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Johnson Seen Taking
Narrow View of U. S. Defense Problem Military Personalities Held Not Involved in Navy Big Carrier Fight By David Lawrence Secretary of Defense Johnson ■eems to think the main reason for disputes between the armed services is that the officers do not know each other well enough. He ■uggests that the heads of the services go away on vacations to gether and relax and talk things over. He gives his views in an article in the current issue ol "The American Magazine.” But this is an oversimplification Actually there aren't any person alities involved at all. It is simplj a case in which naval officers whc have spent their whole careers In peace and war. familiarizing themselves with what can be done with ships In combat do not be lieve that Army officers who have similarly spent their careers study ing the 'use of infantry or tanki or artillery in combat could pos sibly be expert in other branches of the armed services. Mr. Johnson for the first time explains publicly the reasoning h< used recently in cancelling con struction of the carrier "United States.” He writes: “The justification for so large a carrier was, among other things that it would provide a floating base for bombing remote targets However, highest military plan ners had previously agreed thal long-range strategic bombing was the proper function of our land based Air Torce planes. Mans people felt that to permit the Navy to engage in a duplicate effort was an expensive luxury After obtaining and reviewing the recommendations of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and after discuss ing the matter with the President, I ordered construction on the carrier halted. I took the step in the national interest, not on the ground of service politics." . Joint Chiefs Split. The Joint Chiefs did not agree —they split on the subject. Also the foregoing words are at vari ance with the case justifying the carrier which the Navy had pre pared for Secretary Johnson's reading but never was permitted to present. The Navy, moreover always has agreed that long-range strategic bombing is the proper function of land-based Air Force planes. This was spelled out specifically in the Key West and Newport agree ments which were adopted by the unanimous action of the heads of the three armed services. What Secretary Johnson omitted to point out was that the Navy’s pririlary function is control of the seas, and it is entitled to what ever weapons it thinks necessary in order to assure that control. One of the weapons it found use ful in the Pacific was the aircraft carrier, which permitted it to launch airplanes from distances anywhere from 300 to 500 miles away from land and to elude land-based airplanes by moving the carrier base from place to place, protecting it with cruisers, destroyers and battleships. Unless the Navy is permitted to have effective weapons to control the seas, it cannot do its job of attacking submarine pens or as sisting in the landing of troops. The Navy wanted the larger aircraft carrier because the smaller carriers which had proved them selves in the Pacific are not big enough to handle the heavier planes that have become necessary in order to assure effective con trol of the seas. If the land-based planes of ar enemy can go out to sea and at tack the American Navy, it ii logical to develop carrier avia tion which can meet on ever terms the attacks of those land based planes. Today the Navy’i carriers can stand offshore only 300 to 500 miles and send theii planes to attack submarine pen: and to protect the landing ol troops. J,500-Mile Reach. - With a larger carrier, the Navy would have been able to stand - off shore approximately 1,500 miles, aiding in the concealment of the location of the carriers once they have launched their planes. This would make it even more difficult for land-based planes of the enemy to attack the carriers successfully. The purpose of the heavier planes on the decks of the car riers, however, is not merely to get a longer range. It is to be able U> carry a larger bomb load at shorter ranges and to increase fighting effectiveness even at short range. To say that the United States Navy cannot have the weapon it needs to control the seas, just because that same weapon might possibly arouse the jealousies of the United States Air Force, is to allow service politics to dominate the needs of the United States in national defense. To deprive the United States Navy of the proper-sized carrier and planes for use in carrier avia tion to keep control of the seas, Just because it might develop a weapon that could be used in long-range bombing, too, in an emergency when the United States might need ail the long-range bombing it could possibly get, is to take a narrow view of the de fense problem. 