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A—10_ FRIDAY, August 19, 1949
Agreement on Recreation
A memorandum agreement between the
Interior Department’s Park Service and
the District Recreation Board, approved
by the board yesterday, is about seven
years late in coming to pass. It will be
some time before all its terms are made
effective. But it marks, on paper at
least, the beginning of what should be a
new deal in local recreation.
Congress intended that the Recreation
Board, created in 1942, should plan for
and control all local recreation. Under
the board, more progress has been made
in development of local recreation than
ever before. But the Interior Depart
ment’s Park Service has not been a willing
partner in the undertaking. It has held
on to certain of its properties, such as
the golf courses, the swimming pools and
other facilities in the parks, preferring to
deal with its own concessionaires. All of
these, except the swimming pools, are now
covered in the agreement with the Recrea
The importance of such an agreement
is illustrated by a curious development in
connection with plans for the sesquicen
tennial. The Park Service has agreed to
make land available for the sesquicen
tennial buildings at the foot of East
Capitol street. The surprising thing about
that agreement is that it was made with
out the Recreation Board’s knowledge.
Common courtesy, if nothing else, would
have demanded that the Recreation Board
For the area in question, although
under Park Service jurisdiction, has been
developed by the Recreation Board for
softball, baseball and soccer fields. As
many as 150 teams have been using the
area this past summer. The reclaimed
land involved was developed, with Lanham
Act funds, largely as the result of the
loss of play areas in West Potomac Park,
taken over by the Government’s perma
nently “temporary” wartime buildings. Its
loss is no small thing. Alternatives might
have been suggested had the matter been
discussed w’ith the Recreation Board in
advance. Failure of the Park Service even
to notify the Recreation Board is only
too indicative of its lack of any real con
cern for local recreation. This demon
strates the advantages of a local board
devoted exclusively to protecting what
we have in recreation and looking for
every opportunity to expand it.
World Conservation Conference
One of the most constructive and hopeful
aspects of the United Nations is the work
being done by a group of subsidiary
organizations dealing with relatively non
political and non-controversial matters
of common interest to all mankind, such
as health, food, and the development and
conservation of natural resources. The
latter field is the subject of the Scientific
Conference which has just convened at
the U. N. center at Lake Success, New York.
Here, a distinguished assemblage of scien
tists and technicians representing forty
four member nations of the U. N. are
meeting to discuss and study a variety of
problems in this field, the aim being'to
elaborate a program of international
action on a global tfcale.
The urgent need for such action and the
possibilities for effective endeavor were
alike stressed by the addresses delivered
at the opening session of the conference.
Present and contingent dangers were
pointed out by Fairfield Osborn, president
of the Conservation Foundation, who
sketched a dark picture of “our plundered
planet,” with its vanishing forests, eroded
soils, failing water supply and irreplace
able mineral resources within sight of
exhaustion. All this depletion, facilitated
by modem scientific techniques, co-exists
with an “explosive upsurge” of human
Increase that has doubled the world’s
population in the past century and may
result in over 3,000,000,000 inhabitants on
an already overcrowded globe by the year
2000 A.D. Such a situation, unless remedied
by applied scientific knowledge, would
render illusory all hope of world-wide
peace and stability.
However, it was precisely those remedial
possibilities that were emphasized by other
speakers, notably by Secretary of the In
terior Julius A. Krug and U. N. Secretary
General Trygve Lie. Secretary Krug
promised the help of the United States
in conservation and development measures,
especially in backward countries, along the
line indicated by President Trurmfn in his
celebrated “Point 4” proposal, and went
on with the optimistic statement that
“there is not the slightest question in my
mind that scientists and engineers can
find and develop food, fuels and materials
to meet the demands of the world’s In
creasing population with a greatly im
proved standard of living.” In similar
vein, Trygve Lie told the delegates: “If
we could really put science and technology
to fuller use in peace as we did in war,
I believe that no one could predict the
world population which our resources could
support, or the rise in>he average stand
ard of living that would* be possible.”
