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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 18, 1949, Image 11

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•ft
Steel Board Findings
May Have Wide Effect
On Labor Relations
Acceptable Report Could
Raise Question of Need
For Injunctions
By David Lawrence
An important precedent that
ean have far-reaching effects on
the labor-management problem
in America could result from the
operations of the fact-finding
board appointed by President
Truman to inquire into the dis
pute in the steel industry between
the CIO unions and the steel
companies.
Reluctance to accept the plan
was based wholly on the lack of
faith on the part of the steel
companies in the previous be
havior of fact-finding boards
which merely played the part of
political auxiliaries to the admin
istration.
If this fact-finding commission
really examines the issues im
partially and comes up with a set
tlement acceptable to both sides,
such progress will have been made
as to raise in Congress a question
concerning the need for the
much-discussed injunctions.
The steel companies said they
would not have objected at all to
a board of inquiry as such but
they did not wish to see the pro
posed board make “recommenda
tions.” On its face this wks a
difficult position for the employers
to justify because most people
would say that any board which
made an exhaustive study of the
facts should at least express opin
ions. The steel companies, how
ever. did not fear a mere ex
pression of opinions but wanted
to make it clear that they had not
bound themselves in advance to
accept any or all conclusions of
the board.
Neither Side Bound.
The delay and exchanges of
telegrams served to underline that
neither the unions nor the steel
companies were bound legally or
morally to accept the ‘'recommen
dations” of the fact - finding
board.
With the air cleared on thjs
point, the problem faced by the
board — which has 60 days in
which to study and report on the
dispute — is one that will be
watched from one end of the
country to the other by unions as
well as employers.
First of all. the board is not
studying merely the wage situa
tion in the steel industry alone
but whether any substantial in
crease—called a “fourth round”—
will set off a spiral of inflationary
increases everywhere else, thus
making impossible a reduction in
prices so much desired by the
countt-y.
Second, the question of what
the steel industry can afford
based on 1948 profits or even the
first half of 1949 is not related at
all to what the industry can af
ford if steel demand in the next
year or so is to be drastically cur
tailed. Many plants already are
operating way below capacity aft
er a period in which they have
been working nearly 100 per cent.
The President's board of three
members consists of two who are
known to be strongly sympathetic
with New Deal ideas. The general
belief in Washington is that the
CIO steelworkers union knew in
advance about the personnel of
the board and the whole strategy
and hence backed it immediately.!
Board Must Be Fair.
But the President's board can
not afford to make a partisan or
one-sided report. If there is to
be public confidence in fact-find
ing boards that make “recom
mendations,” then a set of con
clusions must be found which will
appeal to both sides and actually
avert a strike. Otherwise, at the
end of 60 days little will have
been accomplished except to de
lay the strike by 60 days.
It certainly ought to be pos
sible to settle the steel dispute
without a strike but that might
as well be said of the collective
bargaining process itself. Unfor
tunately, however, collective bar
gaining alone leads to situations
that make it difficult for one side
or the other to recede. Hence a
fact-finding board with publicly
made “recommendations” some
times acts as a face-saver for one
side or the other and sometimes
it makes a report not wholly
satisfactory to either side but pre
ferable as a last resort to a costly
strike. The “fact-finding” board
idea is on trial and conceivably
could set a precedent of construc
tive accomplishment which would
have a lasting effect on the meth
ods of settling labor disputes in
major industries.
(Reproduction Rijhts Reserved)
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This Changing World
Czech Red Manifesto Clear Indication
Of Cpmmunism’s War Against Church
By Constantine Brown
Communism's motives and
methods ia its relentless and in
tensified rar against the church
are nowhere made clearer than in
the Czech
Red manifesto
which fell into
the h a n i s of
Western repre
sent a tives in
Prague last j
week.
It is the task
of the Com
munist Party,
the manifesto
said, to divide
the Catholics in
order to "Iqui
date” the—
church ques- C«n»t»ntlne Brown,
tion. Furthermore, it is necessary,
it went on, to build a wall between
the Czech bishops and archibishops
on the on* hand and the Czech
people on the other.
The manifesto attributes to the
Czech prelates a greater fear of
the Vatican than of the Czech au
thorities, and recognizes that the
peasantry Is the backbone of
Catholicism As long as the peas
antry remains Catholic, the party
declaration continues, it will be
impossible to carry out the col
lectivization of agriculture, which
is the heart of the campaign to
convert the satellite states to full
fledged Comnunist states.
