eventful, perhaps decisive, for us and for the world. It may be our lot to experience, and in a large measure to bring about, a major turning point in the long history of the human race. The first half of this century has been marked by unprecedented and brutal attacks on the rights of man, and by the two most frightful wars in history. The supreme need of our time is for men to learn to live together in peace and harmony. The peoples of the earth face the future with grave uncer tainty, composed almost equally of great hopes and great fears. In this time of doubt, they look to the United States as never before for goodwill, strength and wise leadership. It is fitting, therefore, that we take this occasion to proclaim to the world the essential principles of the faith by which we live, and to declare our aims to all peoples. The American people stand firm in the faith which has inspired this Nation from the beginning. We believe that all men have a right to equal justice under law and equal oppor tunity to share in the common good. Wc believe that all men have the right to freedom of thought and expression. We be lieve that all men are created equal because they are cieated in the image of God. From this faith we will not be moved. , Americans to Work for Self-Government, Peace , The American people desire, and are determined to work for, a world in which all nations and all peoples are free to govern themselves as they see fit and to achieve a decent and satisfying life. Above all else, our people desire, and are deter mined to work for, peace on earth—a just and lasting peace— based on genuine agreement freely arrived at by equals. In the pursuit of these aims, the United States and other like-minded nations find themselves directly opposed by a regime with contrary aims and a totally different concept of life. That regime adheres to a false philosophy which purports to offer freedom, security and greater opportunity to mankind. Misled by this philosophy, many peoples have sacrificed their liberties only to learn their sorrow that deceit and mockery, poverty and tyranny, are their reward. That false philosophy is communism. Communism is based on the belief that man is so weak • (Continued on Page A-4, Col. 2.i 'Capt. Harry' Arrives Early For Breakfast With Battery D By Joseph A. Fox President Truman broke his own record for punctuality this morning when he showed up 12. minutes early for his 7 o’clock j breakfast with his old Battery D; comrades to launch his rugged Inaugural Day schedule. Arriving at the Mayflower Hotel at 6:48. a few minutes after he left Blair House, the President shed his official role and once more became “Capt. Harry” Truman, 35th Divi sion artilleryman of World War I. Back with friends of more than 30 years, he enjoyed himself thor oughly. “These boys are real. They have no axes to grind: they don’t want any jobs. They're just here,” the President told newsmen. “They don’t call me Mr. Presi dent,” the Chief Executive contin ued. “They call me Capt. Harry." As the breakfast broke up, the President gave his old command their final orders. They were to the point: “After 1 o’clock or about that time this afternoon, I don’t give a damn what you do, but I want you to stay sober till then." As an interlude to the breakfast, the old World War I veterans sang a song dedicated to the President. To the tune of "Tipperary,” an old World War I favorite, they ended the chorus on this note: "You’re a great, great guy, Harry Truman — For you we'd march through hell.' As they finished, Mr. Truman rose and said. "You did it one night.” He said the song was a great per sonal tribute, “not to the President, but to your battery commander." The 35th Division saw some fierce fighting in the closing days of World War I. The President also told his com " (See BREAKFASJ, Page A-3.) I ■ ■ _ North China Trace Accord Is Reported Reached, but Not Yet Placed in Force By the Associated Pres* NANKING, Jan. 20.—The Gov ernment tonight offered to halt hostilities and talk peace in China’s civil war, but left the next move to the Communists. In North China, a separte peace agreement suitable to both sides re portedly has been reached, but not put into effect. This agreement would cover only that part of North China still in government hands. The Kuomintang (Government' Party's powerful Central Political Council today approved the cabinet's resolution calling for a cease-fire order and the beginning of peace negotiations. No More Overtures Expected. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek has not spoken. But a government spokesman, Shen Chang-kuan. ob viously speaking with Gen. Chiang’s knowledge and approval, made it plain the government considers its responsibility for peace ended for the time being and that it is now up to the Communists. Said Shen: "There will be no more peace over tures until the Communists have expressed their desires for a similar halt in hostilities. Then and then only will the National government consider ordering cease-fire and sending a delegation to discuss ne gotiations. Gen. Chiang may override both the Executive Yuan and the Kuo mintang. The Communists have remained silent since their tough leader, Mao Tze-tung. last week told the Na tional government if it wanted peace to put down its guns. Truce Efforts Approved. A member of the government party's Political Council said its membership approved at a hectic meeting today the Executive Yuan’s previous efforts to bring about a truce. The party council has no govern iSee CHINAT Page’ A^3.) Reds Clamp Censorship On All East Reich Clergy By the Associated Pres* FRANKFURT, Germany, Jan. 20.