Such are the two facets of a problem
which no informed person can doubt is
basic to our time and still more to the
future of the human race. It will be
Interesting to discover what this confer
ence of qualified specialists will determine
during the course of their deliberations.
The House Gambles
In voting to cut some $580,000,000 from
the European arms program, the House is
gambling with the security of the Western
world. It is a gamble which promises little
gain as against the risk that is taken.
The President had asked for $1,160,990,
000 to begin the rearmament of Western
Europe, the undertaking to be spread over
a two-year period. The House has chopped
that in half, at the same time providing
the curtailed funds should be used over
a one-year period.
On the surface, this may appear to be
innocuous, since an additional appropria
tion could be made a year from now
which, in effect, would supply the same
total fund over a two-year period. The
trouble with this is that it prevents any
long-range scheduling of the arms pro
gram, for there can be no certainty as to
what the House may do a year from now.
As Speaker Rayburn said, the mood of
yesterday was reminiscent of the pre
Pearl Harbor days. There are those who
can remember that day in 1941 when, with
our friends in Europe staggering under the
Nazi onslaught and with the disaster of
Pearl Harbor but a few weeks off, the
House failed by only one vote in an effort
to scrap the selective service system. The
argument then was: We are not in danger,
so let us wait and see what happens.
Yesterday the same argument ran through
the debate: Let’s wait and see what
This is an attitude which flies in the
face of the best advice which could be
brought to bear on the question. Our
military and diplomatic ofi^cials have been
unanimous in urging the importance of
adopting the full program as quickly as
possible. General Marshall, who is beyond
suspicion of partisan interest, firmly in
dorses that view. But the House would
have none of it. With the Republicans
voting almost solidly in its favor, the
cut was made and a sensible proposal to
make up the deleted half in a provision
for contract authorizations, which would
have permitted long-range plans to be
made, was trampled in the stampede.
One especially fallacious argument has
been advanced in. behalf of the fund cut.
It is said that there is no evidence that
Russia is preparing to attack Western
Europe, and, therefore, no reason why we
should not move slowly in the rearmament
effort. The obvious trouble with this argu
ment is that if Russia were preparing to
attack, it would be foolish to attempt to
rearm the West. For nothing contem
plated in this program could stop the
Russians. If they were preparing to march,
we would simply be throwing away our
arms and money by investing them in
the defense of Western Europe.
The immediate hope in this program is
that, taken with the Atlantic pact, it will
serve is a deterrent to Russia. Perhaps
it would not be an effective deterrent.
But as we w^ter it down, as we show a
disposition to waver and hesitate, its
effcptiveness as a deterrent force certainly
will' be diminished. This is the gamble
that the House is taking, and with little
real prospect of any gain. It is a foolish
risk, and it is to be hoped that every
effort will be made in the Senate to win
acceptance of the two-year plan, on the
basis, at least, of half cash and half in
Much of the criticism of the old Wash
ington Community Chest and Council of
Social Agencies came from the business
men’s associations, particularly in South
east, Northeast and Southwest Washington.
The criticism became one of the forces,
behind reorganization and development of
the present United Community Services.
It is gratifying to note that the Federa
tion of Businessmen’s Associations has
voted now to support the coming campaign
of the Community Chest Federation. With
a single dissenting vote, the federation
has adopted a resolution that recognizes
the “forward steps” already taken by the
United Community Service's. . While put
ting the federation on record as continuing
to work for other desirable changes, the
resolution promises full co-operation in the
That is a commendable step on the part
of the Businessmen’s Federation. Success
of the Community Chest Federation drive
should be the concern of every man who
does business in Washington. The intelli
gent course to follow, in this respect, is
to make every effort toward that success
while continuing to work within the
United Community Services for such
organizational changes as may seem wise.
Living Longer t
The average lift expectancy of Ameri
cans continues on the increase. Owing to
steady improvement in the control of
diseases—particularly those of infancy and
childhood—today’s newborn in this country
can look forward to living 66.8 years, which
is almost two years better than the prewar
This gain—which,represents a total in
crease of almost 25 years over the national
average of a century ago—covers the two
sexes and all colors. When sex and color
are considered separately, according to the
Office of Vital Statistics, it is found that
the white female can hope to live 70.6
years—or more than five years longer than
the white male, whose expectancy is 65.2.
