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fining j&faf With Sunday Marning Editian. WASHINGTON, D. C. PublhHad by , Tbs ivsiting Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, Pratidgnt. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Av*. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 Eost 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Av*. Dalivsrsd by Carriar—Metropolitan Araa. Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly 1.20* Monthly 90c 10c p*r copy Wookly .. 30c W**kly 20c 10c por copy *10c additional whan 3 Sundays or* in a month. Alto 10c additional tor Night Final Edition in thot* sections whirl delivery it mad*. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. v Anywhere in United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month ._ 1.50 1 month ... 90c I month 40c 4 months.. 7.50 4 months .. 5.00 4 months 3.00 1 year _15.00 1 year _10.00 1 year ..4.00 Telephone STerling 5000. Entered at th* Pott Office, Washington, D. C., at tecend-clatt mail matter. Member at the Associated Pratt. The Associated Press it entitled exclusively to th* us* tor republicotien of all th* local newt printed in this newspaper, at well ai all A. P. news dispatches. A—10 MONDAY, July 4, 1949 Fourth of July Question Many citizens today inevitably must think of the question raised in Washington last week by a distinguished Jurist when he wondered what prompted a convicted spy to attempt to betray her country, if patently is true that “the motives that inspire traitors • • • have always been a mystery," but it does not follow that the mystery cannot be read. Rather, it is demanded of us as a people that we should understand the causes of the danger of disloyalty in our midst. Perhaps the basic difficulty may be discovered in the fact that America is a new country, composed of many different human elements not yet completely ad justed to one another. Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg in 1863 spoke of the republic as being "conceived in liberty and dedi cated to the proposition that all men are created equal," and he conceded that the Civil War then raging was a test of •’whether that Nation or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.” His predecessor, Thomas Jeffer son, had reflected the same philosophy in writing the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Men, it was affirmed in that dynamic document, “are created equal” and “are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,” including “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” The framers of the Federal Constitution in 1787 had paid homage to the identic prin ciples when they sought to “sectfre the blessings, of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.” Now it certainly would seem that any American of our own time educated in our schools and by such supplementary cul tural agencies as the press, the radio and the theater, should appreciate the ideals thus set forth. Even citizens born abroad ; or reared in homes not yet integrated to our environment ought not to find it arduous to grasp the doctrine* involved. They come to us down the ages from ancient Judaeo-Christian sources. History has made them precious through twenty or thirty Centuries of human experience. No individual with a high school cer tificate should be in any doubt as to what the United States signifies in terms of practical freedom, co-operation and con cord. Yet the judge was correct in his ac knowledgment that there are persons, possessed of brilliant minds and "infinite prospects” of achievement and success in the world, who nevertheless are not faith ful to the new Nation which gives them opportunity. Why they are disloyal is a proper subject of investigation. Mean while, the duty of the patriots is increased by the impact of events. A materialistic revolutionary doctrine is abroad in the earth. It is plausible in character, and it is susceptible of forceful application upon weak societies. When it has taken over, it rules with cruel power. Against it the Declaration of Independence, read through out America on this one hundred and seventy-third anniversary of its promulga tion, lifts what Woodrow Wilson described as “a whip for tyrants”—“not a theory of government, but a program of action.” A Security Essential It is not clear just who is right in the dispute between the President and Bernard M. Baruch on the status of mobilization planning for natiijnal security. Mr. Baruch has charged that the administration has stymied such planning, but Mr. Truman has asserted that Mr. Baruch is badly in formed. In the circumstances, with both sides speaking only in highly generalized terms, the average citizen cannot help being confused and uncertain about the relative merits of the pros and cons of the argument. The one thing everybody can be sure of, however, is that under the National Security Act of 1947 there has been estab lished an agency called the