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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 01, 1949, Image 6

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Mith Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON, D. C.
, Published by
The Evening Star Newspaper Company.
SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President.
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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A—6 * FRIDAY. July 1, 1»4»
The Coplon Verdict
It was an odious offense of which Judith
Coplon stands convicted. The decision to
hold this former Justice Department em
ploye guilty of betraying her country to
an agent of an unfriendly foreign power
was not an easy one for the jury to make.
The long hours of deliberation, and the
request for additional instructions from
the judge indicate that the jurors were
fully aware of their heavy responsibilities.
They have rendered a verdict which was
fully justified by the evidence.
Had the crime charged to Miss Coplon
been less grave, it is possible that she
would have gone free. For the prosecu
tion of the onetime trusted employe of
the Foreign Agents’ Registration Division
would have been dropped in mid-trial if
Attorney General Clark had abided by the
wishes of the Federal Bureau of Investiga
tion. The difficult question which Mr.
Clark had to decide was whether to proceed
with the trial of a woman he believed
guilty of espionage or to safeguard the
Integrity of FBI confidential files. He
decided to sacrifice the files—and some of
the FBI’s more important sources of in
formation—rather than turn loose a faith
less employe.
Mr. Clark’s belief that Miss Coplon
should and would be convicted was well j
based. The Government produced a mass
of damaging evidence which the defense
was unable to refute to the satisfaction of
the jury—or of most other impartial
observers. Miss Coplon took full advantage
of all the rights accorded an accused per
son by the country she chose to sell out.
In Russia she would have had no such
rights. If there was any hysteria about i
her trial, it was not on the part of the \
Government. The only theatrics was that
staged by the defense.
The Coplon case proves that the "Com
munist scare” is not all of the red herring
variety. It demonstrates, furthermore,
that the Government cannot afford to
relax in its vigilance against subversive
elements known to be operating in this
country. And it throws light on why the
Communists have so much hate—and
secret respect—for the FBI. The very
existence of this hate and this respect is
t. reassuring sign to good Americans.
Canada's Birthday
Eighty-two years ago today the Canadian
people celebrated their first official birth
day as a nation on its own. July 1 to them
means essentially the same thing as July 4
to us. Though it is set against a back
ground of peaceful evolution rather than
armed revolution, it signifies independence,
self-rule, the formation of a sovereign state
in full control of its own destiny.
For on this day in 1867 Canada, through
the North America Act adopted by the
British Parliament in London, formally ac
quired a written constitution representing
a decisive climax in the country’s march to
autonomy within the commonwealth of
• nations. Under that constitution—which
evolved from measures enacted in 1791 and
1843—the Canadian people have modeled
their executive, legislative and Judicial
machinery after Britain’s. At the same
time their system is not unlike ours in the
distribution of powers between federal and
provincial authorities. And although still
linked with the United Kingdom by a com
mon allegiance to the Crown, they are
under the 1931 Statute of Westminster—
thoroughly independent and in absolute
control of their domestic and foreign
policies.
The United States has a special reason
to be interested in all this and to feel very
close in spirit to Canada today. Nowhere
else in the world is there anything quite
like the relationship that exists between
us. Sharing a great border that is com
pletely unfortified, and tied together by a
long history of mutual trust and friendly
dealings, our two countries stand out as
shining examples to all peoples of what
freedom and good neighborliness can mean.
Blessed by immense natural resources and
living together in peace and co-operation,
we have both prospered. In terms of ma
terial things, our own Nation has achieved
the highest living standards to be found
anywhere, and the Canadians rank next in
that. Nor is there any reason to suppose
that these fine and mutually beneficial
relations will not continue throughout the
future.
Yet nothing should be taken for granted.
The good neighborliness of Canada and
the United States has not come into being
of its own accord. It has been cultivated
and nurtured, and it must continue to be
cultivated and nurtured. Politically, cul
turally, economically, militarily and other
wise, thd Canadian and American peoples
have to keep working at the task of not
merely maintaining but also improving
their uniquely happy relationship. They
must remain joined together, for example,
in promoting world trade and in solving
the dollar problem—a problem beginning
to press hard on Canada because it cannot,
as in the past, get enough dollars from its
exports abroad to pay for its heavy imports
from us.