'Reproduction Riihts Reserved.) PENS REPAIRED while you wait A uthtritti Sheaf!er—Parker * Evert harp—Waterman D. J. HUGHES PEN Co. SM 14th St. N.W. OviMltt witter* ■•tel This Changing World Soviet Takes Full Credit for-Defeat Of Nazis, Ignoring Efforts of Allies By Contvntine Brown , The U. 8. 8. R. Information Bulletin for June 24, 1949—pub lished in Washington by the So viet Embassy—contains, in addi tion to the usual denun ciations of the Western peoples for whom it is edited, a bom bastic recount ing of the Nazi defeat in Rus sia. The article, written by Aca demiclan E. Tarle, is head lined "Fascist Assault Was Beaten Back by B">w» Aroused Soviet People." and as its title indicates claims complete and unadulterated credit for the Russians in the defeat of Nazi | Germany. Repetitious Tribute. Introducing his subject with the charge that "the Western Powers in the prewar period indicated that they were prepared for a deal with the Fascist aggressor at the expense of other nations, and pri marily at the expense of the Soviel Union,” Academician Tarle con tinues. in phraseSTieavily weighted with the glorious significance oi Russia’s achievements, to pav wordy and repetitious tribute tc the Soviet armed forces. The Soviet nation—"the beacon illuminating to the oppressed and exploited peoples the road to free jdom and independence"—fought ■entirely unaided in the first stage of the war against the Germans ; and their Italian allies, Tarle boasts, ignoring the fact that Brit ain was bearing her own burden and that behind Britain stood American power already com mitted to the fight against nazism “The German army,” Tarle con ! tinues. "encountered in the fields of battle an army equipped with the advanced Stalin military science * * * an army with tre mendous possibilities for the rapid | accumulation of forces and tech nical equipment in the course of the war." This without any ref erence to the fact that the tech nical equipment which the Soviet was capable of accumulating came from the United States. Further, the Soviet army, “not only blocked the way to the Hit lerite army but also dealt it a de feat unprecedented in the history of war and put an end to the predatory Fascist regime. Through its heroic struggle the Soviet Union saved world civilization from the Hitlerite cut-throat.s.” This is the supreme claim to single-handed victory over the enemy, without paying the slight est deference to the decisive part played in the struggle not only by the American Army, which pro vided the principal mass of man power for the invasion of the con tinent. but also by the British, the French and the exiled fighters of many Nazi-conquered nations. Leaves Sour Taste. That the Russian armies fought a glorious fight, bringing on them selves lasting glory, and that this fight was in large measure re sponsible for the defeat of the Axis is unquestioned. What leaves a sour taste in people's mouths is the exclusive nature of the Soviet boasts, the all-inclusive scope of its claims. There is no desire to deny Russia all the glory she de serves for her share in the vic tory. but why should there be a desire in the Russians to com pletely ignore the Western Allies’ contribution to the common bat tle? Prime Minister Stalin's screams could be heard from here to the moon whenever the United States, because of the severe losses on the Murmansk convoy route, suggested a diversion of war equipment to other fronts or tried to moderate the heavy toll which Nazi planes and submarines were taking of our shipping. At one point in 1942 losses on the Arctic route to Rus sia ran to about 65 per cent. The fact that the Russians brazenly spread among American readers—through such publica tions as the Information Bulletin —propaganda which is sp patently false and distorted speaks, poorly for the Russian understanding of public information in this country. We can't escape a feeling of bitterness over the Russian in gratitude for our share in what she contends is her victory. On the Other Hand When Does Atomic Commission Find Time to Do Any Managing? By Lowell Mellett So now the "prosecution'’ rests jin the case of Hickenlooper vs. iLilienthal and the “defense" takes I the stand. Only it isn’t quite like i that, for this isn't a criminal l trial. The de fendant isn’t charged with any crime, imerely with "incredible mis m a n agement." And you can't send a man to jail for that. I You can only | demand that he resign and al low somebody Mell'tt. else, more satis factory to the prosecution, to be appointed in his place. At least, that was the situation at the out set of the trial. Now, it seems, you would have to have the resig nations of all the members of the Atomic Energy Commission as participants in a conspiracy of mismanagement, since one of the facts established this far in tfie trial is that the things charged against the Chairman by Senator Hickenlooper are things for which the whole