Here, then is a curiously frank
exposition ol what the Commu
nist! aim to do in Czechoslovakia
and how they intend to go about
it. The immediate goal which they
set for themselves is to break the
Czech peasant t* the Communist
labor wheel. And the further pur
pose of collectivizing agriculture
is, we have ample reason to be
lieve, to prepare Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and
Poland for integrition into an en
larged Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, which will include not
16 republics—as at present—but
22 or 24, equally subordinate and
under Moscow’s direct rule.
The Communist war against
the ohurch—and particularly the
Catholic Church—is concerned
not so much with a desire to ex
tirpate religious feelings from the
satellite peoples—although Com
munism is essentially atheistic
and anti-religious—but more with
the inability of the Communist
order to establish itself firmly
wherever ti finds resistance to its
campaign of collectivization of
agriculture and communization of
industrial wealth, and especially
wherever it runs up against an
organization, such as the Catholic
Church, which stands for the
preservation of individual free
dom and personal property rights.
Strategy Cited.
To regard the church-state is
sue in Communist countries as
essentially a quarrel over whether
religion is to exist is to ignore the
place where the religious issue fits
into the broader scheme of Com
munist strategy, which is inte
grated throughout its entire
scope.
The broad problem of the Com
munists in taking over new coun
tries is to reorganize completely
the people’s way of life. This has
many facets, of which religion is
but one. But the church, standing
on its religious tenets, demands a
voice also in every phase of hu
man life. And its voice is raised
in the preservation of the way of
life which the Communists are
bent on destroying.
The voice of the church in this
conflict is the voice of all, the
Christian churches, not simply
the Catholic Church, and the
broadest minds in both the Cath
olic and Protestant worlds recog
nize this fact. That is why Arch
bishop Josef Beran is a symbol
not only of Catholic resistance to
the encroachments of Commu
nism but of the whole Christian
world's resistance.
Reds Will Use Church.
Although communism remains
essentially atheistic, it is not so
idealistic on the matter that it is
above using the church for its
own purposes. It says, in effect,
that religion is no good, that it
enslaves the human mind and
trammels it with superstitions
and beliefs in the supernatural.
However, the Communist reason
ing goes, let those who are foolish
enough to believe in religion prac
tice it. but that practice must
serve the broad ends of the Com
munist state and stand for noth
ing which opposes the ends of
communism.
Churches no doubt will remain
within the Communist sphere, for
religion can be made to serve
temporal puyposes, but they will
be state-controlled churches and
their leaders will have no other
function than as Communist offi
cials. They no longer will be serv
ants of God, but will be servants
of Stalin.
On the outcome of the church
state struggle—not only in Czech
oslovakia but in all other satellite
states—hinges one large phase of
the fate of Western civilization, j
'Sleeper’ in ECA Bill
German Gartelists and U. S. Allies
Worm Their Way Under Senate Tent
By Thomas L. Stokes
The German cartelists, now
represented here personally, and
their American big business allies,
finally Wave wormed their way
under the tent
in the United
States Senate.
Through
a "rider’* at
tached to the
pending ECA
a p p r opriation
bill by the Sen
ate Appropria
tions Commit
tee. they hope
to exploit the
Economic Co
operation Ad
m i n i s t r ation
that adminis- i» ®‘®k*®
ters the Marshall Plan to preserve
and restore the great industrial
and financial monopolies in Ger
many which were so useful to
the Nazi war machine. Their
specious grounds are European re
covery, saving the American tax
payer, and protecting German
workers.
This “sleeper" in the ECA bill
provides that "the list of Limited
and Prohibitive Industries sched
uled for destruction in, or removal
from, Germany shall be reviewed
and the Administrator of the Eco
nomic Co-operation Administra
tion stall seek to obtain the reten
tion in Germany of such plants
on this list as would best serve
European recovery if left in Ger
many.”
159 Plants Due to be Razed.
There are now 159 plants which,
under a downward revision of the
original Potsdam Reparations
Agreement list at the recent Paris
conference of foreign ministers,
are on the list to be destroyed or
dismantled and removed to na
tions participating in reparations.
