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Ending Blockade Held
Russian Bait for New Talks on Germany Subsidizing Trade Into Red Zone Is Probable • Aim of Soviet Scheme By David Lawrence Any thought that the Russians, having been impressed by the air lift over Berlin, will now obligingly end their blockade and thereafter; allow things to go back to normal without a major negotiation will soon be dispelled. The Soviets are hinting that they will lift the blockade but they have a price. They know the air lift is expensive. They know that America and Britain would like to be rid of that expense, but this of Itself isn’t a good reason for the Russians, from their viewpoint, to give up the leverage they may hold in the situation. Wishful thinking in the United'j States regards the airlift as hav ing impressed, the Soviets to the point of abandoning their, block ade. Already the argument is be ing made that it was worth all the expense Just to impress the Rus sians. This is based on the as- j sumption that the Soviets don’t know what large airplane trans ports can do if a nation is willing to use that expensive method of carrying coal and other supplies which normally move by rail at a fraction of the air cost. « The Soviets have maintained the blockade for a reason—to get the Allies to negotiate a different set tlement of the German issues than the British and American Govern ments have been grilling to make. The Russians are evidently willing now to try another approach to the negotiations—they will aban don the blockade in return for certain agreements. Currency Not an Issue. The matter of what currency shall circulate in the eastern zone gdvemed by Russia is not and never was the real issue. The Rus-1 gians showed their hand last sum mer when they tried to get a con ference to negotiate an over-all ■ettlement of German problems. As the Western Allies move to ward a solidification of their posi tion in the three zones which they command it has become increas ingly difficult for the Russians to force a reversal. Also there arej 6igns that the counter-blockade is pinching the Russians ir. their; zone. The Soviets are ready t6 try negotiating again. The bait of fered this time is a lifting of the blockade whicl}, it will doubtless be argued by the Russians can save America a huge sum of money. The Russians have always wanted to take a proportion of their reparations from Germany out of current production but they undoubtedly would accept any other equivalent that now might be devised. * The request for certain products to be exchanged, possibly with Russian currency to be used, will come up in the negotiations. The Russian viewpoint has been and doubtless always will be based on materialistic considerations. It would not be surprising to hear the Soviets argue that? if the lift-r i ing of the blockade removes an, item of $1,000,000,000 a year, may- ] be a portion of that saving could be devoted to subsidizing trade into the Russian zone. War Depends on Atom Bomb. Some such scheme may be ex pected to emerge as the price of the lifting of the rail blockade. The theory that the Russians have suddenly decided to abandon one of their principal instruments of harassment without anything to show for it to their own people Is so out of keeping with their customary diplomacy that it scarcely seems tenable. Besides, another opportunity for harass ment and the imposition of more costs appears in the Iran sector, where trouble seems to be brew ing already. As long as the Russians do not have the atom bomb, they will not start a war. Hence the Soviet tactics are to frighten the democ racies and keep them spending huge sums for armament in the hope that such a policy will strain the economy of the United States and hasten the oncoming of eco nomic depression. Then the Soviets figure they can infiltrate inside European govern ments without going to all the expense of marching their armies into Western Germany and France. It is the maintenance of Ameri can production strength and the stabilization of the American eco nomic system which offer the principal barrier to the spread of communism in the world. The maneuvering over the Ber lin blockade is an isolated part of an over-all strategy, and the Rus sians will be in no hurry to lift the blockade if they cannot get concessions on the trade front. (Reproduction Rights Reserved.) I 1110 New York Am. N.W. ME. 1512 This Changing World Reports of Red Plan to Lift Blockade Underline Impasse Over Berlin By Constantine Brown The current reports of a Soviet initiative tor the lifting of the Berlin blockade, whether they are accurate or spring simply from the great realm of rumor, under line the im passe which has developed in the whole Berlin situation. The Russians have proved that they can tie Berlin in knots by their land blockade. We have proved Just as conclu sively that we can nullify the Court* Mint Brown. land