Similarly, the non-white female can look
forward to 61.9 years, as against only 57.9
for the non-white male.
Wholly apart from the marked disparity
between the whites and non-whites—which
has been gradually narrowing—the over
all average, regardless of sex or color, has
been constantly growing. The upward
trend, irforeover, is almost certain to con
tinue. New drugs, new discoveries, and
hoped-for new advances in the treatment
of degenerative diseases and the control
of such major killers as cancer promise to
keep the figure rising. Thus, it is by no
means inconceivable that Americans born
a century from now will be able to expect
better than 91 years of life, gaining 25
years over us, just as we have gained 25
over those born in 1849. indeed, according
to some scientists, it is at least theoreti
cally possible that we are moving toward
a time when the average expectancy will
be well over 100 years.
Like progress in most things, progress
in the field of longevity creates^roblems
of its own. In a few decades, there prob
ably will be considerably more than
20,000,000 Americans aged over 65, which
means that the Nation’s social security
load will steadily increase. Further, the
older people, becoming proportionately a
larger part of our over-all population, will
be a more powerful political factor than
they are now.
Our increasing longevity thus promises
to exercise a significant influence oit the
future of the Nation. Taken together with
the possibility that our population may
double to a total of 300,000,000 in the next
100 years, it is one of the most important
reasons why the era ahead seems destined
to* be a time of deep adjustment and
change, socially, politically and economi
cally. The more we multiply, in short, and
the longer we live, the more complicated
our society is likely to become.
■ ■— *
There is merit in President Truman’s
recommendation that judgment of his
military aide be .suspended until after
General Vaughan has told his story to the
Hoey Investigating Committee. Like any
one else, General Vaughan is entitled to
his day in court, and he should not be
adjudged guilty without full opportunity
to present his defense.
There is equal reason, however, to re
frain from prejudgments of innocence,
and this is a point which the President
might keep in mind.
Last week, after the Tanforan race track
disclosures, Mr. Truman rose up to defend
his aide. Nothing which had been brought
out, he said, had altered his opinion of
the general. And again this week the
President- seemed to be appearing in the
role of counsel for the defense. He com
plained that General Vaughan’s case was
being prejudiced by the disclosure of
testimony adverse to him, while the favor
able testimony, given to the committee
in closed sessions, was being kept secret.
Perhaps this is so. Members of the
investigating committee, smarting under
the implied rebuke in the President’s
remarks, have made public at least a
portion of the closed-session testimony,
and there certainly is nothing in it that
is favorable to General Vaughan. Still,
there may be more. One is tempted to
the conclusion, however, that if the de
velopment of the atomic bomb was the
best-kept secret of the war, the evidence
favorable to General Vaughan is the best
kept secret of the postwar years.
This and That
By Charles E. Trace well
The English sparrow, an eminent profes
I sional birdman once said, “does not deserve
I to be considered as a bird, but rather as a
! feathered rat.”
Which only shows how far wrong an emi
nent professional man may go.
If the common sparrow did nothing else,
It deserves our kindness because of the fact
that it directs our gaze toward our native
Nineteen sparrows come here, including the
tree sparrow, the field sparrow and the chip
Those of us who are not in any sense pro
fessional bird men, but simply like to watch
! the feathered folk, are often mixed up in our
! sparrow identifications, just as we are about
; the warblers.
We throw up our hands over the warblers,
there are so many of them. But even the
19 sparrows can cause much confusion.
* * * *
Here is the description of the tree sparrow,
for instance, in a well-known guide:
“Upper parts, gray, rusty and black,
streaked: underparts, gray.”
From the same work, on the chipping spar
“Upper parts, gray, rusty and black,
I streaked: underparts, gray.”
And the field sparrow:
“Upper parts, gray, rusty and black,
At this point, the average searcher after
bird wisdom is ready to throw up his hands
and call for help.