—Russian-drilled German police have clamped a tight censorship on German Protestant and Catholic clergy in Eastern Germany, the newspaper Frankfurter Rundschau reported today. Ah telephone conversations and the entire correspondence of the chur.hmen are subject to intercep tion by the German ••peoples po lice." the newspaper said. The newspaper also reported the arrest of 40 functionaries of the con servative Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Democratic Party by German police and the Soviet secret police (MVD) through out the Soviet zone. •Reactionary and subversive” ac tivities were given as the reason fori the arrests, the paper said. Throngs Line Parade Route mritrCheer President 40,000 Participating in Big Procession; Capital's Largest Air Armada Providing Cover With the hour of solemn cere mony past. President Truman and hundreds of thousands of the American people he had just sworn to serve faithfully for four years settled down this after noon to watch the big inaugural parade. They settled down In varying states of comfort or discomfort— from the steam-heated, glass-in closed presidential reviewing stand in front of the White House to the closely packed standing room along the route of the procession from the Capitol to Washington Circle. But, whatever their vantage points, the spectators were good natured, for a bright sun was shin ing, it was not too cold, and the prospect of 40 bands, nearly 50 floats and a total of approximately 40.000 participants in a two and one half hour procession 7 miles long was enough to delight any parade fancier. About 44,000 viewers had paid from $2 to $10 for seats in the official grandstands. Other thou sands craned from choice free posi tions in the windows of Govern ment buildings or from equally de sirable, but purchased, apace in the windows of private stn®tures. They will have to look both up and down to see the whole show. For the largest air armada ever to pass over the Capital—approxi mately 690 planes will provide an air umbrella for the parade. The aircraft, drawn from the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Na tional Guard, will include the world's largest bombers—the six motored B-36s. and whooshing jet fighters. The official estimate of the parade crowd awaited arrival of Police Supt. Robert J. Barrett at the offi cial reviewing stand at the head of the parade. Earlier Inaugural Committee estimates, however, were that more than 750,000 spectators probably would see some part of the parade or the earlier swearing in ceremonies at the Capitol. Some estimates ran as high as 1,000.000. Amazingly enough, traffic on main streets and highways leading into the downtown section was amazing ly light this morning. Apparently most motorists had taken to heart the warnings to keep their cars out of the big downtown area where parking was forbidden for the dav. On many roads traffic was defi nitely subnormal. For January 20, it was an ideal day. The flags whipped in the snappy breeze, and the bunting in the national colors strung on build ings added to the general aspect of restrained motion along the line of march. The temperature was in the 30s. The standees—Police Inspector Arthur E. Miller, in charge of traffic, had estimated yesterday there would be room for 300.000 of them—were dressed warmly and the vendors of hot coffee and hot chocolate had a fine business. Camp Stools in Evidence. Despite a police order banning bring-.vour-ow-n seating, thousands of the "standees" weren't standing at all. On the curbs, they had staked claims early for their camp stools, folding chairs and boxes. Some of them had waited since 5 a.m., hud dled in blankets in the morning chill, for the 21-gun salute to be fired at 1 p.m. to herald Mr. Truman's departure from the Capitol. The ceremonial company of the 3d Infantry from Fort Myer had towed 75-millimeter guns to the west lawn of the Capitol grounds for that purpose. The real early birds among the parade watchers were such as Wal ter Blume, 60. of_Baltimore._wdio i Continued on Page A-2, Col. T) 26,000D.C. Beds Still Available Althouqh Demand Is Picking Up By Robert J. Lewis The Inaugural Housing Bureau, r volunteer organization which un dertook to provide beds for visitors to the inaugural ceremonies, indi cated today there still remains "a terrific" number of available beds in spite of a fast pickup in demands this morning. While no exact figures were avail able, according to Mrs. John C. Mc Clintock, director of the bureau, it was indicated there were “probably 26,000” beds still available after re quests for approximately 2,500 had been filled by last night. Mrs. McCltntock said the bureau expected the “big day" today, as visitors continued to stream into the city. By 10 a.m. the housing bureau got beds for 40 applicants. This was the booth's busiest day since it was set up. “We will have the housing bu reau remain open today as long as there is any indication that persons need to have accommodations filled,” Mrs. MflClintock said, indicating that, if necessary, the office would remain open until midnight tonight. Of the remaining listings, approxi mately 22.000 beds were said to be in private homes, many of which never have been rented before and were offered during this period only because residents wished to co-op erate. Approximately 4,000 beds in boarding houses, rooming houses and tourist homes also were avail able. However, at least a part of the <See HOUSING, Page A-3 J Inaugural Editions The Star’s three inaugural issues, January 19, 20 and 21, will be available for mailing as souvenirs. Order mail ceirc" now from a Star Carrier, nearest news stand or fill out the order blanl: printed on Page A-2. 100,000 at Capitol See Him Take Oath Under Sunny Skies Barkley Sworn In First In Simple Ceremony Before Huge Crowd Three FuH Pages of Pictures, A-5, 6, 7 By Newbold Noyes, Jr. In his own name—in his own right—Harry S. Truman swore this afternoon to defend the Constitution as Presi dent of the United States through the next four years. He stood bareheaded in the winter noon on a platform beneath the soaring columns of the Capitol’s east portico— a sturdy, bespectacled figure, sharply distinguished from the grandiose background. Around him were members of his family and all'the highest officials of the land. His old friend, Chief Justice Vinson, administered the simple in augural oath, and the 32d President’s second term was under way at 12:29 p.m. Mr. Truman broke precedent by using two Bibles in the swearing-in ceremony. The large one, a reproduction of th* Gutenberg Bible presented by his home town. Independence, Mo., was opend to the ten commandments in the 20th chapter of Exodus. The smaller volume, on which he took the oath the day President Roosevelt died was opened to the 5th chapter of the Gospel according to St. Matthew, verses 3 through 12—the beati tudes. “Blessed are the peacemakers * * * Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.” The new Vice President. Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky, took the oath just before Mr. Truman did. Associate Justice Reed of the Supreme Court swore in the former Senator. Weather Clear and Sunny for Ceremony. The skies over Washington had been clear and sunny through out the morning, and the wind nipped the faces and hands of watchers, some of whom were in their places at first light. It was good football weather. In celebration of the occasion—in honor of an indomitable man who first came to the White House through the back door and would use the front door from now on—the city bundled itself in its warmest and gayest clothes to stage the greatest holiday carnival ever seen on the banks of the Potomac. About a million of Mr. Truman’s fellow countrymen, from every State and Territory, lined the 16-block sweep of Pennsylvania avenue from the Capitol to the White House to see and cheer him in his hour of triumph. More than 100,000 of them—high and low, the sitters and the standers—filled Capitol Plaza to overflowing, row upon row of people, banked as far back as the Supreme Court Building and the Library of Congress. Having made his pledge, Mr. Truman faced the microphones and began his inaugural address. His words were solemn, and they carried beyond the plaza to the farthest corners of the earth. His voice—how strange the matter-of-fact Missouri twang had sounded in the spring of 1945 to a world familiar with another man’s phrase and another man’s diction. Today for listeners everywhere there was nothing strange about it. This, simply, was the President speaking. World Significance in People’s Choice. This was a man who had been a haberdasher and liked t* play the piano. When he learned he was to be thrust into th* highest office of the land, he said he felt as if a load of hay had fallen on him. After nearly four years of service, he decided te run for that office on his own. and the wise ones laughed at his presumption. Now, here he was. As if by some cosmic burning glass, th« whole world's respectful attention waft focused on that platform at noon today. And pin-pointed at the glaring center was the same Harry Truman. It would have been impossible, almost anywhere else on the globe. It was this tha't gave the inauguration its special w'orld sig nificance. Behind the tumult and the shouting, behind the gaudy pageantry, behind the great parade, the rolling drums, the blaring brass, the troops, the floats, the warplanes roaring overhead— behind all this there was one central fact to catch imaginations everywhere. In the United States of America,' heartland of the free world, it still was possible for a Truman to tell the people where he stood, and for the people to decide—in their un challenged sovereign discretion— that he was their man. Modest in Victory. If Mr. Truman was conscious of all this during the inaugural cere mony, he did not show it. He was on the platform as a result of one of the most astounding personal victories in (he history of American politics. Almost alone, he had had faith in himself—almost alone, ex cept for the voters. Very few of the dignitaries present had thought it worth while to work for his election. Mr. Truman had done the work, and the victory was all his. Yet his demeanor, as he stood before the world, wras that of a modest man. Clearly, he was conscious of th« terrible responsibility his victory had wen him. His would be de cisions affecting, possibly, the very future of mankind. Ahead of Harry Truman's America, nameless, half imagined dangers lurked in every shadow. None knew this better than he. Like President Roosevelt before him, he had gone during the morn ing to St. John's Church, across La fayette Park from the White House, to pray for Divine guidance. Notables in Places Early. By a little before noon, the notables were in their places on the white wooden platform at the Cap itol. On chairs in the central, covered portion of the structure, where the President was to take the oath, were some 20 of his and Vice (See INAUGURATIONTPage A-4.) $1,000,000 Fire May Prevent Truman Home Town Festivities (Picture on Page A-16.) By the Associated Press INDEPENDENCE, Mo„ Jan. 20 — A predawn fire in near zero weather raged through a half block of busi ness buildings in President Tru man's home town this Inaugura tion Day, causing damage approach ing $1,000,000. The downtown fire was on the south side of the Independence Square, eight blocks from the sum mer White House. No one was reported injured, but 30 persons were evacuated from a residential building as the fire, breaking out about 3 a.m.. spread to the accompaniment of exploding small arms ammunition in a hard ware store. Five fire companies from nearby Kansas City and two from a sub urban district helped four Inde pendence companies in bringing the fire under control after a three-hour before-dawn battle in a tempera ture of 3 degrees above zero. Windows were blown out by the small arms ammunition explosions. Electric lights went on momentarily. Three brick buildings—one three stories and the others two stories— were destroyed. Several other busi nesses were damaged by smoke and water. Independence's 40,000 residents Were all prepared to celebrate its famous son's inauguration as Presi dent. Today was a holiday. A big parade and an inaugural ball is scheduled. It was not decided im mediately whether the inaugural celebration would continue as sched uled. Evacuees from the residential building were being cared for by Red Cross workers. Most Kansas City ambulances were alerted, but they were not needed in evacua tion work. The fire could be seen in down town Kansas City, 10 miles away. Several hundred spectators gath ered. • businesses destroyed included two hardware stores, an office equip ment company, jewelry shop, print ing company, sewing machine shop and drygoods store.