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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, August 15, 1949, Image 16

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045462/1949-08-15/ed-1/seq-16/

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Progress Is Keynote
4 Years After Japan's
Surrender Decision
|y th« Associated Press
TOKYO. Aug. 15.—The fourth
anniversary of Japan's decision to
surrender to the Allies passed to
day without any direct reminders
of their military collapse in World
War II. The Japanese were told
instead how much progress they
have made since the war.
The only official statement by
an occupation official came from
W. J. Sebald, acting United States
political adviser to Japan. He ad
vised the Japanese to read again
Gen. MacArthur's Constitution
Day message of last May 3.
In that message Gen. MacArthur
said his purpose was to continue
to advance the transition of the
occupation "from the stern rigid
ity of a military operation to the
friendly guidance of a protective
force."
This will be carried out, the Al
lied commander said, as rapidly as
the Japanese people are able to
“assumeathe attending autonomous
responsibility.”
Newspaper editorials reported on
Japan's postwar progress, taking a
general view that the Japanese
have followed well the Allies’ con
ditions.
Among Japanese politicians, only
Kosen Hirokawa, Democratic Lib
eral Party secretary, used the oc
casion to issue a statement. He
said the greatest obstacle to a
peace treaty for Japan is the Com
munist Party’s plan for a violent
revolution. *
The Japanese government has
indicated it plans to shift observ
ance of the day to September 2,
the date the surrender was signed.
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Social Security Bill
To Cover 42,CI J,C‘ 3
Nears Completion
By th» Associated Press
The House Ways and Means
Committee is putting finishing
touches on legislation intended to
insure about 42.000,000 of Amer
ica's working people against want
in their old age.
. Moreover, the legislation—if it
becomes law—would
1. Increase by about 70 per cent
the benefits being received by
2,500,000 persons now retired, or
by their survivors if they have
died. Increase by an average of
80 per cent the benefits of insured
persons yet to retire, or to their
survivors if they die.
2. Liberalize by about $160,000,
000 the Federal participation with
1 the States in granting public as
sistance, or home relief, to needy
persons not covered by the insur
ance program. The Federal Gov
ernment now is contributing about
$1,100,000,000 a year for this pur
pose.
i>ew category proposed.
3. Create a new category—the
totally and permanently disabled
persons—for protection under both
the insurance and public assist
ance divisions of the Social Se
curity program.
(In the insurance program
the workers and their employ
ers pay for what the workers
get. Public assistance is direct
relief based on need.)
4. Increase the payroll taxes
that support the insurance pro
gram. The committee's new sched
ule calls for an increase from
the present 1 per cent each on
employes’ pay and employers’ pay
rolls, to 1 % per cent on each next
January 1, to 2 per cent each on
January, 1951: 2'2 per cent in
1960; 3 per cent in 1965, and 3l/4
per cent on each in 1970.
This is the most important'
Social Security law revision ap
proved by the committee since
11939 when Congress brought “sur
ivivors” of the insured into th*
| program, along with providing
benefits for the insured persons
in their old age.
The program goes a’ long way
toward what President Truman
has asked Congress to do.
Final Action Seen Delayed |
However, there is little chance
that the legislation will be ap
proved finally this year. The House
may act upon it. A legislative
jam in the Senate probably will
cause that body to delay action
until 1950.
The Ways and Means Commit
tee's bill would add 11,000,000
working persons to the insurance
program that now covers 35,000,
000. President Truman had asked
that 20,000,000 additional workers
be covered.
Largest uncovered groups that
would be'brought into the pro
gram are the self-employed (ex
cept some professional groups),
domestic servants gnd employes of
State and local governments (if
these local governments approve).
The biggest groups that still
would remain outside the insur
ance are about 5,000,000 farm
operators and about 3,000,000 farm
hands. .
Malaya Seeks to Curb
Exports of Animals
ly th« Associated Pr«« ‘
SINGAPORE. — The Malayan
Vegetarian Society seeks to save
this land's wild animal life by
controlling exports. The society
said it had been told that a large
number of monkeys exported from
Malaya died on ships carrying
them. Also, the group said, the
one-horned rhinoceros is now
practically extinct because of
hunting and exports.
The society adopted a resolution
asking the Singapore and Malaya
Federation governments to inquire
into the import and exports of
wild animals and to consider de
sirability of imposing stricter con
trol, if not a total ban on the
trade, because of the mortality
rate among exported animals.
» _
20,000 Indian Refugees
Removed From Burma
■y th« Associated Press
NEW DELHI n.—The govern
ment of India annqunced that up
to mid-July 20,000 Indians had
been evacuated from the troubled
areas of Burma: Eight thousand
of these, it said, were destitute.
The government has appropri
ated $120,000 for their repatria
tion. In Burma, before the troubles
began, there were about 700,000
Indians of whom about 200,000
are reported to be in Karen-held
areas.
i
District Air Guardsmen Trained
To Make 'Kill' in 3 Seconds
First Lt. John E. Kester, 27, of 1912 Irving street N.E.
(bottomi, is shown checking machine-gun ammunition as it is
fed Into the guns on his F-47 Thunderbolt fighter plane by
Sergt,. Robert Busey, 23, of 4941 Forty-sixth street N.W., who is
on the wing. —Star Staff Photo.
By Horry Lever
Star Staff Correspondtnf.
NEW CASTLE, Del., Aug. 15.—
How to kill b fast-flying enemy
pilot In three seconds flat is the
major training objective of 600
District Air National Guardsmen
engaged today in maneuvers at
this airbase.
This period represents the time
in which fighter pilots can shoot
machine-gun bullets with ac
curacy at the quarry before he
zooms out of range, according to
First Lt. John E. Kester, 27. of
1912 Irving street N.E., gunnery
officer of the 121st “White House”
Squadron “and a fighter pilot.