* * * *
The song sparrow, the white-crowned spar
row, and the white-throated sparrow are well
known to most suburban watchers.
The little tree sparrow is not here long,
only at migration. Breeding is done in the
In some localities the tree sparrow is called
the snow chippy, or winter chippy.
Just why the bird is called the tree spar
row is a mystery, since it is not too often seen
in trees, but mostly on the ground.
The chipping sparrow is even smaller than
the tree sparrow. Whereas the latter is 5%
inches long, the chipping sparow is only 5'/a
In some localities the chipping sparrow is
called the hair sparrow, and thereby hangs
In the old days, this bird liked to use hairs
from the mane and tail of horses in its nest,
and it still does in rural communities where
there are plenty of horses.
The hairs being stiff, ends are likely to
stick out, and in these the birds sometimes
The chipping sparrows just go on using
the material, despite its danger. That is.
the way birds do. They never seem to learn.
This is a fascinating study. At what point,
thousands of millions of years ago, did the
birds and most of the animals stop using
their brains? They look so wise. They seem
to understand us, but actually respond only
to reflexes. They have not used their brains
because there is nothing to help them use
them. That is, they have no one, as Emerson
said, to help them be better than they are.
They respond to hunger, but always in the
same old way. They can be taught a few
tricks, but actually thly never use their gray
matter. No bird can tell another, “Now, my
grandfather got caught in a loop of horse
hair, so I advise you not to use the stuff.”
Each bird, in its turn, sees the hair, and
thinks it would be nice to put it in a nest.
Again, actually it does not think—it just
* * * *
If we want to differentiate the sparrows,
we are told to look for the reddish bill and
plain breast of the field sparrow.
For the chipping sparrow, we need to see
the white stripe over each eye and the white
For the tree sparrow, let us distinguish,
if we can, the dark spot in the middle of the
Those who rather shrink from Thoreau
(and there are many such, despite his present
popularity) will find fuel for this small dis
like in the/great man's speaking of the sing
ing of the female field sparrow. “She
jingles her small change, pure silver,” he
says, “on the counter of the pastures.”
It is the male bird, of course, that does the,
singing. So much for the great Thoreau!
An investigation of the food habits of the
field sparrow in 15 States and the District of
Columbia showed 41 per cent animal and
59 per cent vegetable matter.
Letters to The Star
Differences on School Aid
Not Really a Religious Quarrel \
To the Editor ot The Star:
As one who has devoted much of his life
to the promotion of good will and under
standing among different religious groups, I
disagree with the press in its handling of
the current discussions on Federal aid to
The press commits a serious error in
treating the publia expression of opinion
on this question as a religious quarrel. Of
course, it is nothing of the kind. True, the
Roman Catholics and Protestants range
themselves on opposite sides on a public is
sue in voicing their views, along with citizens
who are nonchurchmen. Quite regrettable
has been some name-calling. But the pro
posal to allocate Federal funds in aid of
education must not be regarded as a mere
struggle between Roman Catholics and
Protestants. To call it a religious contro
versy between two religious groups reveals
a distressing confusion about what should
be clearly seen as a strictly political and
educational issue. % Such loose thinking
could lead eventually to national disaster.
The error is encouraged by the assumption
indulged by some Protestants and many
Roman Catholics that this is a Protestant
Nation. Not so. Granted that Protestants
are in the majority, that does not show this
a Protestant Nation, any more than a pre
ponderance of women proves this is a female
nation. Ours is not a church-state. It is
a political democracy. To predicate a set
tlement of Federal aid for education on a
religious basis is therefore not only erroneous
but hurtful. The Supreme Court has said
by virtue of the nature of our government
that it is not the business of government to
aid any church, any religion or all religion.
In the matter of the schools the sole ques
tion involved is where to place the respon
sibility for general education. By our Con
stitution, affirmed by the Supreme Court,
the citizens have located that responsibility
in the government’s public schools, in the
performance of the Nation’s right and obli
Letters tor publication must bear
the signature and address of the
renter, although it is permissible for
a writer known to The Star to use
a nom de plume. Please be brief.
brought here and put in positions where they
can issue tyrannical demands-regarding our
own properties; and apparently the citizens
of Washington are unable to form an orga
nized resistance to them.