There are other serious world problems
that bear upon the relations of our two
countries. But if we constantly strengthen
our good neighborliness and promote it
elsewhere, sound solutions should be pos
sible. In any case, as the Canadians
celebrate their independence today, they
hardly need to be told that the American
people, by tradition and instinct, are dedi
cated to the proposition of maintaining the
friendliest possible ties with them now and
forever.
Labor Battle Ends
From all indications, the emotion
charged struggle over labor legislation has
ended for this session of Congress.
The result is a victory for common sense
and a rebuke to the tactics employed by
the administration and most of the pro
fessional labor leaders.
There are two ways of appraising this
result. In one sense the Senate action is
a triumph for Senator Taft, a tribute to
the forcefulness of the arguments and the
persuasiveness of the facts which he
brought to bear in support of the modifica
tions of the Taft-Hartley Act which he
advocated. In another sense it is a rebuff
which the administration fully deserved.
It is entirely possible that a bill more
to the liking of the President and his labor
allies could have been put through at this
session. But the men who led the fight
in Congress for the President were not dis
posed to be reasonable. They insisted on
railroading through committees of the
House and Senate a so-called labor bill
that was little better than a fraud on
the people in the light of recent indus
trial history. And they persisted in their
attempt to impose this bill on the Con
gress even after it had become apparent
that it would not pass. Adamant against
reasonable compromise, they simply
missed th# boat.
The real fight, of course, centered around
the moderate injunctive feature of the
Taft proposal. As the Senate bill stands,
it gives the President a choice of two
weapons when the public welfare is put
in jeopardy by a strike. In a national
emergency situation, he can seize the
struck industry or he can appeal to the
courts in the name of the Government
for an injunction which, if granted, would
have the effect of forbidding a strike for
a period of 60 days.
That is the injunction provision which
AFL President William* Green says labor
will never accept. It is an injunctive
provision which is not essentially different
from the remedy in which Mr. Truman has
employed repeatedly in the past to protect
the people, but which he does not want
written into law.
If it be conceded that the rights of all
the people are superior to the rights of
any union group, and that the Govern
ment must act when necessity arises to
protect the public interest, then this whole
debate over the injunction becomes a
sham. Why should the President protest
against being empowered by law to do
that which, in any event, he must do?
Is it because of the arrogant threats of
the labor bosses—threats which the Pres
ident tacitly indorses but which would
evoke from him the most vehement de
nunciations if uttered by any of the “lobby
ists" with whom he is so fond pf tilting?
Whatever the reasons for the President’s
attitude, the conclusion is inescapable that
the Senate, from the standpoint of its
obligation to act in the interests of the
Nation, has measured up to its responsi
bility. It may be that the labor unions,
intent upon putting a minority interest
ahead of the national interest, will make
good their threats to defeat Senator Taft
and some of the others who voted for the
bill. It may also be that the President
will try to help them by vetoing the bill,
if it should be adopted in the House,
although it is clearly an improvement on
the existing law. But in the long run the
stand taken by the Senate will be vindi
cated. Truth is slow to overtake propa
ganda. It will be found, however, that the
interests of all the people cannot be
permanently subordinated and sacrificed
to the selfish ambitions of any minority.
Red Soviet War Prisoners
The vexatious issue of Soviet Russia’s
war prisoners has acquired added emphasis
with the recent return of a batch of Jap
anese from Siberian captivity. These men,
numbering some 2,000, reached their home
land exuding aggressive communism. They
were the first contingent to be released in
many months, despite repeated protests
by General MacArthur against Moscow’s
chronic failure to live up to its repatriation
agreement. But they differed radically
from previous batches in more respects
than ideology. Unlike most of their pred
ecessors, who reached home half starved
and overworked, they were in tiptop phys
ical shape. They talked of the abundant
food and good treatment they had re
ceived, boasted of their devotion to com
munism, and told of their intent to help
sovietize Japan.