Commission takes re ! sponsibility. Has Lost The Crowds. It is not quite correct, either, to say the defense will take the . stand. It has been on the stand | nearly every day since these bi zarre Senatorial proceedings be gan. Prosecutor Hickenlooper, having few witnesses of his own, has had to rely on his ability to wring embarrassing admissions from the accused. Not to prejudge the case, it seems safe to say that not many such admissions have been obtained. It may be that the Senator will be able to do better when he cross-examines the de fense on its own case. He will have to do so if he hopes to hold any further public attention. Already he has lost the crowds, the cameras, the klieg lights and most of his colleagues. The crowds quit coming when the promised sensations were not de livered. bitto the picture-takers. And, strangely enough, ditto most of the other Senators on the joint committee. Occasionally tourists wander in—and wander out again on learning that a caucus room i isn’t what they thought it was. The declared purpose of the commission now is to give the in vestigating committee a positive picture—as far as security permits —of what has been accomplished i with the billions invested in CPIANOS3 i ito REMIT J New Lew Summer Rates S phono REpublic <212 If you buy in the fall, all money paid as rental and delivery charge will be deducted from purchase price. Your choice of spinets and consoles of excellent mokes. KITT’S 1330 G Street N.W. < atomic energy. This, the Commis sioners believe, will provide an adequate answer to their critics. It is a long story: may take three weeks in the telling, allowing for careful cross-examination. Which brings up a point that has been bothering me for a long time. And that is: How is this commission, charged with incred ible mismanagement, expected to do any managing at all if the members and their staffs are re quired to spend so much of their time defending or explaining their management? Hearings Since May 5. The present hearings began on May 5 and have continued with few interruptions since. Some of the interruptions, incidentally, have been due to hearings held during the same period by House and Senate committees on the Commission’s annual appropri ation, calling for the presence of the same witness®. In other words most of the Commission's time in the past eight weeks has been devoted to hearings on The Hill. All of the Commissioners have sat through virtually all of these sessions. And of the time left to them, they have had to spend much of it preparing for the hearings. The same has been true of many im portant members of their organi zation, including key men brought here from Hanford, Wash., Los Alamos. N. M., Oak Ridge, Tenn.. and Chicago. (There were the days, for example, that the Oak Ridge superintendent and his as sistants sat around waiting to ex plain the concrete slabs under the garbage cans.i It is now forgotten, but only last fall, the same Senator kept the Commission similarly occu pied for four weeks with his con cern over some personnel problems at Los Alamos. It doesn’t seem to be the best method of promoting credible management. LOUIE —By Harry Hanan 1 On the Record Sforza Seeks to Harmonise All Sources Of Friction in Western Europe By Dorothy Thompson TRIESTE (By Airmail, De layed).—The present Italian gov ernment is solidly in the Western front. It is characteristic of the Italians that however they may turn in a war, their nat ural instinct is for balance as between pow ers. The For eign Minister, Count Carlo Sforza, has pushed for a customs union with France and certainly will go as far toward full Eu- Der#thr ropean confederation as any Eu ropean statesman. Count Sforza, therefore, wants to harmonize all possible sources of friction between Italy. France and Great Britain. He is a states man who knows that a lesser good must be sacrificed for a greater one. He is also that rare nego tiator. who is able to put himself in the other man's shoes, and know just how much the other can afford to give. Fights for African Fiiiar. Therefore, though he has fought, and will continue to fight, that Italy shall retain a pillar in Africa. He knows that Italy, dependent on the Marshall Plan, cannot ask for the return of more territory than she can finance and develop. He is quite aware that Britain, whore relations with the Negus of Abyssinia are excellent, needs to win some concessions for him to strengthen him against the extremists in his own en tourage—young Abyssinian in tellectuals afire with nationalism. Sforza approaches the whole matter of the Italian African col onies by trying to think not only like an Italian, but like a Briton and a Frenchman. Regarding Britain, he knows that a strong position in Africa is absolutely es sential to her: that nobody is going to have a good time there except if they are on good terms with the British. In