The object of the rider is to com
pel Paul Hoffmah, ECA Adminis
trator, to retain in Germany
plants which this government has
pledged, along with its allies, to
destroy because of their potential
for war by a revived Germany, all
in keeping with our war aim to
break up the cartel system that
fastened itself on Europe and
helped to promote the Second
World War.
Both Mr. Hoffman and Secre
tary of State Acheson are very
much embarrassed by this little
conspiracy. It would endanger the
whole European recovery venture
a$ it would antagonize our West-!
ern European allies. Their strug-;
gle to reviw and survive econ- j
omically would be seriously im
peded by a new German indus
trial giant that would flood Eu
rope with goods in competition
with them, not to mention their
fear of a revived military Ger-;
many which again might pounce
on them as in the First and Sec
ond World Wars.
The eventual aim of this con
spiracy, which is really an old
conspiracy that ramifies into
much of the European economy,
is to restore the old cartel system.
Immediately the objective is to
retain steel plants on the “limited
list” that were to be removed and
to save plants on the prohibitive
list that were to be destroyed be
cause of their direct war poten
tial.
Intriguing Story,
How this “rider” got into the
appropriation bill is an intriguing
story.
It brings in V. L. S. Loesch,
managing director of the peutsche
Edelstahl steel combine in Ger
many, who came to Washington
on his mission for the steel inter
ests. He interested Senator Ma
lone. Republican, of Nevada, who
arranged conferences for the Ger
man visitor with Undersecretary
of State James E. Webb, Mr. Hoff
man, and William C. Foster, ECA
Deputy Administrator. Senator
Malone enlisted Senator McCar
ran, Democrat, of Nevada, who
got the rider in the appropriation
bill.
Mr. Hoffman and his aides now
are working feverishly to have it
defeated in the Senate, where the
bill is expected to be taken up
late this week.
Any further modification of the
plant destruction and removal
program would be resented par
ticularly by the British, who
agreed only very reluctantly at the
recent Paris conference to the
downward revision of plants to be
included.
All of the plants involved in the
current episode are in western
Germany and none are assigned
to Russia. Only three nations in
the Russian orbit — Cezchoslo
vakia, Yugoslavia and Albania—
would receive any plants in repa
rations, and their share is negli
gible.
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LOUIE
—By Harry Honan1
th.'iin
b» inr rMr/Mrcmrr,—
Truman Secret Is Out
Key Policy Makers in Congress Study
Britain’s Plea for Atomic Bomb Data
By Doris Fleeson
The secret President Truman
told reporters they weren’t going
to know is out: Great Britain has
asked for information that will
enable it to
make atomic
bombs. The
question has
now been put to
key policy mak
ers from Con
gress, the mili
tary and the
State Depart
ment whether
we are to share
with Britain
our atomic
knowhow, or as
an alternative,
our stockpile of Dor,‘ rir*50n
bombs.
The President is described as on
top of the atomic discussions
which took place at Blair House
Thursday night. He had taken j
time to do his homework well;
he had also been thoroughly!
briefed on possible objections that
might be raised, what the alterna
tives are and how the problem
ties into implementation of the
Atlantic pact.
Perhaps this explains why the
President appeared calm and
smiling as he ushered out his
guests while they wore black and
dismayed looks. He had faced up
to the problem and attained a
settled mind; they, like most
Americans prefer not to think
about the awful question raised:
by our exclusive possession of
the final atomic secret. Members
of Congress of course realized too
how the new issue might be-devil
the Atlantic Pact debate.
Mr. Truman is prepared to con
tinue close co-operation with the
British as in wartime when the two
nations; as Winston'Churchill'has
revealed, pooled their knowledge.
Roosevelt and Churchill decided
then to make the bomb in the
United States which had the re
quired physical equipment and
money and also was not being
bombed itself.
Truman Supported.
Gen. Eisenhower, second only
to Gen. Marshall in military pres
tige though his role at the Penta
gon now is largely advisory, sec
onded the President at the con
ference. Presumably, Secretaries
Acheson and Johnson did also. On
the basis of their public records
of internationalism and their con
victions that secrecy is not secu
rity, AEC Chairman Lilienthal
and Senator McMahon, Chair
man of the Joint Atomic Commit
tee, should go along. Probably
most Democrats will.