We all know that even a person like Sec
retary Krug never ate with, drank with,
played golf with, or swam with a Negro unless
It was for political advantage, yet, in his
effort to be in with an organized minority,
he tells the unorganized majority of white
people in Washington that they must do so
or they will be guil.ty of discrimination. I'm
proud to plead guilty to such a charge.
Moved to Protest By
Execution of Eugene James
To the Editor of The Star:
On Friday last, the great State of Mary
land acljjeved a most signal triumph, a
masterful achievement that should re-echo
down the centuries, rivaling the most sordid
practices of the crudest periods of the Mid
dle Ages. »
The victim of this unequal contest was a
giant, half-wit, mentally sick Negro who was
sorely in need of psychiatric aid.
We shall not discuss any of the details of
the case as to the justice or injustice of the
punishment meted out to Eugene James.
But we must confess that in our judgment
it was one of the most brutal, bungling,
ghoulish, sadistic executions of all time.
The records of the past clearly prove that
capital punishment is not a deterrent to
crime; the roots are much deeper. Capital
punishment unquestionably is unscriptural,
inhuman, vindictive, contrary to every New
Testament concept of justice and mercy,
wreaked almost without exception upon the
helpless, underprivileged, poverty-stricken
segment of either race, especially those of
a minority group.
If the present mode of execution is per
mitted to Remain because of the complacent
attitude of the citizenry of this great State,
at last resort the S. P. C. A. should speak
out, entreating and beseeching the General
Assembly to outlaw now and forever that
archaic, inhuman, ungodly relic of a back
ward age, the old wooden gallows, and
grant condemned criminals at least the
humane treatment accorded to dying in
mates of the animal pound.
Rather a Conflict With Government.
Is it not preposterous, then, to say that
because the Roman Catholic Church holds
to the different conception that responsi
bility for general education is, primarily in
the church this difference thereby makes
the discussion of the question a quarrel be
tween Protestants and Roman Catholics?
It is far more factual to say the quarrel is
between the government and the Roman
The assumption of the press that the
question will be resolved by settling differ
ences of feeling, as between Cardinal Spell
man and Mrs. Roosevelt, is a grievous error.
The issues are not superficial and personal
but definitely complex and profound. Many
of us might be much interested in the
opinions of such celebrated citizens, but
nothing is settled in respect to the question
of Federal aid to education by our being
enabled to behold the pleasing spectacle of
reconciliation of a sundered friendship.
People in the United States are becoming
quite impatient with attempts to settle a
fundamental governmental question involv
ing the Constitution and the Nation’s foun
dation principle—its most distinguishing
contribution to the world's political philos
ophy and action—by throwing “sop" tax
money to a contending religious group in
order to mollify it.
The citizens, irrespective of controversy,
must critically consider any contribution
the so-called “settlement” presently effected
by Cardinal Spellman’s statement, received
so amiably by Mrs. Roosevelt. Mark well
the Cardinal’s language, “We do not think
it should be left to each State to decide for
itself whether or not to distribute Federal
funds in a discriminatory way." This plain
ly means that since 30 -States prohibit the
use of public funds for bus transportation
to parochial schools, and 44 States prohibit
.the use of public funds for the purchase of
textjbooks, he would utilize the Federal Gov
ernment to override the rights of those
States reserved to them in the Tenth Amend
ment to the Federal Constitution.
This does not help the United States Sen
ate, because whatever the unsatisfactory
features of S-246, in response to public opin
ion, it tried hard not to involve State’s
rights through imposition of control and dis
tribution of Federal school aid funds. The
House is trying too along the same lines.
The people will not stand for putting the
control of their public shools In the hands
of the Federal Government.