National Security Resources Board. The board’s functions and duties are supposed to cover the task of drafting plans and policies designed to mobilize this country as swiftly, as efficiently and as effectively as possible in the event of war. To that end, the NSRB has been charged with the responsibility of drawing up a kind of “total” standby program under which our manpower, industry, agriculture and governmental set-up could be harnessed and co-ordinated in a way calculated to promote victory at minimum cost in terms of time, blood and treasure. Notwithstanding Mr. Baruch's charge, the NSRB appears to have achieved at least a measure of progress. But there is reason to believe that that progress has . not been nearly comprehensive enough. At any rate, it is a fact that the board has been operating without a permanent, full-time chairman since last December , 15, when Arthur M. Hill turned in his resignation. The President—after having failed to persuade the Senate to support his nomination of Mon C. Wallgren to fill the vacancy—has yet to name another man to the post. Obviously, under such conditions, lacking a forceful directing head, the agency can hardly do as good a job as it ought to do and as it is meant to do under the law. There can be no doubt, of course, that T a good job is needed. In these days of the cold war, with a tense world experi encing what is at best only an ‘‘iffy” peace, the United States must be prepared for the worst, even though the worst—as every American hopes—may never happen. One of the key essentials of such pre paredness is the advance planning of all-out mobilization measures to meet a possible all-out emergency. Perhaps Mr. Baruch has been a bit too harsh, but his criticism will have served a decidedly use ful purpose if it helps to strengthen the hand of the NSRB and speed up its work. Perspective and the ERP In connection with current misgivings regarding the Marshall Flan’s thus-far unimpressive showing in promoting multi lateral trade among the participating countries, a sense of perspective demands that nobody lose sight of how spectacu larly well that plan has worked in other respects. Nor should any one lose sight of the fact that it has completed only the Arst of its projected four years of operation. Admittedly, as far as multilateral trade is concerned, the Marshall Plan—the European Recovery Program—has not fared well up to now. After its Arst full year of application, however, it must be credited with several outstanding accom plishments, chief among them being the following: (It It has played a vital role in stopping inAation among the partic ipating nations; (2) it has undeniably f saved a number of those nations from a complete economic collapse; (3) indus trially, agriculturally, socially and other wise, it has enabled Britain and Western Europe in general to achieve a degree of stability that would have been impossible without it; and (4), most important of all. it has been an inAuence of enormous signiAcance in terms of halting the fur ther westward advance of the Kremlin directed Red tide. These are points that need to be kept clearly in mind in any effort to evaluate the difficulties that have arisen among the ERP countries over the issue of multi lateral versus bilateral trade. The ques tions involved are highly technical ones having to do with such extremely com plicated matters as the convertibility of currencies. But the whole problem stems from the fact that the participants in the Marshall Plan do not have enough dollars, and have not been able to earn enough of them with exports, to pay for the things they must have from us. It is for that reason that Britain—the chief trader and banker in the West European community—has sought to hold on to its dollar and gold reserves by resisting pro posals for easier convertibility and by resorting to such measures as its recent barter deal with Argentina. The United States, together with a number of countries in Western Europe, , has strongly objected to the British posi- i tion on the ground that it tends to stiffe ' international commerce and thus runs counter to Britain’s pledge, under the Marshall Plan, to co-operate in promoting freer trade. In the American view, more over, the British are doing long-run injury ; to themselves by seeking to conserve dollars through bllaterism, rigid currency restrictions, and other policies which many economists regard as self-defeating and stagnating. In recent days, there has been some evidence that the Attlee Labor government has not been entirely deaf to these arguments, and that fact suggests at least the hope that it may yet be persuaded to do what it has obligated Itself to do in connection with the ERP's efforts to build up multilateralism. In any case, however, particularly be cause the ERP has been in operation for only a fourth of its scheduled lifetime, it certainly would seem to be much too early in the day for anybody to take a