blockade by the use of air transportation to supply Berlin's western sectors and their 2,000,000 \ inhabitants. The recent record hung up by the airlifts-in which planes car ried as great a quantity of sup plies to the city as all forms of transportation did before the blockade—was a supreme effort carried out under most favorable weather conditions. Nevertheless, it demonstrated the exertion that can be made when we have to make it. The question of cost did not enter into the decision to set up and expand the airlift. That de cision was made in the same way that wartime decisions are made: Necessary action must be taken regardless of cost. Huge Cost Is Cited. The question is: Where do we go from here? The answer may depend on who! suffers most from this fantastic deadlock over the virtually de stroyed former German capital. We are putting out millions of dollars a week to supply Berlin. The Soviet sector of Berlin and,: in fact, the whole Soviet occupa tion zone of Germany are feeling the drastic effects of the cutting off of Western German supplies. How long we will want to con tinue spending huge sums of money for this purpose is not a question which requires any im mediate answer. We can do so in definitely, If it is in our interest. Against the cost of the airlift must be offset the training which : American personnel are getting out of this round-the-clock opera tion. as well as the operational tests which American equipment is undergoing. Our pilots are leara . ing a lot about flying and we are learning a lot about our equip ment. So the cost of the airlift is not all dead loss. Much more to the point is ho* long the Russians are going to put up with the severe effects of the Allied counterblockade, which is putting on Russia herself the strain of supplying Eastern Ger many's industrial requirements, which formerly were met by the Western occupation zones. Reds Miscalculate, i At one point last summer it appeared the whole problem of the blockade could be settled. Only a thin line prevented agreement— the issue of whether the block-: ade should be lifted before four ; power negotiations on Germany j began, or whether the negotiations should begin before the blockade was lifted. Tfcat might seem to be a trifling difference, but there was sufficient principle involved in it for us to undertake a prolonged airlift j rather than submit to Russia’s j shotgun methods. The Russians may have believed that winter would force us to capitulate and that the airlift could not be kept going regularly enough to supply j Western Berlin adequately. If such was the basis for their, refusal to lift the blockade, they were the ones who miscalculated, putting themselves in the present dilemma of being unable to lift the blockade without suffering considerable loss of prestige in the eyes of the world—and of them selves* This miscalculation on the block ade is an excellent demonstration of how the Soviet Union could miscalculate so badly on major political issues as to plunge them selves—and the rest of us—into a new war. It was the same kind of miscalculation which led Hitler and the Nazis to their destruction, j There may or may not be any ; thing to the reports of Soviet over tures for a settlement of the block ade which will not cost the USSR ! prestige. But we must credit the ■ belief that Moscow would like, if ! she could, to get out of what has ! turned out to be a very uncom-1 for table bed. _i On the Other Hand President Takes Initiative Again In Long Struggle With Congress By Lowell Mellett President Truman in his strug gle with the coalition Congress continues to demonstrate the par ticular talent that elected him last fall. That Is his ability to take the initia tive and keep it. The cam paign of ’48 seems simple i n retrospect. Under normal conditions the candidate in of fice would have been forced to spend his time defending him self. But condi Low'll M'llftt. tions were abnormal: Democratic President: Republican Congress. And it was a Congress the Re publican candidate could neither defend nor disown. So Mr. Tru man, coming out swinging, took that for his target, carried the fight to his opponent’s corner and kept it there. He won. That was only a battle, of course: only the beginning of a four-year war between the con flicting forces represented by the candidates. The real strength of Mr. Truman's opposition was revealed soon after Congress con vened by the readiness of North ern and Southern conservatives to cross party lines and join 4n a road block against his legislative pro posals. Stopped on Domestic Issues. Through January, February and March they held thd line and the President obtained no action on civil liberties, labor, housing, education or health. On foreign policy, where he also took the initiative with his North Atlantic Pact, he seemed to do better. But on the domestic issues, which he had reason to believe were the chief