But Senator Hickenlooper, rank
ing Republican on the Joint Com
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mittee, who has charged the AEC
with “incredible mismanagement”
promptly objected. Last year Sen
ator Hickenlooper was the Joint
Committee Chairman and it is
now reported that last year the
Whit$ House rebuffed a similar
British suggestion after only ten
tative probing on the hill.
Here again it is probable that
the administration must lean
again on the Republican sponsor
of bi-partisanship in foreign pol
icy. Senator Vandenberg. In any
pronounced difference of opinion.
Senator Vandenberg can carry
along with him enou'gh Senators
to win almost any day. It is un
derstood. incidentally, that Sena
tor Vandenberg, who had himself
criticized Mr. Lilienthal for errors
in AEC management, feels that
Senator Hickenlooper took in too
much territory in his charges and
has not proved them.
Talks to Continue.
The State Department will con
tinue talks with the British. But
it is generally agreed that no
President, no matter how strong,
can in peacetime conduct by him
self negotiations about such a na
tional asset as atomic energy.
The situation illustrates again
the frightful difficulty of running
such a secret enterprise as atomic
energy, whose like has never be
fore been known in a democracy.
One hard fact stands out in dis
cussion's of the British requests:
The larger part of the uranium
supplies used in atomic produc
tion comes from Canada and Bel
gium, both Atlantic Pact signa
tories, one of them a British Do
minion. In atomic raw materials,
we do not stand alone.
McLemore—
Offers Some Data
On Columnists
By Henry McLemore
From James R. Seymour, Uni
versity of Arkansas senior, comes
a letter asking fo- --— —
how to become
umnist.
For Mr. Sey
mour’s infor
mation his is
the 11,545th
such request
that I have had
since I gave up
making cerise
lined armadillo
sewing baskets
for the slightly
more lucrative
task of writing
for the news
papers. If that
many people
have sought advice from me, the
total number of people who have
asked all the columnists must run
into a staggering figure, indeed.
This leads me to believe that
most folks consider writing a col
umn to be the easiest job in the
world, with the possible exception
of that of nightwatchman at the
reptile section of a zoo.
Honesty is not my watchword,
but I am going to show a change
of pace today and be exception
ally honest with Mr. Seymour. I
wish him to know, with no ifs.
ands and buts about it, that I
don't like giving out information
on how to become a columnist—
for the simple reason that every
time a new columnist shoots
across the printed page it makes
the competition just that much
tougher.
Who knows but that young Sey
mour, given the secret, might not
turn into a ball of fire and come
to New York and get my job? Mr
Seymour might like that, but it
would surely make a sucker out of
me.
Revenge Impossible.
Where would that leave me, with
Seymour in my job?
I couldn't very well gain revenge
by catching a train for Fayette
ville and taking Seymour's job as
a senior—for many reasons.
In the first place. I don't know
enough to be a senior. My head
used to be crammed to the gun
wales with what you mixed with
hydrogen to make hydrogen pe
roxide, the names of Henry the
VUIth's wives, the purpose of the
Missouri Compromise, Martin Van
Buren's mother's maiden name,
and the principal rivers and
mountains of the 48 states. But
no more.
In the second place. I am too
old to start learning all the Ar
kansas football yells, or to try to
dance around a bonfire in celebra
tion of a basketball victory, or to
sit on the library steps at twilight
and pour sweet nothings into the
ear of a Tri Delt or Chi Omega.
I am going to answer only on©
of Mr. Seymour's questions, and
this is the question:
What do you consider the main
purpose of your column?
Answers Question.
Mr. Seymour, man was so con
structed that he has to eat to stay
alive, and the law says he must
1 be clothed when he goes out in
public. The main purpose of my
j column is to make a living. Each.
! little word of it is written, not
| for posterity, but for such things
as beans, bread, steak, chops,
'sauerkraut, plovers’ eggs, corned
beef hash, salt, pepper, allspice,
and butter.
j Of course, Mr. Seymour, I would
! like to write something before I
pass on to my reward (which I
I trust will be a place where type
writers are not allowed) that
would live through the ages, but
right now I can’t worry too much
about that. As long as it brings
in food, and an occasional suit,
hat, and pair of shoes, I’ll be satis
fied.
Okay, Mr. Seymour?
If not, try Mr. Lippmann or
Miss Thompson. Maybe they have
reached the point where com
petition doesn't frighten them. But
that doesn’t go for me.
(Distributed by McNaught Syndicate, Inc.)
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