defeatist view of the program. With patience and good will all around, the participating nations should And it pos sible to work out arrangements designed to overcome the present trading diffi culties. Meanwhile, both here and abroad, a special point ought to be made of remembering what the Marshall Plan has achieved already, with three years yet to go. _ Charter for West Germany The Charter proclaimed simultaneously ! by Britain, France and the United' States is another long step in the establishment of an integrated West Germany. It sets up in working form the Occupation Statute agreed upon by the three Western Powers last April. The Charter is to go into effect after the inauguration of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is slated for early September, following the August elections throughout West Germany. The salient point in the Charter is a shift from military to civilian control by the occupying Powers. American, British and French troops will remain in their respective zones, but their commanders will have purely military responsibilities. Supreme authority will be lodged with an Allied High Commission, consisting of the three High Commissioners of the occupy ing Powers, acting jointly, while their subordinates will likewise have civilian status. Furthermore, the High Commis sion will not exercise its functions directly upon the German population, but will act only through the German federal or Land governments. To be sure, its powers are transcendent, having final authority over the German regimes and also exercising power in the first instance over such vital matters as the conduct of foreign affairs, control of foreign trade and exchange, interpretation of the German constitution, and military security, both for and against Germany. In short, there has been no diminution of Allied authority and con trol over West Germany, even though the incidence and character of such authority and control have been notably altered. This means that the coming Federal Republic of Germany, despite its impressive title, is very far from being a sovereign state. In the last analysis, West Germany remains a joint protectorate of the Western Powers, with little more than a colonial status and with a limited degree of home rule. For the moment, such a set-up may be a welcome betterment over direct mili tary occupation in German eyes. But in the long run it is bound increasingly to irk the German craving for regained in- , dependence and sovereignty. • It is to be hoped that the High Com mission will be able better to co-ordinate American, British and French views on Germany, which are distinct and some times at variance. One favorable aspect is the provision that, except on constitu tional matters, there will be no individual veto, decisions being made by majority vote. American interests are specially safeguarded by voting weighted in favor of the United States on matters which would involve increased American expenditures. This is a recognition of the fact that we are paying most of the hill for maintain ing West Germany, and should therefore have the last word on heavier burdens upon us. Naturally, the Charter and all that has gone before it does nothing to close the gap between West Germany and the East ern Zone under Russian occupation. In deed, for the moment, West Germany’s Integration may intensify the split, since Soviet countermoves can be anticipated. But the entire integrative process in West Germany is, in the eyes of the Western Powers, a regrettable necessity owing to Soviet nonco-operation in the restoration of all Germany as a truly democratic state entitled to take its place once more in the comity of nations. In that deeper sense, the Charter, the Statute, and the Federal Republic of West Germany are all provisional and temporary in character, to be evolved and perfected as the “cold war” abates and the international situa tion improves. a Stay-at-Homes A long week end with no place to go brings out the Cinderella in us all. We stay-at-homes must fight the feeling of having been left behind. It is all very well to assure our suitcase-bearing friends that we are looking forward to “getting a lot done” during our leisure. But some how the performance of chores which during busier hours cried out to be done, seems a forlorn and unworthy way to spend a holiday. And the idea of catching up on Capitol sight-seeing which residents never find time for, loses a great deal of its zest when there are no tides of tourists to swim against. Also, traveling in buses without the challenge of getting a seat against insuperable odds and the strain of wondering if the driver is going to make the lights is an empty pleasure. The “sour-grapes” approach to the prob lem, which requirfs a steady self-reminder that the absent ones, if driving, are lurch ing along crowded highways bumper-to bumper, or if arrived, are facing perils of sun, surf and mosquitoes, is only mildly effective. The disconsolate feeling is par ticularly acute in Washingtonians, who are used to being visited and are bound to be assailed with self-pity on a week end when more people are going than coming. On this unusual three-day stretch, there is not the satisfying business of giving directions to the newcomers. The half *filled‘ streets hold only other residents listlessly window-shopping. By nightfall, however, the whole situa tion will be reversed, and we shall, in a manner of speaking, have our day. When the travelers return, burned, bitten and exhausted, we shall be in the calm, supe rior, virtuous mood of responsible people who stayed at home minding the city when all others deserted it. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell The life of the "stray” cat is an interesting one. Often enough, more often than is realized, the animal is not a "stray” at all. It simply is friendly. And this leads It to follow some one. Out of its home territory, it truly becomes a stray. Take the case of Blackie. He first appeared in a neighborhood as a child's pet, but his friendliness for mankind led him to follow people along the block. * * * * One night a resident some blocks away took a walk and was followed home by Blackie. At that time, of course, the kitten was nameless. The pedestrian could not make the cat go back. The creature followed him to his own door, where it was "adopted” by his own children. That word, too, must go into quotes, for the children soon grew tired of the nameless kitten, as children often do. So there was Blackie on the street again. He wandered to one household, where he got a good meal. He wandered to another, where he got an other meal, and was taken in for the time being. The household already had a cat, a big Persian, which, as so often with these cats, was very jealous. The Persian put on a scene. He spat, he growled and sulked. Few ani mals can do a better job than the Persian cat. This one was jealous and did not mind showing it. The head of the family said the new cat could not be kept. It must go at once. Their own cat was not allowed out, and so it was not fair to allow another one in to irk it. * * * * This was irrefutable, but it did not solve the problem in the least. The lady of the house said it could live under the back porch. The head of the house said, “No,” it must go at once. So there was the making of a pretty little row, all over a nameless and homeless wan derer, but a cat which actually had a home,' but nobody knew it. The lady of the house won, of course. The cat was allowed to stay under the porch. Two weeks was given as the time limit. (This “time limit” probably was laid down as a face-saving device.) Actually, both liked cats, and soon both were feeding the newcomer. * * * * Blackie led a peaceful life under the porch, but one day was run out of it by a big dog. ' The cat got out first, and went up a tree. The dog could not get out. He had man aged to get in, but now he could not get out. A board had to be pried loose before he could manage it. Then the cat disappeared. This was a real blow. By this time, they had become interested in it. The next night, the cat showed up—and was taken immediately to a home across town, where a child wanted a pet. This child had had a pet snake, but that had died. After all, a snake is a poor pet. The real live kitten was much better, as the little girl found out. So Blackie, after many wanderings, found himself a good place in a good home, but the chances are there is another home where ' they are wondering what became of their kitten. , Do not forget, if you see a “stray,” that there may be many people and several homes I behind it, in all likelihood. Letters to The Star Argues That Congress, Not Committees, Was Rebuked by Supreme Court To the Editor of The 8t*r: David Lawrence customarily has some good viewpoints. But in his comments of June 30 he was decidedly erroneous in his thinking with respect to the Supreme Court ChristofTel decision as it affects the opera tion of lawmaking. Mr. Lawrence fears the Supreme Court is reaching into the legislative process to tell the Congress how to transact business. The fact is that in the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (Public Law No. 601, 79th Con gress), approved August 2, 1946, the language of Section 133 (d) is extremely clear. It reads: "No measure or recommendation shall be reported from any such committee unless a majority of the committee were actually present.’’ That is not a rule or custom. It is the law! Congress through the committee dele gated the task of examining the witness in question and assumed the committee had discharged its obligation under the law prop erly and completely. me mere iact tnai me court now agrees with some enterprising counsel that an accused person is entitled to all the benefits and rights under the statutes as well as the penalties and disadvantages proves only one thing—the law is just as much for Congress | to understand and obey as a common citizen. Unfortunately, there are no provisions for removal from office for those on Capitol Hill who skim over the law. Had there been, the official who allowed the committee and the Congress to suffer loss of prestige before the Supreme Court would have lost his Job or otherwise been punished. I found from inquiry after the court decision that congressional attaches were stunned. They could not understand what the court was talking about. They assumed it was referring to the invalidity of laws already enacted. It seemed never to dawn upon them that Congress itself had been brought to judgment for its own omissions. The court’s attention was drawn to the fact that a “competent tribunal” in Congress now, by law. means that a quorum must be present at the time a vote is taken. This means physically present and not by proxy or by phone call. The records of any com mittee should be regularized by regulations issued by the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments. This com mittee should become the repository for reports from the respective committees and there should be a constant effort at improve ment of committee procedures. Public Law 601 still leaves much to be desired in this regard. So. please tell Mr. Lawrence that Congress set a booby trap for itself. The court sprang the ttap and in the excitement a man who ' allegedly perjured himself before a number of lawmakers insufficient to be a "competent tribunal” got away. Let's not kid about this serious blunder on the part of the cofiimittee involved and pray that other committees may profit from the experience. Chairman Wood of the Un-American Ac tivities Committee last Thursday announced that the reason he alone could not hear the facts in the case of a suspect was that “the Supreme Court says we have to have a quorum.” Mr. Wood is eminently incorrect. Congress says there must be a quorum, but only for purposes of reporting out any 1 measure or recommendation.” Representative Wood is a busy man. It is understandable, therefore, that Mr. Wood, a chairman in his own right, may not have been told that he and others in Congress voted that before decisions can be made by committees the law demands a quorum. . The court is not invading the congres sional field in this decision. It merely is telling the lawmakers that their laws had better mean what they say or the Commu nists are going to skip clear of the law. ON WITH THE SHOW. Suggests Favoritism in Choosing Teachers for Local Schools To the Editor of The 8t»r: I was interested in your editorial the other day in which you stated that there is or will be a dearth of teachers in the District and nearby area because of low salaries. I can cite you a young man who spent three years as a physical education direc tor in the Navy. Before he entered the Navy he had his A. B. degree from Transyl vania University. After being honorably discharged from the Navy he received a B. S. degree from the University of Cin cinnati. A year ago he came to Washing ton and placed his application to teach anywhere in any capacity as I understand it, but as yet he has not been called or considered. He also has placed his application at Rockville to teach anywhere in Montgom ery County and in the year past he has received no recognition. One man on the inside of affairs told him that his applica tion would not receive any consideration because of the large number in their file. A person will have to have special con nections with the leaders, if he hopes to receive a chance to teach. A. Sees Advantages for Everybody In Saturday Shopping With Mondays Closed To the Editor of The 3tar: Recently a suggestion was printed for stores to remain open on Saturday, but close on Monday all the year. I would like to sec ond this suggestion and elaborate on the advantages to all concerned. The consumer would be able to shop on the day most preferred (for reasons too well known to repeat), that is, Saturday. Store employes would have the advantage of two consecutive nonworking days enjoyed by most Government and office workers. Employes, store owners and managers who now work six days a week would be able to enjoy the universally accepted and legally sanctioned 40-hour week. Store managers would benefit by not having to use split-shifts, hire extra work ers, or pay overtime, as they must now do to fit a 40-hour employe working schedule into a 48-hour store week. There would be less dissension among employes as to who should have the desired days off, that is, Saturday or Monday. All would have Monday off from work. Little business would be lost, as Mon day is the slowest day of the week, and this loss would be more than made up by staying open on Saturdays during July and August. There would be less absenteeism on Mondays, too. JOAN F. FABER. Recalls Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Visit to the United States in 20’s To the Udltar ot The Star: During