Obviously, these men are the prise ex
hibits of the heavy indoctrination process
to which all war prisoners in the Soviet
Union have been subjected. Equally obvious
is the aim of Moscow to stage a demonstra
tion by its hand-picked converts at a time
when it is under heavy pressure by the
Western Powers to return the war prisoners
still in its hands. The question naturally
arises as to how many of such converts
Russia holds and how their revolutionary
faith will fare when no longer immersed
in the pervasive atmosphere of Communist
propaganda. So far as Japan is concerned,
experience has shown that many war pris
oners who professed communism on their
return have been quickly weaned away
from it and reabsorbed in a predominantly
anti-Communist society. But these stal
warts may be of a more recalcitrant type.
Soviet indoctrinators are skilled psycholo
gists and would take care that this widely
publicized demonstration should not prove
a failure.
The current repatriates declare, among
other things, that they are the vanguard
of 95,000 reinforcements for the Japanese
Communist Party. That figure echoes Mos
cow’s estimate that the number of Japa
nese war prisoners still in the Soviet Union
is under 100,000. But the American Occu
pation Authority thinks that at least 400,
000 such prisoners remain unaccounted for,
while Japanese estimates run even higher.
What has happened to that unexplained
balance? Are they dead? Or are they
deliberately kept back by Moscow until
they are either successfully Indoctrinated
or thoroughly worked out?
The same queries apply to similar dis
crepancies between Soviet and Allied esti
mates of German war prisoners. Moscow
admits to only about 400,000 of them still
in its hands, whereas Allied estimates
approximate 2,000,000 and German esti
mates run far higher than that. Taken
together, the Japanese and European cap
tives of the Soviet Union constitute one of
the blackest chapters in Moscow’s postwar
record.
No Transit Strike
The people of Washington will welcome
the sensible adjustment of the dispute
which had threatened the community with
a paralyzing transportation strike.
In a dispute of this kind—a wage dis
pute between a public utility and its
employes—there is no excuse for a strike.
Such an issue can and should be settled by
arbitration.
In this instance, after some preliminary
maneuvering, both the Capital Transit
Company and the union were willing to
arbitrate. But they bogged down over the
question of how the arbitration board
should be selected.
The deadlock resulting from this dis
agreement was broken by the intervention
of Cyrus W. Ching, director of the United
States Mediation and Conciliation Service, j
He proposed a formula for choosing an
arbitration board which is fair to both
parties and which should safeguard the
people who use the transit facilities, and
who, in the last analysis, must foot the
bill for any increase in the utility’s oper
ating costs. The Ching proposal has been
accepted by the company and the union,
and the threatened strike is off. It seems
to The Star that all concerned have mani
fested a sense of responsibility, and are to
be commended for it.
Experiments reveal that eggs explode in
the new electronic cooker. Our thoughts,
again, are with that unsung laboratory
aide, the wife who picks up after the
genius.
••Babies,” says the famed physician, “are
more important than atomic bombs.”
Moreover, in the case of babies, the worst
has happened. They are no secret to the
Russians.
As FSA Director Ewing correctly says,
education is at the crossroads. You’ll
recognize it by the school sticker on the
oag, and the practiced thumb, soliciting
a lift.
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell
“KALORAMA ROAD.
“Dear Sir:
“With reference to the remarks of some
starling lovers published in your column re
cently, I would like to suggest that if they
are sufficiently interested in these good birds
they write protests against the extermina
tion to Hon. J. Howard McGrath, Senate
District Committee, and Hon. John L. Mc
Millan, House District Committee. I have
written several letters in defense of these
interesting birds.
“As one of your correspondents stated, the
starlings are kind, gentle birds. When I dp
window-sill feeding for them during the
winter, they always eat amicably and do not
mind the sparrows that come to share their
meal.
“I have yet to see them crowd or peck at
the smaller birds, as the pigeons and many
other birds do. They are not only without
faults, but are even beneficial, and the little
dirt they make in a few places could perhaps
be cleaned up with smaller expense than
the extermination program contemplated,
or roofs might be repaired in such a way as
to prevent their roosting where they are ob
jectionable.
"It seems that if humans would meditate
on the dirt they themselves make, they
might possibly be a little more tolerant.
“The starlings are of great assistance in
keeping our insect enemies in check ancl
might do very effective work on Japanese
beetles if allowed the right to live. As has
been stated, when these harmless little crea
tures are gone, there will be something else
that bothers a few people, and the killing
will go on indefinitely as long as there are
egoists who think only of themselves and
make a great deal of some little inconven
ience to them.