reason for his election, he was stoppedi There have been Presidents who would have ac cepted the situation, saying, "See? I’ve done all I could do. Congress won’t act.” And would have been .willing to sit out the rest of their 'terms. That isn't Mr. Truman. Came this month of April and he cut loose with a political hay maker that caught his opposition off guard—his new farm program. It could be said he hit below the belt—the farm belt. What he pro posed seemed to be the answer to the average Congressman's* and the average citizen's prayer. A form of farm subsidy that would protect the farmer's income with out stripping the consumer's pock etbook. Politically, it offered the glue that would cause the‘farm vote and the labor vote to stick together, in a coalition to end all otheit coalitions. Something to Think About. Placed in the lap of Congress by the Secretary of Agriculture, it gave the President's opponents something to think about. The: more they thought about It the: more it seemed best to keep on' thinking about it. That appeared to be Hhe only line they could take. After all, as they said, it was a matter that required a lot of ; study. On the face of it, it looked too good to be true. Like per-: petual motion, for example. Pine, i if it would work, but they mustn't raise the hopes of farmers and : housewives, only to disappoint one or the other or both. Better study it for a long time—say until after: the 1950 election. Which, no doubt, is what would happen if the President weren't j such an earnest do-gooder. He intends, it is said, to press the issue to a quick decision by asking Congress to apply his plan im mediately in the case of milk and pork. Prices of these two essen tials have been falling in a man ner to frighten the farmers. The Government can do one of two things. It can start purchasing pork and milk to hold the price :up. That would be the old way.: Or it can let prices fall (making consumers happy) and reimburse: the farmers for their losses. That would be the new way. It will be interesting to see^iow Congress handles this ball, in case ; the President does decide to toss it I out. _ LARGE BOOKCASE mg »i5 30"xllV,"x3!r f / OQ For encyelopedio, low or medical HOW ^ * books, and miscelloneous volumes, Free Delivery MADE AND SOLD BY 1122 Connecticut Are. N.W. STerling 5548 ®Mn Daily, 9 AJi. tm 9 PJM.f UmtH f P.M. A complete line of other unfinished items from which standard size cations. _rw mine or qpaxjtt _i LOUIE —By Harry Hanon Li. Truman’s-Party Loyalty7 President’s Action on Boyle Shows Responsiveness to Party Pressures By Dorit Fteeson President Truman personally handled the arrangements by which his Kansas City friend, William M. Boyle, is relinquish mg his $100.000-a year Jaw prac tice to devote full time to the Democratic Na tional Commit tee for a salary reported to be around $30,000 a year. Boyle was made executive director of the committee this winter when the congres sional session Doris nor son. made it imperative for the na tional chairman. Senator Mc Grath, to spend most of his time on the Hill. But no pay was at tached to the job and Boyle con tinued to practice law hei%. Public opinion was unfavorable from the start to the arrangement! which gave an active lawyer so clear a channel into the White House and the President's ea••. No, charges are levied against Boyle personally, but it is felt that the setup renresenied a potentially troublesome invitation to criticism. As ;it became increasingly clear that Boyle was in command of Democratic' patronage the criti cism mounted. Criticism as Challenge. The President, who is prone to interpret any criticism of his friends as a challenge to his loy alty instead of an invitation to examine the facts, did not act un til a few weeks ago. At that time, emboldened by his new attitude of co-operation with Democrats in Congress, friends from the Hill told him that some of Boyle's clients were active in various leg islatlve matters. Again no charge of undue influence was made against Boyle, but it was suggested that Congress might react un favorably if the situation con tinued. It is understood that Speaker Rayburn was the spokesman for this congressional hint In any case, It was effective. The Presi dent suggested to Boyle two weeks ago that he shift to a full-time, paying status on the committee. The party will be pleased with the new arrangement which puts it first with one of the President's close friends. Boyle has been con scientious and faithful to the in terests of the politicos but natur ally he could not be available to the extent they desired. For the first time really in the Truman administration they feel they have a voice at the White House. Responds to Party Pressure. It has been obvious from ire trend of presidential appoint ments that Mr. Truman Iras be°n more responsive lately to party pressures and the claims of those who have fought his battles Per