J. M. DAWSON.
Dissents From Mr. Lawrence’s Theory
Of Service Branch Autonomy
To the Editor ol The Star:
David Lawrence has been hammering for
some time on the theme that what the
Navy does with its appropriated funds is
strictly Navy business. Mr. Lawrence rec
ognizes that this principle of isolationism
in respect to rightful interest in the funds
available to the Navy does not automatically
receive enthusiastic approval merely because
he or the Navy adheres to it. In fact, Mr.
Lawrence be^ils the unhappy truth that
the efforts of* the Army and Air Force to
make their views felt in regard to Navy
activities has precipitated a grave issue in
the National Military Establishment. He
points a trembling finger to the horrid fact
that the super-carrier desired by the Navy
was not supported by Generals Bradley and
Vandenberg. Why, says Mr. Lawrence,
General Vandenberg has never even been
aboard a carrier! Whether the Navy offi
cials Who denounce the B-36 have ever
flown one of the big bombers, he doesn't
say. But Mr. Lawrence, while weaving
through the welter of distortion and half
truths with which he surrounds himself,
has stumbled over a solid fact: The ques
tion whether each military service has a
rightful interest in the programs of the
other two services is a fundamental issue
between Navy proponents on the one hand
and those of the Army and Air Force on
It is the contention of Army and Air
Force proponents that the question whether
the Navy uses its funds to add to an already
great fleet of cracker-box carriers for the
conduct of ineffectual hit-and-run attacks
on land targets (there is no enemy surface
fleet to attack) or spends the same money
to ensure that transports carrying troops
overseas will not be sunk by enemy sub
marines—the Army and Air Force think
this question is important to them. It
obviously is. Moreover, the intent of the
Unification Act, to mold the three military
services into an integrated team, would be
ill served by an attitude of none-of-your
busineSs among the individual services. The
American citizen and his representatives
in Congress have little tolerance for the
idea that each military service is a littfe
autonomous empire, inviolate as to con
structive criticism of its unilaterally-con
ceived programs "and plans. Every alert
citizen knows by now that the military
service for which Mr. Lawrence writes his
biased pleadings is the same service which
bitterly opposed the passage of the Unifica
tion Act and has continued to oppose its
implementation at every forward step. His
current plea for service autonomy in the
use of funds is more of the same unrecon
It is a plain fact that there is np poten
tial enemy surface fleet to challenge our
Navy—our Navy being twice as powerful as
all the other navies of the world combined.
Accordingly, the Navy seeks to use its funds
to develop capabilities to operate in the as
signed spheres of the Army and Air Force.
This is an uneconomical use of limited re
sources to which the Army and Air Force
soundly object. Mr. Lawrence would pre
clude inter-service discussion of such a mat
ter on the ground that it is no one’s busi
ness but the Navy's. If that is so, the
American taxpayer is doomed to go on in
definitely paying for two ground forces
(the Army and the Marines), three air
forces (the Navy Air Force, the Marine Air
Force, and the United States Air Force)
and for a huge surface Navy with no po
tential opponent. Meanwhile, by virtue of
Navy spending in the effort to create ca
pabilities overlapping those of the Air Force
and Army, the real job of the Navy—to
clear the sea lanes of enemy submarines_
is neglected. This situation is what Mr.
Lawrende seeks to insure. God help him
and all Americans if he succeeds.
L. L. K.
Northern Ireland Prefers
Independence Without Compromise
To the Editor ol The Star:
In the Brltish-Irish dispute. Ireland main
tains only the abovj two are involved: North
ern Ireland rejects dictation from both. The
people of Northern Ireland insist on guiding
their own destiny. FRED HAMILTON.
Rescue Squad Praised
By Grateful Mother
To the Editor of The Star: ,
I have often read in The Star about the
rescue squads and how they are always help
ing those that are really in need of help. I
would like to add my praise. Last Saturday.
August 6, my small son suddenly was taken
ill, and the doctor couldn’t be reached. The
Brentwood Rescue Squad ambulance, called
in the emergency, was at the door within
five minutes. Then they took us to the hos
pital. Now I realize the value of these won
derful men who are always ready to serve.
My very deepest thanks to them.