“No doubt if there could be a referendum
on the starlings, they woul£ not be killed,
but the people have no voice in the matter,
and it is to be regretted that a few men
make decisions of interest to many.
“Sincerely yours, M. H. H.”
* * * *
“ARLINGTON, Va.
“Dear Sir:
“Our problem Is not how to take care of
a young robin, but how to get rid of one.
“Three-and-a-half weeks ago we rescued
Butch after a grackle had destroyed the nest
and he has gotten so attached to us that he
won’t associate with birds.
“He comes to the kitchen every morning
for his hamburger (he prefers that to angle
worms), nestles in the palm of my hand
and talks to me and takes a short nap on
the round of the chair.
“Then I put him out, and in a couple
of hours he’s back—we know his call, it is a
very demanding squawk.
“Butch loves people. If I’m not in the
yard he goes to the neighbors’ yards. At first
it was very disconcerting to have a robin
swoop down and land on your head, but
most of the neighbors are used to it by now.
“All except one white-haired lady who is
desperately afraid of birds, and he seemed to
be attracted to her lovely hair.
“The neighbor next door painted his sta
tion wagon and back porch with Butch
perched on his shoulder.
“We are getting a lot of pleasure out of
caring for Butch. When we work in the
garden, he’s right with us, going up and
down the rows of vegetables, eating bugs. We
hope he won’t forget us next year.
“Every one marvels at how unafraid and
trusting Butch is with people. I hope it won’t
be his downfall.
“By the way, did you ever see a robin
yawn? They definitely do.
“Very truly, H. L. Y.”
* * * ^
It is a good idea, with a pet robin, to teach !
it to take food from the ground.
This is done by placing a small worm, bug,
or ugly beetle in front of the songster.
The crawling intrigues him—down comes
the bill.
This is the ancestral feeding motion for
all birds, except those that catch insects on
the wing.
It is peculiarly the feeding motion of the
robin. Once a bird learns this, it can take
care of itself.
A few birds “raised by hand” seem to be
particularly slow in learning how to eat.
Butch will associate with other birds as
soon as he decides to feed himself. As soon
as he does this, he will see other robins
yanking worms from the soil, and he will
decide to get some for himself. Evidently
this form of competition runs through all
grades of life.
‘ After the robin goes on his own, he will
lose some of his trust in mankind, and this
Is all to the good, because both birds and
men must come in time to see that neither
all birds nor all men are trustworthy.
Letters to The Star
Regrets Dropping of Mr. Hayes
From the Board of Education
To the Editor of The St»r:
The failure of the Judges of the District
Court to reappoint George E. C. Hayes to
the District Board of Education is a flagrant
disregard of the expressed wishes of a large
number of Washington citizens and indicates
a lack of interest in the improvement of
the educational system of the District as it
affects the Negro people. It shows the
urgent need for the people of Washington
to be given the power to elect their own
officials. But, more than this, the apparent
subterfuge to which the judges resorted
when they said that Mr. Hayes was not
appointed because he had not submitted an
application for reappointment will do noth
ing to maintain the faith of the people in the
sincerity of the judges of the District Court.
Certainly, the judges must be able to appoint
whomever they consider the most qualified
among our citizenry; it is unthinkable that
they would be forced to select only from
among those who have applied for appoint
ment. It is well-known that many well
qualifled and willing persons do not submit
applications to render public service.
In connection with this action of the
judges of the District, it is unfortunate that
the new member of the Board of Education,
Dr. Phillip T. Johnson, felt it necessary to
say that segregation cannot be eliminated
until the people are further educated in race
relations. This indicates a rather outmoded
conception of the education process. It is
well-established today that participation in
racially integrated projects is essential to
education in race relations.
L. MAYNARD CATCHINGS,
Minister, Plymouth Congregational
Church.
Sees Everybody Soon Enjoying
Privileges Now Limited to Convicts
To the Sdltor of The St»r:
How would you like to have free room
and board for the rest of your life, have
your clothes given to you, be assured of
hospital care, taught a trade and then guar
anteed a steady Job? Sounds good, does it
not? The theme of this letter, however, is
to protest against the discrimination shown
to the majority of our people. Yes, com
rade, you and I are being dlrely persecuted
in regard to these privileges. I demand
Justice.