haps this trend is a combination of Boyle's perseverance and the; President’s own desire to impiove his congressional relations. An example of a lost cause re trieved by the new Truman dis position in these matters is the Illinois judgeship. The National Committee, after months of effort, had given up on the organisation candidate, James Finnevan. and expected the choice of a friend of a Truman friend. Back In Chicago to make a Jef ferson-Jaekson Day speech. Sena tor Lucas, majority leader, im pulsively picked up the telephone arid called the White House. The j Senator aald to the President he surely would like to give the bojs* some good news about Finnegan. The President said cheerfully, sure, go ahead. On the Record * New Fortunes Cannot Be Made and j Retained in Present-Day Britain By Dorothy Thompson LONDON, April 21.—Not only is the British revolution due to expropriate the owning classes in another generation by the system of death duties, but also this is not a cduntry in which new fortunes can be made and re tained for fu ture genera t i o n s. unless there is a rad ical swing to the right — which this col umnist, for one, does not con template. This is not to DtrothT ThsnvMi. say that one cannot earn a very, good Income in Great Britain. Many people can, and do. But they cannot keep enough of it to form new capital, certainly not new capital out of savings. The workingman must look to the state to care for him in every emergency of life; he cannot pro vide for his own emergencies. And, as Sir Stafford Cripps recently reminded him, he cannot "have his cake and eat it too,” and so cial services are not free. A married couple with two chil dren begin to pay income taxes at $1,600 per year and it goes up quickly and steeply. From $2,400 they pay $255 to the government; from $3,200 it is $432; out of $4,000 they pay $720. If they earn $10,000 they give back $3,260. If they earn $40,000, they keep less than $44,000. Can't Make a Fortune. As for making a fortune with one’s own brains, it is quite out of the question. Mr. Churchill, for instance, is supposed to have earned a million dollars in the United States on his great mem oirs, but the govemmept will leave him just $24,000 of it. Mr. Churchill, of course, is working for fame, not money: but even without an exaggerated love of money, most people of ambition in any field do work for amenities, and for a standard of security their earnings can afford them. To live on a $15,000 a-year scale, a Briton with two children has to earn $60,000. If he has a house and garden, a car, and wants to give his children anything more than the state education provides, he will not be able to save a penny for invest ments. Most people In Britain really don't know what the basic things of lif# are costing them, because of the system of subsidies and social services.. A lam part of their food meat. egg*, sugar, fats, bacon la rationed %nd sold to them a' ««y below the coat of product® Actually, the cost of food in Brit aln (to the government) is al most exactly the cost of food in Urn United States to the eon , sumer. The consumer here, how ever, buys breast of lamb for 8 cents % pound, lamb chops for 30 cents, steak for 44 cents—In very small quantities. He gets 90-cent eggs (three-per person ^r week if his grocer has them) for a pittance by American com parisons. He pays 40 cents a pound for 80-cent butter and so forth. The prices simply are con cealed and taken out of his taxes and the taxes of the higher earn ers. Same With Medical Care. It is the same with his medical care, under the new universal health insurance system. The consumer sees it as a "free" serv ice. In reality, its cost, paid out of taxes, is considerably higher per person than the cost of all medical and health services com bined in the United States, and almost twice as high proportion ate to income. In Britain one cannot help having the conviction that more proteins and fats would • be better health expenditures than so much medical care; yet medical care can be purchased I with sterling, and meat and fats ' require hard currency. The subsidies, and therewith concealed costs, hav* given the British worker the habit of look | ing at his wages as pocket money. | (On this. Laborites and Conserv- ] atives agree.) When the prices rise, however infinitesimally, as they do in Sir Stafford Cripps' new budget, there is huge disap pointment among the workers who still. I think, do not really under stand that either prices or the : taxes that conceal them must jrise, and that the subsidies can not conceivably be met by taxes on the rich. Sir Stafford was compelled to tell the constituents of his party that taxes on the rich also are subject to laws of diminishing re turns. It was admirably honest but not popular, as economic facts rarely are. That these concealed prices contribute to a form of infantil ism on the part of the masses is the conviction of this columnist. A shelter against the realities of economics, they may prove one day a serious political boomerang. I iKfifwd by the Bell Bradlrite, lne > SALAD THRILLER Mate aaMa taster with REAL Enact Arm it I Use POMPEIAM Pm ‘-laimf V5rp» Obm (ML to tosy—here's how IS tte Pocapcwa *A tap Salt * tha. Vteepar *4 tap. Papr&a * tte CM Sawea 1 tprltttt tan % tap. Dry >!