harmony with his concepts of successful diplomacy, Sforza therefore approached a settlement of the colonial question by direct contact with the British Foreign Office. What he got certainly did not satisfy Italian nationalists who. like all nationalists, do not want to give up an inch of any thing. But it satisfied the much larger goal of consolidating Euro pean relationship and approach ing a common policy in the East ern Mediterranean. He was pre pared to defend his policy against the right-wingers <and Commu nists* and, with the support of the government, he hoped to set tle this potential source of fric tion between European interests once and tor all. Absurd Situations. Throwing the matter into the Assembly of the United Nations gummed up the picture. Italy is not in the United Nations, be cause the Russian veto won’t ad REBUILT BY MODERN HOOVER OR ELECTROLUX Complete With Attachments SEE them DEMONSTRATED IN YOUR OWN HOME AT YOUR . CONVENIENCE W..TV phone vo. FREE NOME DEMONSTRATION! 3219 M St. N.W. (Georgetown) AD. 4473 !___a_ ~ ft mit her. We. therefore, have the absurd situation that a member of the Atlantic defense pact, a bene ficiary of ERP, an important Mediterranean power, and a friendly state with whom all allies, including Russia, have normally concluded a peace treaty, cannot defend her own cause and cast her own vote in the body that can determine her affairs. So her in telligent, conciliatory and effective diplomacy was canceled out— however temporarily—on the as sembly floor. The Arab states, whose opposi tion proved utterly ineffective in the case of Israel, were able to block the European-African ar rangement by winning the support of Latin-Americans, who have no direct interest in Africa, but who do have an interest in getting Arab support in return for interests of their own. The designers of the United Nations never foresaw the kind of trading of votes which can i frustrate reasonable and peace able agreements. The modern world has little re spect for diplomacy. But consid ering the state it is in, one won ders whether the new system of everybody mixing in everybody else’s affairs—in full hearing of the whole world—represents prog ress or retrogression. And what is needed above all is to get settlements—not keep on forever postponing them in a supercharged atmosphere. (Released by the Bell Byndleete. Jne.) Me Le more— Spends a Dollar, Peers Into Future By Henry McLemore I am nineteen years old. I am going to live to be eighty-three years old. I am going to spend my vacation this summer in North Carolina. I have an uncle who is going to leave me $63. 240.28. This comes directly from a tent. A palm ist’s tent. The palmist s name is Prin cess Carlo. For $1.00 she will read your hand, and for $1.50 she will read your wrist, and •,eB" »<*'*“"•• if you happen to have $3.00 on you she will give you an astrologi cal understanding of your elbow. When the Army released me from a tent, I swore I’d never go back in one but I went back in one today. Just Wait a Minute. When I walked into the lent Princess Carlo was reading a pulp magazine called “Famous Western Stories.” T asked her if she'd read my palm. She said, “If you'll wait just a minute till I turn to page 74 and find out what happened to Two Gun Bill, I will.” She turned to page 74 and read what happened to Two-Gun Bill. “Princess,” I said, “from which royal family do you stem?” "Huh?” she said. By that simple remark I knew I was in the presence of a Bour bon. She held my hand and told me the things that I’ve written above. Then I asked her if I might look at her hand. She said yes. By looking at her thumb line I found out that the Princess was from Davenport. Iowa, long known for its royal blood. “Princess,” I asked, “how did you find out that you could look at a person's hand and tell his destiny?” “Huh?" When Are You Leaving? Having said “huh” two times in a row I decided that the Princess was a Hapsburg. I asked her if she were a Hapsburg and she said, “When are you leaving for North Carolina?” If this column makes no sense to you until now it will be because there is no possible chance to make any possible sense out of a palmist. Reading palms may not be the biggest racket in the world, but I'm willing to bet you that it will be a photo-finish with the racket that wins. Mind you. here’s a fat old lady from Daven port, Iowa, reading Western stories taking a dollar from me, and tell ing me my future, my past and my present. If she knew what she was talking about she wouldn't be working in a tent. She'd be surrounded by marble, she’d bei wearing Christian Dior's clothes, and she wouldn't be interested in my dollar. This column can only serve one purpose. If this column will help to eliminate palmists, then it ha» not been written in vain. (Distributed by MeNaurht Syndicate. 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