Hitherto the majority of law-abiding
citizens have had to shift for themselves
while convicts, who are men who have com
mitted various crimes in the eyes of the
law, such as murder, robbery and bigamy,
have been outrageously given the wonderful
things enumerated above. I assume that
these things are very valuable to the con
victs and are jealously guarded, seeing as
there are high walls around their prisons
obviously intended to prevent us from shar
ing their benefits. Furthermore, while we
ordinary citizens are left to flounder as we
will, these convicts are given a great deal
of guidance and supervision in the things
they do. Just think of what we are missing.
Oh, the injustice of it all!
But take heart, comrade, the tide begins
to turn in our favor. Great statesmen in
our Nation’s Capital are seeking to remedy
the situation. They are being reinforced in
these efforts by people who have dedicated
their lives to our cause and who are known
as welfare workers. Just consider how close
we are to having: socialized medicine, it
won’t cost us anything either; government
housing, so we all may live in homes that
are exactly alike; old age pensions, these
should include pro-paid vacations to Palm
Beach; and Federal aid to education, so
that we may all think alike, no doubt. Best
of all though is that along with all these
things will come enlightened guidance and
supervision from our great statesmen,
although we do not now enjoy such a regu
lation. When these statesmen get through,
we ail will have the benefits presently
experienced only by convicts.
In view of our goal, comrades, I was
shocked to hear former Secretary of State
Byrnes’ statements sanctioning the freedom
of the Individual. I was. however, extremely
glad to hear Senator Humphrey of Minne
sota say that he and his colleagues will re
double their efforts to put through the above
program. Also the remarks of Senator Pep
per, Democrat, of Florida, that he was not
surprised at Mr. Byrnes’ stand, shows Mr.
Pepper has a brilliant and penetrating mind.
WELDON P. JOLLEY, Jr.
Believes in Separation
Of the Races as Democratic Practice
To the editor of The Star:
There is so much talk about segregation
and democracy, but there are two races of
people—white and colored—and they are not
supposed to mix.
The colored people have all the freedoms
and advantages of the white race. They
have schools, churches, playgrounds and
the right to vote. They have the chance
to make all these advantages as good or
better than the white controlled, and I
wonder if the people who want segregation
done away with think it is democratic to
force on others something they do not
want.
If the colored race did not have all these
freedoms, it might be right to complain,
but I think when the white race does not
want to mix with the colored, it is the
white people who are being discriminated
against and their rights should be considered.
PEARL LAYFIELD.
Adda to Story About. Marriage
Of Hohensollem Princess to American
To th« Mltor of The 8t»r:
In the interest of historical accuracy,
permit me to correct an error in the AP
story about the marriage, on June 21, of
Princess Cecilie of Prussia to Clyde Harris,
of Amarillo, Tex.
It was reported that the wedding took
place “in the 1,000-year-old castle” of the
Hohenzollems at Hechingen, in South Ger
many. The truth of the matter is, this
magnificent edifice is less than a century
old. The former ruling house of the Ger
man Empire and of the Kingdom of Prussia
derived its name from the original castle
near Hechingen in the 11th century. It was
destroyed in 1423 and restored in 1454, but
by the beginning of the 19th century little
of it remained but the chapel. The modem
castle dates only from 1850. when its con
struction was begun by King Friedrich Wil
helm IV, of Prussia, the late Kaiser Wil
helm ITs uncle; it was completed in 1867.
Hence, the nuptials of Princess Cecilie and
the former American Army officer were not
celebrated in a “medieval” castle, as asserted
by the newspapers.
The House of Hohenzollem was divided
in 1227 into two main branches, the Swabian
and the Franconian. The latter rose to a
position of eminence, becoming electors of
Brandenburg in 1415. kings of Prussia in
1701, and German emperors in 1871. The
senior line, the Swabian branch, was fur
ther divided into the lines of Hohenzollem
Hechlngen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen,
which surrendered their lands to the Prus
sian branch in 1850. The Hechingen line
became extinct in 1869. A prince of the Sig
maringen branch mounted the throne of
Romania in 1866, his heirs occupying it
until the recent deposition of King Michael.