the dozen years I have been in Washington I have been a constant reader of Questions and Answers by the Haskin Service, giving credence to all facts narrated therein. I therefore was all the more sur prised to find the question, “Was Conan Doyle, the nuthor of Sherlock Holmes, ever in the Unitea States?” answered in so cur sory a manner in The Star for June 27: (He) "visited the United States in 1894.” Sir Arthur also visited the United States in the early 1920’s—the exact year can readily be corroborated by contacting Car negie Hall in New York City where he gave a series of lectures on Spiritualism. During this trip he met at Atlantic City his dear friend Houdini, and together they held sev eral seances which resulted in Sir Arthur’s faith in Spiritualism being greatly strength ened. He wrote a book covering this meet ing with Houdini. I met Sir Arthur personally at his New York hotel, where I at the time was employed and was asked to assist him In the typing of some of his manuscript. A few days later Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. an interesting incident occurred. Photographers had taken Sir Arthur to the rodf of the hotel to get some photographs . of hifti. The pictures were snapped, the oarty started to leave the roof, when Sir Arthur stopped, looked all about, and finally asked, "Where is my hat?” A search ensued but there was no hat. The party went down to his suite of rtioms and the search con tinued, still there was not hat. Then Sir Arthur noticed the grins on the faces of his boy and girl, who were hardly in their teens, and he "caught on.” One frown from him, and both children dived under his bed, from whence they unearthed the missing hat. MISS M. B. LISSNER. Protective Tariffs Blamed For Lowered Standards of Living To thf Sditor ot The Star: The Idea of any country employing pro tective tariffs in international trade cer tainly seems to be detrimental to labor, in dustry and the country itself. Labor, of course, is very much in favor of such tariffs as a means of protecting it self from cheap labor. Industry on t^e other hand desires them for the purpose of pro tecting itself, thus enabling it to retain its higher profits. They are both short-sighted attitudes, even though perfectly understand able from their individual view points. Nev ertheless, from vantage points outside the realm of industry and labor, it becomes ob vious that the whole concept of tariffs is either poorly understood or purposely maintained for selfish personal reasons. It is strange to see our industry advocate such tariffs, since believers in free-enter prise advocate competition as the best means to reach perfection and a high standard of living. Why are they so inconsistent in this case? Here they cry for protection against competition and unwittingly or otherwise ask the people of our Nation to give them the special privilege of producing goods at higher cost than that for which they could be obtained elsewhere. Why should the people consider it? To do so is to depress our own living standards. It only benefits industry by permitting it to main tain high prices and high profits. Labor, of course, being at least as obtuse or as personally selfish as industry, sees only the threat of competing with cheaper labor from other countries. It feels that by com peting with the Chinese laborer, for ex ample, It will be forced to his level of ex istence: Neither view is correct. For every dollar saved by buying from foreign competition, our own living standard must be increased by exactly that amount. It can be no other way. Jt is an outright gift to us as a whole. True, the laborer who is displaced, and the industry that# must either curtail or cease operations Is hurt—but only tempo rarily. Both parties should be absorbed by our economy Into more productive capaci ties. for it is obvious that their operations had been expensive and inefficient since they could not produce as cheaply as someone else. This should be the opportunity in a dynamic economy to use their efforts in an other direction, which .should result in bene fit to i$s all. Even assuming thfere was no enterprise left in which to enter, in other words suppose a static economy existed, result would still be to increase our living standard, for It would be necessary only to reshuffle the existing jobs among the dis placed laborers and thus achieve shorter working hours for the same wages. There Is no sense In working purely for work’s soke! Further, In view of President Truman’s Point Four, this would benefit the country and people from whom we would be buying. They would have found a market, receive payment In money or goods and their own living standards would be enhanced. That Is the only way, or certainly the best way, that such countries could be aided—by per mitting everyone in the world to do what he can do best and cheapest. To do other wise is like a business that makes gold from lead—the resulting gold having