He pointed out that the entire
15-day annual training program
of the local Guardsmen is planned
to give each fighter pilot the
greatest opportunity to make the;
most of those three seconds
through advance preparation.!
knowledge and the acquired abil
ity to re-act instinctively.
And since preparation and
knowledge are contingent on con
tinuing aid of other groups within
the organization, Lt. Kester ex
plained that the final effort is ap- j
preciably abetted by units in
volved in training, transport,
maintenance, mess, administra
tion and in other supporting cate-1
gories.
m training, tor example, the
pilot originally has to learn, and
then continue to add to his knowl
edge, of the stripping and care
of guns and gunsights. This
stands him m good stead when
that three-second period starts.
Almost instinctively because of
this kind of training, he auto
matically “trims" his ship, figures
the “tightness” of his turns, notes,
his airspeed, checks his aim, esti-!
mates his range and figures the
speed and size of his target and
the angle of its approach.
This is all done so rapidly, he
even has time to pull the release
on his Browning .50-canber ma
chine guns for that burst of 240
shells which the eight guns on his
Thunderbolt F-47 fighter will spew
forth. Provided, of course, that
he has "co-ordinated” and has
been spurred on by the fact the
enemy has received the same kind
of rigid training.
Jf anything goes wrong with the
ingrained processes its just too
bad, in the opinion of Second Lt.
W. B. Brownell. 27, of 1716 Holly
place N.W., a fighter pilot.
“If you can’t shoot those guns
when you’re up in the air, you’re
not only good but even a liability,”
he commented. “And don’t forget,
those guns are Washington's only
arm of immediate aerial defense.”
The Air Guardsmen’s Thunder
bolts are especially “hot ships,”
particularly in the attack, and this
brtmght up another point the pi
lots have to know about.
“They’ve got to watch the
weight in this plane,” declared
First Lt. Harold B. Coffee, 26. a
fighter pilot of 3932 North Fourth
street, Arlington. “It weighs 7 Vi
tons, a lot for a single-seater. Its
mostly armor and the balance has
got to be exact.”
In an organization as complex
as the Air Guard, practically
nothing could operate if it wasn't
for the men in administration.
They handle the personnel rec
ords, the flying records, the pay
rolls and the vouchers for parts,
petty cash and similar items.
Lt. Harold Horowitz. 28, of 4116
Fifty-first street. Bladensburg,
Md., is in administration and has
a word for it.
“We have a job. all right," he
commented. “We keep the men
organized.”
The accomplishments of the
District Air National Guard in pre
cision flying, gunnery and in gen
eral missions during the training
period have brought favorable
comment from the commanders.
“We're going to have the best
unit in the United States,’’ prom
ised Lt. Col. Willard W. Millikan,
of 3346 Martha Custis drive, Alex
andria, commanding officer of the
121st. He received a nod of ap
proval from Ool. Iaidler B. Mack
all of 4434 Garfield street N.W.,
who is commanding the whole
District Guard operation.
Servicemen, Families
To Take Cruise Tonight
Servicemen and their families;
have been invited on a "family;
cruise" aboard the S. S. Beat
Mountain. which leaves the Sev
enth street wharves at 8 o'clock
tonight.
Another moonlight cruise, for
colored servicemen, aboard the
S. S. Robert E. Lee, also is sched
uled for 8 o'clock tonight by the
Unification Society, a group of
representatives df District civic,
business, fraternal and other
groups. i
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Coal Hearings Indicate
Lewis 'Monopoly' on
Output, RobsrlsonSays
|y the Assoeioted Press
Senator Robertson, Democrat, of
| Virginia, citing testimony in the j
! coal hearing, said it indicates that
i John L. Lewis’ union "has a mo
i nopoly" controlling production
which will lead to higher consumer
prices.
Witnesses heard so far. he said
in a preliminary report yesterday.1
i generally agreed laws are needed
| “to curb the powers of monop
olistic unions."
Coal operators and other busi
ness representatives have been
heard by the Senate Banking Com
Imittee studying the coal industry
and Mr. Lewis’ United Mine Work
ers. Mr. Lewis has said he would
send a representative to the hear
ings if such an appearance is
1 called for.
Hits 3-Day Work W'eek.
Senator Robertson, who is pre
: siding, said hearings will continue
two more weeks on the inQuiry into
l “economic power of labor organ!-;
zations and possible adverse effects1
of their power on consumers and
small business.”
He denounced the three-day
work week set up by Mr. Lewis in
the soft coal industry.
A union spokesman said yester
day the three-day week, put into
effect during negotiations with
operators for a new contract, will
continue.
Contract negotiations between
the union and the Northern and
Western operators are in recess
until August 23. So are those in-1
volving the H. C. Frick Coal Co.,
which produces coal for the ex
clusive use of United States Steel
furnaces. Negotiations with the
Southern Coal Producers Associa
tion are in recess.
Miners Told to Stay on Job.
The UMW spokesman's state
ment that the three-day week
would continue set at rest some
speculation that all work might
stop today.
The UMW contend that their
old contract with the soft coal
operators expired June 30. Op
erators argue that under the Taft
Hartley Act it remained effective
until yesterday. 60 days after the
union gave notice of its intention
to negotiate for a new contract, j
Costs Reported Raised. . !
This raised the question of
whether the union miners, who in
former years had a “no contract,
no work" policy, would continue to
work three days a week—or any
other number of days—after ex
piration of the 60-day notice
period.
Senator Robertson said witness
es have testified that the three
day w'eek has raised mining costs
40 to 75 cents a ton, caused miners
to lose wages at an annual rate of
$100,000,000, reduced railway
earnings from coal hauling at an
annual rate of $500,000,000, and
cut business in mining towns from
13 to 85 per cent.
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