Cecilie is the second Hohenzollem prin
cess within recent years to marry an
American, the other being her cousin, Vic
toria Marina of Prussia, who is the wife of
Kirby W. Patterson, with whom (and
their two children, Berengar and Marina
Adelaide) she resides at Springfield, Mo.
Genealogists of the future will have a field
Letters for publication must bear
the signature and address of the
writer, although it is permissible for
a writer known to The Star to use
a nom de plume. Please be brief.
day, tracing the royal ancestry of these
American families back to the once omnip
otent Hohenzollerns and their connections.
MILTON RUB INCAM,
President, Pennsylvania Historical Junto.
Echoes From Strike
In Honolulu
To the Editor of The Ster:
We understand that you have mentioned
our CIO dockworkers strike, and we wish
to thank you. The Government’s indiffer
ence to our trouble has really been some
thing. We were better off December 7, 1941,
because we did have ships of food. Now
there are 10 ships in the harbor that the
CIO will not unload. Any way, the fruit
and vegetables are spoiled. So what?
Honolulu. MRS. CHESTER BROWN.
To the Editor of Th* Eteri *
Hawaii’s dock strike has brought conster
nation to many friends of the islands. It
is hoped that the President and members
of Congress have read the two-page adver
tisement which appeared in your paper and
will feel Justified in appropriating funds to
start an airlift, “Operation Kau Kau.”
The Hawailans are our people. They are
proud to be called Americans. We cannot
let them down.
I have lived among them and they have
my highest regard.
"Kau Kau” is a slang phrase for food,
pronounced “cow cow." S. M. DOWS.
Impressions of Burma
Set Forth by Sir Bernard Binns
To the Sdltor of The Star:
Perhaps you will permit one who has had
a long and intimate connection with Burma
and the Burmese people, among whom he
claims very many friends, to comment on
the editorial in your issue of June 21 on the
recent gift of Burmese books to the Library
of Congress.
While it must be admitted that most
Americans had scarcely heard of Burma till
1941 and that this ignorance still persists
very widely, this does not mean that there
has not been in the past close and intimate
contact between Burma and certain classes
of Americans.
Perhaps the best known American In Bur
ma was in the past the Baptist missionary,
Dr. Judson, who was one of the most famous
modern Christian missionaries in Asia and
commenced his mission under the Burmese
kings. Dr. Judson was a notable Burmese
scholar who compiled what is still the best
completed dictionary of the Burmese langu
age. From Dr. Judson’s time the American
Baptist Mission always has had wide and
happy relations with the peoples of Burma.
One of the two general constituent colleges
of the University of Rangoon (Judson Col
lege) was originally an American Baptist
foundation, staffed, so far as its non-Bur
man staff was concerned, entirely by Ameri
cans. Several of the best schools in the coun
try are also A. B. M. foundations. Among re
cent American missionaries of note may be
mentioned the late Dr. Case, the agricul
turist missionary, who unfortunately lost his
life in the 1941 exodus, and the well-known
medical missionary Dr. Seagrave.
Oil Workers Present
Another notable American connection with
Burma arose from the fact that for many
years the oil companies employed large num
bers of Americans in the fields, especially
as drillers. In latter years these were re
placed by Scotsmen, but in its heyday the
American Club in Yenangyaung was a very
well-known institution and the Texan or
Oklahoman driller was a characteristic fig
ure both in the oil fields and in Rangoon.
It is true that, in spite of her great natural
attractions and the unique and colorful
charm of her people, Burma never was a
common resort of the ordinary tourist of
any nationality. The reasons for this, how
ever, are not to be found in any form of
official discouragement but rather in the
facts that outside Rangoon there were only
one or two hotels and that Rangoon was a
terminal and not an intermediate port. Bur
ma therefore had to be specially visited, and
any prolonged tour involved more organiza
tion than the ordinary tourist was prepared
to undertake. Nevertheless, during my own
wide travels in Burma I met as many Ameri
can tourists as others.