■'( Place a gats jar, abate. Vi tap- flapar That's au. It tatea VTROIM ate* aU to pn that tra* Nte teat flavor. Oat «J nara —r'p i ; P«ni« Wnt* Dtp*. B. POMMIAN i •.Si*'U® McLemore— Finds it Quite Easy To Tram His Dogs By Henry McLemrtre A friend has sent me * hn'k nr, dog training and I am no» m the midst of tracing my two cocker spaniels. Bumble and Dinah I never real ised how easy it iu to teach a dog obedience unul 1 sot hold of this book and read exact ly how to do It. Two days aro neither Bumble nor Dinah Knew hew to , bee for fond at the tabie It was embarrass ing. especially when guests were present, the way the pups would stay on the bark porch during mealtimes refusing to come into the dining room Many is the time I have felt called upon to apologue for their back wardness. Now you should see them They are two of the finest beggars you ever laid eyes on They beat us into the dining room and so right to their stations, one at each end of the table When they feel they are not getting their share of the food, or tne choice portions, they growl and bark and .tump into the handiest lap with the most charming little snarl. As one guest said only yester day. it is a pleasure to eat with you and your pups You seem like one. happy family " Isn t that a lovely compliment’ And all be cause of the book on dog training, too. The chapter on teaching a dog how to heel'' was a revelation Until I read it I didn't know a dog was supposed to walk at hia master's heels. I had always thought a dog was supposed to run blocks ahead of his owner, with his owner running madly after him. shouting to him to stop or come back. Now you should see Bumble and ! Dinah. When I cry. Heel!" or more often, "Heel, confound it heel'" they light out for the best sofa in the house and wallow on it and chew the pillows For some reason they have taken It) Into their heads that "heel" means sofa. This is a great help because I can always catch them on the sofa by locking all the doors of the house. This is much better than having to run them down. Later today I am going to cry. "Sofa!'' to them and see if by any chance they'll heel. The book says dogs should never Jump up on people, and offers several ways of curing them of this habit, one being to tread lightly but firmly on their back feet when they jump. I couldn't! wait to try to cure my dogs of this leaping habit, because they* hold the free-style. dirty-paw [High Jump record for cocker) spaniels under five years of age.j All that stepping on the back; feet of my dogs has done is cause them to leap higher. They are, good for five feet any old day. but step on their back feet and they go to six feet with ease. If I were any heavier of foot I am sure they would clear my shoulders. I The book doesn't have a chap ter dealing with how'to keep dogs! from dragging dirty, greasy bones l into the house and munching on them under the beds. This Is a| sorely needed chapter, and I trust the author will aee fit to add it in a later edition. The only cure 1 have found is to remove the beds from the house, even though it means sleeping on the floor. This is a bit draughty, however, and is not to be recommended to doc lovers who have colds or suffer from sinus. <D!*tribui*d br llrNtutht Syndic*!*, Inc i SERVES vs ,per than se^tng HUM SOAP POWDER 2 39c NEW LOW PRICE IjJ'H CASE 0^24 THE COMPLETE SOAP POWDER I . SUDDEN SERVICE MEATS!! 1. TOP QUALITY MEATS 2. TRIMMED—READY TO COOK 3. WRAPPED IN CELLOPHANE 4. PACKAGES PLAINLY PRICED 5. TWO-MINUTE CHECKOUT SERVICE (TIME US AND SEE' GRADE A STEER BEEF SIRLOIN ‘ ,b CQt STEAK r' 03 PORTERHOUSE s^.-, lb 7*1° STEAK.■'* f*" I*1 SIRLOIN >• <*. !b 7C« TIP ROAST . lw SHOULDER tr<. r*. ,b ICt CLOD ROAST I J •OULLION ROAST p*X*> Ffv |b 7C« ▼k» Pc** | y HOME -DRESSED VEAL RIB OHOPS *69* LOIN CHOPS »75* CUTLETS * 95* ?lVcKa BACON "■ 49* DEL-NUT CANNED TURKEY 1 5-ouore $135 NO BONE JAR I NO WASTE HAVE A TURKEY DINNER WITH NO TROUILI AT ALL. THIS JAR SERVES SIX AIOVE AVERAGE PORTIONS. PINE IN SALADS HUNfSFRUITS CALIFORNIA’S FINEST APRIOOTS ----- “ rr 19* COCKTAIL " °cr’ 33 PLUMS -"trie* PEARS." ST 38* PEAOHES ST* 28* CROSSE b BLACKWELL TOMATO JUICE 46 Ounc* C CAN HONEY •” 23* WHIPPED HONEY X29e BUDGET SAVERS SPRY SHorriNi*o *,w* 87* DURKEE’S tMOrriNiNS *** 79* TUNA FISH “ZST - 37* PEAS I CARROTS.™,238* SUPER SUBSET 23* MARGARINE * coiow® " ‘ 37* MARGARINE "ST* ‘ 20* ONEESE 88* ROAST BEEF «?” 43* BULIMY'S Broccoli '*,*7 36c FROZE! trvych B*on, 2 +Z 46c CHESTNUT FARMS CREAM CREST MILK IN THf HANDY THROWAWAY CARTON OPEN FRIDAY UNTIL 9 P.M.