MRS. VINCENT H. DUBIN8KY.
Scolds Senator for Delay
Of Military Pay Bill „
To the Editor of The Star:
The tactics of two gentlemen of the Sen
ate have effectively prevented any considera
tion of the military pay bill. Both Senator
Flanders of Vermont and Senator O’Mahoney
of Wyoming can see no reason to take up the
bill at this time although they lost no time
in approving a pay bill for themselves re
cently. With 1,500,000 service people and
their dependents scanning the newspapers
daily for some signs of progress in connec
tion with the bill, it only seems fair for them
to know that the above mentioned gentle
men stand between them and their hopes of
getting out of the red. I’d like to suggest
that every serviceman and Mis family sit
down and write these gentlemen and let them
know Khat service morale is dipping more
every day, with bills rising and pay actually
falling. We know the war is over but today's
serviceman is tomorrow’s wall of flesh to hold
back the Russian hordes.
If you want a decent Army, Navy or Air
Force, pay them a decent wage and stop
playing politics with national security.
Messrs. • Flanders and O’Mahoney are the
best friends the Russians have in sabotaging
morale in the armed forces.
JOHN A. NORTON.
Objects to Criticism of Givers
Of Gifts to President and Family
To the Editor of The Star:
Something should be done about the smear
artists who go so far as to question the pro
priety of any gift any individual might, care
to make to the Chief Executive or any mem
ber of his family.
It has been traditional from the beginning
to shower the President currently in the
White House with tokens of respect, honor
and gratitude. Our Thanksgiving Day has
been one occasion for showing our apprecia
tion to God for earthly blessings and almost
invariably the President receives bne or more
turkeys on this and other occasions.
Our Constitution guarantees oitf rights to
‘‘the pursuit of happiness.” These rights
end only where the next fellow’s begin. Seem
ingly there are dead souls to whom, it never
has occured that it makes some people happy
to give gifts.
Any right-thinking person should rejoice
that our President, who has done and is doing
a good job. is becoming increasingly popular
ahd his wife is making an excellent First
Lady, as she is well loved among women for
her sincerity and genuine goodness. Under
the Constitution any who attack them with
out cause can and should be dealt with and
controlled as anti-Americans.
Politicians Regarded as Dictators
Catering to Minorities
To the Editor of The SUr:
Poor, helpless, voteless Washington! Poli
ticians, who never have been elected to a
position as high as town dog catcher, art
25 Years1 Study Needed
To Evaluate Atom Effects
Little Residual Effects Shown
On Nagasaki Survivors
By Thomas R. Henry
It will be 25 years before the full effects
of the atomic bomb blasts on the survivors
at Nagasaki and Hiroshima can be fully
On those individuals who still are living
there appear to be no serious residual effects
four years afterwards, according to the semi
annual report of the Atomic Energy Commis
sion. To date the commission’s investigators
have found no increase of any disease, in
All available medical records of the sur
! vivors. both before and after the bombings,
have been collected. These, admittedly, are
quite scanty. During the past six months
normal blood samples have been collected
from all the victims, including some who
received heavy enough doses of radiation to
lose all their hair. No significant differences
have been found, the commission doctors
Studies on Intermarriage.
Another study has dealt with intermarriage
within families which, including remote
| cousins, may run as high as 25 per cent.
I This is expected to be of considerable value
in checking on the effects of the radiation
on heredity but the next generation will have
to reach maturity before many valid con
clusions can be drawn.
About the most frightening aspect of radi
ation injury at the time of the bombings was
that of delayed deaths. Persons who at first
did not seem seriously exposed suddenly
sickened and died a few weeks later. 'It na
turally was feared that there might be a
still longer delayed action, but this worry
seems to have been set at rest by the latest
studies of individual victims.
After four years, the Commission’s in
vestigators have found, only the area of
about 100 acres immediately around the
bomb crater still emanates dangerous radi
ation at the site in the New Mexican desert
near Alamogordo where the first bomb was
dropped. Wild animals captured during
the past year year outside the fenced zone
appeared to be in good health and normal
in every way. Their bodies contained no
significant amounts of radioactive material.