Further, I can assure you that there was
no official discrimination against American
businessmen in Burma during the British
period. It is true that there were certain
minor tariff preferences in favor of British
countries (including India), but these cer
tainly did not have the effect of keeping
American goods out. Most of the automo
biles in the country were American; Ameri
can refrigerators were the first to be im
ported, and all types of American consumer
goods from canned food and electric torches
to women’s clothing and cotton piece goods
were on sale in every shop. Most of these
goods wire, it is true, brought in by British,
Indian cr Chinese importers and agents, but
thi6 did not imply any discrimination against
American firms. Apart from the tariff pre
ferences the only restriction on foreign busi
ness that I remember was a general prohibi
tion against the grant of mining leases to
foreigners.
Business Men of Different Nations.
Many non-Burmans, besides the British,
took part in the commerce of Burma —
Dutch, Danish, French, Swedish, Chinese,
Japanese a ad Indians. My recollection is
that there were also some resident American
businessmen. If these were few, it must have
been by th«sir own choice. There were also
visiting bus nessmen: For example, at least
one well-known American buyer regularly
visited the ruby mines at Mogok. The United
States of America thought sufficiently highly
of its trade connections with Burma to main
tain a consul de carriere in Rangoon and to
raise the office to the status of Consul-Qen
eral in 1841. Of course, Americans were busi
ness rivals of the British—and of the Indians.
Chinese and Japanese —in Burma, but I
know of no attempt to exclude them on that
account.
It may be true that the Burmans met
relatively few Americans, though for this
the Americans, and neither the Burmans
nor the British, were mainly responsible; but
at least the Burmans knew enough of Ameri
cans to be able to distinguish them clearly
from the British, and resident Americans
generally were certainly of ‘.'the friendliest”
type, living in close and intimate contact
with the people and deeply sympathetic to
their political and cultural idiosyncracles.
In conclusion, perhaps I may mention that
the present gift of books by Burma means
much more than a similar gift from many
other countries could mean, because, as a
result of the Japanese invasion, most public
and private collections of books were dis
persed and lost, and shortage of paper and
presses has since severely restricted re
printing. BERNARD O. BINNS.
Testifies to Pleasure Over
Meridian HU1 Production
To the Editor ol The Star:
Like the other members of the audience
who surrounded me, I very much enjoyed
"Amphitryon 38’’ at the Meridian Hill Park.
Once again we have theatre, and of a very
high caliber, in Washington. The Washing
ton Theatre Festival is to be congratulated
for its contribution to the culture of our
community. DR. ALICE 8. VENEZKY.
'Alpine Eden' Knows Way
To Keep Out Undesirables
Neither Money Nor Influence of Aid
In Obtaining Citizenship
By Thomas R. Henry
VADUZ, Liechtenstein (By Mail).—Why
doesn’t half the world flock to Liechtenstein,
swear allegiance to genial Prince Franz Josef
the Second, escape most of the nuisance of
paying taxes, and spend the rest of their
lives in one of the most charming spots on
earth?
Why have more than 2,000 Liechtenstein
ers emigrated to the United States in the
past 40 years and the majority of them be
come American citizens?
The answers to these questions explain
why states like this Alpine Eden are not a
very satisfactory answer to the worlds
problems.
In the first place, becoming a Liechten
stein citizen is an extremely difficult proposi
tion regardless of money or influence. First
it is necessary to find a home here, not just
a hotel room, and there are very few homes
to be had in a naturally overcrowded coun
try. If successful, you apply to the village
council, after about three months. Pre
sumably by this time the villagers have come
to know you and they decide whether you are
an acceptable neighbor.
Takes Parliament Bill.
Then the council recommends you to the
government’s naturalization department. If
it approves the decision of the villagers, a
bill is introduced in parliament. If it is
carried, it goes to the prince for veto or ap
proval. Parliament might re-carry it over
his veto but, of course, never would.
So if Prince Franz Josef finally approves,
you are in—after a trial period of three
years. And the total number of naturaliza
tions allowed is from four to five a year. It
all adds up that one must be a very desir
able citizen Indeed to be accepted.
Otherwise residence is limited to a period*
of three months, which may under special
circumstances be extended. The govern
ment keeps a list of undesirables which
might seek refuge here. They include, of
course, all war criminals and black market
operators. Liechtenstein very specifically
doesn’t want to become a refuge for tax
evaders. It might be profitable for a few
years but in the end, as both the prince
and his subjects see it, terribly disastrous.