do^ $100 an ounce to produce as against a maximum value of natural gold at $35 an ounce. It makes no more sense than that. Let us open the entire world to free trade if we believe in free-enterprise—well all benefit in the long run. WM. H. REYNOLDS. Displaced Arabs Prompt Criticism of Aid to Jews To th« Xditor of The Star: About 900.000 displaced and destitute Arabs are living in the valley of the Jordan because the Jews will not permit them to return to their homes from which they were forced to flee by the recent warfare in Palestine. In fact, under the slim pretext of slum clearance, the Jews have destroyed many of these homes. Meanwhile, 250,000 Jews are waiting in various countries of Europe to emigrate to Palestine and take over the remaining homes, land and busi nesses of the displaced Arabs. The Jew's claim that there is not enough room in Palestine for both themselves and the .Arabs; therefore, that they must ex clude the latter who have lived there for centuries. Yet these same people two years ago insisted that there was plenty of room in Palestine for both of these groups, if only the British would get out and let them live together in peace. Well, the British did get out and now we see the result. The Jews were aided and abetted in this invasion of a peaceful sovereign nation by this great country of ours which supposedly is based on the principles of equality, free dom and justice. However. It was such an obvious violation of international law that we were instrumental in preventing the problem from getting to the World Court as we knew that in justice the decision would have to favor the Arabs. JOHN O. NESTOR, M.D. Officer Kyle Is Commended For Help in Time of Need To the Xditor of The Star: As our citizens have a right to publicize their complaints against individual police officers, which right has been taken advan tage of by some, I think it also a duty to publicize, as well, courtesies rendered by individuals of the Police Department. I, therefore, wish to bring to your at tention a generous act of courtesy rendered me by Officer Kyle of the Traffic Force. My brakes began to burn at a point on New York Avenue NH„ at least five blocks from the nearest telephone. Passing motorists only looked at the smoke coming from un der my car and drove on. However, Officer Kyle was kind enough to stop and determine my trouble, whereupon he drove to No. 12 precinct and called my. Chrysler dealer regarding my plight. He a]so called my wife, who was expecting me any moment for dinner and handled this latter call in such a way as not to upset her. In fact, when I finally reached home she was surprised to learn that the call had come from a policeman. Officer Kyle then returned to where I had parked my car and assured me that the service man was on his way. You can appreciate my peace of mind, knowing I had a friend helping me, allowing me to stay with my car parked on a fast highway. Officer Kyle has my everlasting gratitude for the courtesy rendered me. J. GEORGE GATELY. Liechtenstein Restricts Taxes to 5% of Income All National and Village Levies Covered Under Rigid Policy By Thomas R. Henry VADUZ, Liechtenstein.—One walks into an elsewhere vanished Europe by crossing the drawbridge—symbolically guarded by a can non of the wars of Maria Theresa—into the twelfth-century castle of the reigning prince of this last remnant of the Holy Roman Empire. Liechtenstein is a 100-square-mile prin cipality in the Austrian Alps which is like a fairy-tale kingdom of the Middle Ages— yet the town milkman in Vaduz has just built an airfield for his private plane and the state is building a million-dollar hydro electric plant. It was the 80th birthday of a tall, erect, military-looking gentleman—as fine an ex ample as could be found of old-world cour tesy—whom his descendants, gathered from all over Europe in his honor, call affection ately ‘ the old prince.” Dines with Royal Family. In the courtyard a chestnut-haired young woman in a smart brown tweed suit and an elderly lady are stripping the blossoms off linden boughs. The young woman in troduces herself—the reigning Princess Georgians of Liechtenstein. The elderly lady is the Prince's aunt. Princess Maria Anunciata, niece of the late Emperor Frana Josef of Austria-Hungary. I had come to Vaduz opportunely on a national holiday, the feast of Corpus Christi, and quite unexpectedly found myself at din ner w'ith this one still ruling line of the Hapsburg dynasty in this ancient castle. It was a typical family gathering. They try their best to talk English. World travelers, none of them has yet been in the United States. Heads of a state, they naturally are interested in prices and taxes and are a little shocked at the amount every American must turn over to the Government. In Liechtenstein, explains Prince Fran* Joseph, the, present ruler, they have a rigid policy that no citizen shall pay more than $ per cent of his tyotal income in taxes—in come