Even around the crater itself grass and
weeds are starting to grow again and do
not appear greatly changed.
Range Cattle Exposed.
At the time the bomb was dropped a
number of range cattle were exposed to
radioactive dust. They were gathered up
and taken to the University of Tennessee
at Knoxville wHere they are being watched
carefully. Results to date are quite en
couraging. Of the 50 cows 43 are still
alive. Seven have died from causes which
could not be associated with the bomb.
A total of 57 calves have been born. Both
parents of 33 of them were exposed. All
the offspring appear normal and there is
no evidence of loss of fertility.
Studies of the animals are being made
every six months to detect any delayed
changes. Experiments are planned to de
termine the dangers of eating the meat of
such radiated animals
University of Michigan scientists, the
Commission announces, are now developing
a blood test, similar to one of those now
used for syphilis, which will determine
quickly the extent of radiation damage to
an individual. Some of the most notable
effects are those on the blood, due chiefly
to injury to cells or the bone marrow where
£he blfod cells are produced.
Meanwhile, major efforts are being made
to determine just how cells are injured by
various types of radiation. A valuable tool
being used at the Commission's Argonne
laboratory near Chicago is the wing of a
small bat. It is about a thousandth of an
inch thick and transparent. It is possible to
observe directly just what happens to the
blood flowing through such a wing when it
For studying the effects of radiation on
specific parts of a cell one of the most
delicate instruments known to science has
been devised. It is a beam of invisible
light about a 25,000th of an inch in di
ameter. The»average human cell is about
10 times this size.
Questions and Answers
A reader can get the answer to any Question of
fact by writing The Evening 8tar. Washington,
D. C.. Information Bureau. 316 Eye 8t. N.E.. Wash
ington 2, D. C. Please inclose three (3) cents for
By THE HASKIN SERVICE
Q. Do moles have eyes?—O. L. R.
A. All moles have eyes but they ate rudi
mentary in size and are sometimes almost
entirely covered by skin and fur.
Q. Has the presiding officer of an organi
zation the right to vote in the election of
A. The president, or chairman, of a club
has precisely the same right to vote as any
other member. If a member of the assem
bly, he is entitled to vote when the vote is
by- ballot (but not after the tellers have
commenced to count the ballots). Accord
ing to Robert’s Rules of Order, it is a general
rule that no one can vote on a question in
whieh he has a direct personal or pecuniary
interest. Yet, this does not prevent a mem
ber from voting for himself for any office
or other position, as voting for a delegate
or for a member of a committee.
Q. What is the real name of the bird
known as the ‘‘laughing jackass?”—O. F. C.
K. The kookaburra is popularly known
as the ‘‘laughing jackass” because, instead
of singing, it emits a raucous laugh. The
bird is a member of the kingfisher family
and a native of Australia. Because of its
curious cry and strange habits it is a con
stant source of wonder.
Q. Is the earth’s crust affected by the
gravitational pull of the moon?—M. McD.
A. It is believed that the crust of the
earth yields to the tide-producing force
exerted by the moon to the extent per
haps nine or 10 inches. The rise and fall
is as large as this only for places where the
moon passes directly overhead, that is, for
places in or near the Tropics. For places
in the northern United States the rise and
fall would be only half as large. The sun
produces a similar rise and fall not quite
half as large as that due to the moon.
Scene: The Palace
This sultry noon the Empress Butterfly
Floats regally among her flatterers.
Beneath the gilded arras of the sky,
They stand in little clumps. The yellow
Worn by the empress wilt Dame Mig
(Who’s old and frail) and little Princess
Phlox, ' «
Squirming 'in pantalets of pink georgette,
Twirling a parasol of hollyhock.
Sir tfockscomb, on the other hand, ap
Most heartily her majesty’s attire—
And vice versa. Gracefully she moves
Toward that velvet gentleman. A spire
Of Canterbury Bells cannot resist
Tinkling legato while the lovers kiss. . •
JOHN NIXON, Jr.
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