One very prominent war criminal who tried
to make it was Pierre Laval. They never
let him get over the border.
Reasons for Emigration.
Why Liechtensteiners emigrate also is
clear enough. Here is a prolific population
of small farmers in a small land. If every
body stayed, both individual and community
holdings would soon become too small to
afford a livelihood and the government
would be faced with much the same problem
as the United States Government faces on
some of its Indian reservations. The stand
ard of living of such a state depends on a
relatively stable population.
Also Liechtenstein is not looking for tour
ists—that is, any great influx of them.
Individuals are welcomed. Nearby Switzer
land, with which Liechtenstein is bound in
a customs union, regards the tourist trade
as a major industry. It is the second indus
try of Luxembourg, the closest parallel to
Liechstenstein among European states. With
a little Investment this country could become
a tourist resort of unparalleled popularity.
But, as the Liechtensteiners explain, a
great influx of Americans and Western
Europeans would change the whole char
acter of the country’s life. The prosperous
small farmers would cease being farmers and
become caterers to the tourist trade. The
quaint local customs soon would lose their
sincerity and become mere play-acting for
the benefit of curious visitors.
Vicious Tax Circle Unwanted.
Even more important is the fact that the
influx of tourists would make necessary pub
lic improvements of which there now is no
need and which would be extremely costly.
Broad modem highways, for example, would
be necessary in place of the narrow but
well maintained road system which exists at
present.
This would require higher taxes, and it
seems inescapable for the modern state that
higher taxes breed still higher taxes in a
vicious circle.
Visitors, of course, would bring in enorm
ous amounts of money and, from the purely
financial point of view, high taxes might be
a good investment for a few years. But
why take a chance? There is no poverty
here—nor any great wealth. The end results
of far-reaching change are unpredictable.
The country is proceeding very slowly to
diversify agriculture with industry. The
prince himself is a major stockholder in a'
new adding machine factory. Vaduz has a
new textile mill. This gives an outlet for
farm boys and girls for whom there is not
enough land and who do not want to
emigrate.
Questions and Answers
A reader can set the answer to anr question of
fact br writing The Washington Evening Star In
formation Bureau. 316 tin street N.E., Washing
ton 2, D. C. Please Inclose three (3) cents for
return postage.
By THE HASKIN SERVICE
Q. Did the United States sign the Ver
sailles Treaty after World War I?—D. McM.
A. The Versailles Treaty was signed by
United States Representatives at the Peace
Conference on June 28. 1919, but it was
defeated in the Senate and was never rati
fied by this country. The United States
made a separate peace treaty with Germany.
Q. Is the veto still used in England?—
M. R. C.
A. The royal veto was commonly exercised
prior to the 17th century. Queen Elisabeth
made use of it and William in vetoed four
measures of importance. Queen Anne em
ployed it once in 1707 and since then, except
in connection with colonial legislation, the
right has not been used.
Q. In flood time, how is the height of
water determined? In a wide channel the
water would not be as high as in a narrow
one.—C. S. B
A. The Weather Bureau says that the
height of water in a stream during flood
time as well as when it is not in flood is
determined by means of gages located at
selected points along the stream. The zero
mark of each gage i sset at some arbitrary
datum plane. For convenience and simplicity
low water, or point of zero flow at the site
of the particular gage, is commonly selected
as the datum plane. In this way the gage
readings express approximately the depth of
water in the channel. The width of the
channel is not considered in determining the
height of the water level.
Q. What is the name of the tree which
has three differently shaped leaves?—F. E. U.
A. The tree in question is the sassafras.
The leaves will range in shape on one twig
from an oval to a three-lobed outline, the
"mitten shape” with one lobe at the side of
the leaf being characteristic.
Q. Has the date been set for the next
White House Conference on Children?—F. F.
A. It has been announced that the fifth
White House Conference on Children and
Youth will be held in 1950, in accordance
with the tradition of holding one every 10
years. The purpose of these conferences la
to appraise the health and welfare of the
nation’s children and to set goals toward
which those concerned with the well-being
of children can work.

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