taxes, real estate taxes, all state and, village taxes combined. The income tax is, thus adjusted. That is, if some local im-r provement is under way which requires heavy village taxes, one pays no income tax at all. Regrets Taxation. Prince Franz Joseph regrets the necessity of any kind of taxation. Liechtenstein had none whatsoever until the end the World War I, but unavoidably the/ rate has been creeping up a little ever since. Prices unfortunately are high. They seem to average Just a little under those in the United States, but some of the rumors that have come here are a little exaggerated. The princess is relieved to know—on my au thority, which is not very good on such sub jects—that a medium class woolen dress off the shelves of a department store in the United States costs a minimum of $200 is not true. She is also interested in cold remedies. That is why she was stripping blossoms off linden boughs. They have an old family recipe for linden tea. Dinner over. Prince Heinrich, younger brother of the ruler, got out one of the three family cars and took me for a five-hour tour covering the length and breadth of this lit tle state near the headwaters of the Rhine. We visited nearly every one of its villages, festively draped with the red and blue flags of the principality and the red and gold flags of the Liechtenstein family. The people were on holiday. In nearly every village a uni formed band was playing. The mountain sides were musical with the tinkle of cow bells. One got the feeling of a day in Shangri-la, where folks are living under about the most ideal conditions to be found in the world. F^pds Nothing Lacking. I had hoped to say that this was a land with no taxes, which would be just short of the truth. Yet with probably the absolute minimum of taxes to be found anywhere in the civilized world it is hard to see where the codntry lacks anything. The roads are good. Public improvements are underway everywhere. Telephone and mail services are excellent. The reasons for this happy state of af fairs may be somewhat complicated if one goes far under the surface, but specifically they are clear enough. The country has no army. Eight policemen are sufficient to keep the peace among its 20,000 people. It has no foreign service, except for one lega tion in Switzerland. The Liechtenstein fam ily derives no Income from the little “king dom,” relying for- its income on private in vestments. Stamp collectors pay an enor mous revenue to the state. If philately should lose popularity, Liechtenstein would be in a hard way. Also this is the Delaware of Europe with exceptionally easy laws for international corporations. A parent holding company here may operate plants in about every country this side of the Iron Curtain, Perhaps most important of all, however, is the extremely local nature of the govern ment. Each village owns its communal for ests. its communal mouniain pastures. In addition, each peasant owns his o.wn farm. Questions and Answers A reader c*n get the answer to any question of * fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 316 I street N.E.. Washington 2. D. C. Please Inclose 3 cents for return postage. ~ ——— By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. What Is the greatest age at which a woman has given birth to a child?—E. J. M. A. It is impossible to say defliftely since records are not complete and many are unreliable. What is believed to be the oldest maternity case on scientific record is that of a Scottish woman who, in 1882, bore her twenty-second child at the age of 62. Un substantiated cases of women in the 90s and 100s have been reported. * • Q. Are any States due to vote on a vet erans’ bonus in the November elections?— M. R. R. A. The States of New Jersey and Penn sylvania will vote on bonuses in November. West Virginia will consider one in 1950. Q. Can a pursuit plane of the type used on the U. S. S. Randolph (CV 15) during World War n take oil from the flight deck under its own power without use of catapult or rocket while the carrier is not in motion? —J. C. A. The National Military Establishment says that a pursuit plane of the type used on the U. S. S. Randolph during the war, can take off under its own power whilft the car rier is not in motion, depending upon the loading. The carrier does not have to be in motion, but it is highly desirable since it permits much shorter runs made into the wind. Q. Is there any privately owned land in the Panama Canal Zone?—M. F. D. A. No land in the Canal Zone is privately owned. The zone is in effect a Government owned reservation. Q. What is the best way to keep flower vases fresh and clean?—D. A. A. Flower vases should be rinsed after use in a chlorrine bleach solution which acts both as a cleaner and deodorant. f ' ..... . »Q. Why is it important that eggs for the market be clean?—C. McC. A. Dirty eggs spoil more rapidly than do clean ones. Cleanliness affects both keep ing quality and price.