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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, 0. C. Published by TIi* Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. MeKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly -1.20* Monthly—90c £ p,r‘°py Weekly —30c Weekly — 20c 10c per copy *10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional tor Night Final Edition in those sections where delivery is made. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Su"doyA 1 month - 1.50 1 month - 90c 1 man h 60c 6 months- 7.50 6 months - 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year—15.00 1 year —10.00 1 year..6 00 Telephone STtrling 5000. Entered of the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Free*. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of oil the local news printed in this newspaper, os well os oil A. P. news dispatches. A_g WEDNESDAY, August 31, 1949 Food and the Year 2000 In its discussion of the problem of pop ulation and food, the United Nations Scientific Conference on the Conserva tion and Utilization of Resources has ar rived at a general agreement that en lightened action is imperative to prevent a nightmare of starvation in the not-too distant future. The reason for this is easy to understand: It can be summed up in the simple but rather startling fact that even though today's agricultural out put and distribution are inadequate for the wants of our current population of 2.000. 000.000, the number of human beings is steadily multiplying and will probably total 3,000,000,000 fifty years from now. Within fifty years, in other words, the world—which right now is failing to feed itself adequately—is likely to have an ad ditional billion mouths sitting down at its table. This means that if nothing is done in the meantime about producing \nd dis tributing food in line with the prospective population increase, vast segments of the human race will be condemned to an al most unimaginable misery of hunger. The U. N. conference, however, has made clear that such a tragedy can be readily averted. For the earth, actually and potentially, is still rich enough, still bountiful enough, to provide a good living not merely for 3.000. 000.000 inhabitants but for many more. But the earth, of itself, cannot be a good provider. To meet the needs of their growing numbers, the peoples of the world —acting as individuals, groups and na tions—will have to take concrete steps to develop productive new land, reclaim arid and semiarid areas, practice soil conserva tion, improve farming techniques, use spe cial chemical compounds to increase per acre yield, and in general modernize their agriculture wherever there is room for modernization. Such a course, wholly apart ffom the real possibility that atomic science may open the way to a virtually limitless supply of synthetic food, can take care of the problem of mounting popula tion. , As for the costs involved in either a course of action or a course of inaction, some idea of their magnitude has been i given the U. N. conference by Dr. Stephen Raushenbush of the Interior Department. Thus, if the nations of the world, instead of acting basically, merely put the under fed on relief, the bill, according to Dr. Raushenbush, would be $83,000,000,000 by the year 2000; on the other hand, if help were extended to all nations to establish good food standards, an investment equiv alent to $73,000,000,000 in agricultural pro ductivity would be needed over the next fifty years, and eventually it could be repaid. Although they are little more than “guesstimates#’ and although some experts believe that the food-and-population prob lem can be solved at a much smaller cost, the Raushenbush figures serve at least as an indication of how do-nothingism would be far more expensive—both in human and cash terms—than affirmative action. Clear ly, that is the only kind of action that makes sense, and the nations of the world, working singly and together, must take it. There is no other way to avoid unparalleled global misery in the next four or five decades. Our Vice President It must have been Just such a man as Alben Barkley that Browning had in mind when he wrote his famous lines, “Grow old along with me! The best is yet to be.” For one of the wonders of Washington is the Vice President’s joy in life, a joy which seems to increase with every passing day. A political smoothie from way back, an habitual convention keynoter, a faithful party lieutenant, he accepted the nomina tion for the post of the traditionally “for gotten man” on a supposedly sure-to-lose ticket with a pleasure which many of the unknowing found touching. Having won office after a spirited campaign that would have done justice to a youthful unknown, he promptly became one of the best-re membered men in town. Well-brushed, well-groomed, ruddy and jaunty, his clear and carrying voice falling into happy turns of phrase, he explains the Fair Deal with a clarity and figor that have made him the matinee idol of party gatherings. He pre sides over the Senate with a grace and good humor that may not have done much to oil legislative wheels but have at least lightened the tension considerably. But this political activity is but half of the Barkley story. Having run through the traditional threescore years and ten, Mr. Barkley is just now, in the twilight of his life, emerging as a personality. Among other things, he has done as much for fruit, vegetable and-regional royalty as Princess Margaret Rose has done for a more durable sort abroad. Scarcely a day goes by that newspaper readers are not treated to a picture of the “Veep,” as he is now known, enthusiastically bussing some queen for a day. He evidently learned early the political importance of kissing babies and has shown an engaging dis position to include women of all ages in this category. A kiss from Barkley has be come a sort of unofficial seal of administra tion approval. As if that were not enough, he has become a romantic figure besides. His courtship of pretty Mrs. Hadley has the whole town buzzing, and he skillfully stokes the fires of rumor with sly hints on every possible occasion. Is it any wonder, then, that congressional colleagues wish to present him with a medal, for “contribution to the general welfare,” or that this has become one of the few issues on which President and Congress are completely in harmony? Political con siderations apart, it does every one good to see a man who not only has proved that age need not wither but that life can begin anew at 71. Of him, as of Browning’s Rabbi Ben Ezra, it can be said today: “Our times are in his hand.” Payoff in Greece It looks as though the calculated risk which President Truman decided to take in Greece is beginning to pay real divi dends. And this despite a sizable number of calamity howlers. The outlook was anything but promis ing when the British, on February 24, 1947, told this Government that their own eco nomic stringencies would compel them to discontinue aid to Greece and Turkey as of March 31. The volume of British aid in Greece had been considerable, though not very effective. It was clear, however, that Greece, without aid from some source, could not last long. And it was equally clear that Western interests would be very seriously prejudiced if Greece should be come another Soviet satellite. Mr. Truman’s reaction was prompt. On February 27 he called a secret conference at the White House. And on March 12 he went before a joint session of Congress to ask that $400,000,000 be appropriated for a program of military and economic as sistance to Greece and Turkey. There was no disguising the seriousness of the move, and no attempt to disguise it. Aggressive communism had been ex panding in Eastern Europe almost without hindrance. There were those who thought it could not be stopped short of the Eng lish Channel without war. But the Presi dent and the Congress decided to make a stand in Greece. ( There were risks, of course. It might mean war. Of larger proportions was the risk of failure, for Greece in 1947 was a frail reed to lean on. She was surrounded by hostile neighbors—Yugoslavia, Bulga ria and Albania. All of them were under the'thumb of communism, and all were giving aid and comfort to the Greek guer rillas. Conditions within Greece were wretched. The people were suffering, the government was dictatorial in character and tainted with corruption, the army was demoralized and inefficient. Most certain ly, there was little there to build upon. The decision had been made, however, and the gamble was taken. Months of dis appointment followed. The war against the rebels made little headway, and there were those who charged that our inter vention actually was proving more bene ficial to the rebels than to the government forces. Some well-meaning souls denounced the President because he had linked this country with a Rightist regime. That de tracted from our own moral force, H|ey said,. Still others, meaning well but under standing little, complained bitterly that too much of our aid was going to the Greek army, too little to the Greek people. And so it went. As late as December, 1948, Ambassador Grady had to report thatmlll tary operations against the Communist backed rebels had not come up to expecta tions, and that he was only “moderately optimistic." There was no letup in our enorts, now ever, and gradually the tide turned. The morale and fighting qualities of the Greek army improved notably. A great lift came when Yugoslavia did her about-face. And there was progress on the economic fronts. Under the direction of the United States Army Engineers, the Corinth Canal, de stroyed by the Germans, was reopened; the blasted ports were put back into oper ation, more than a thousand miles of high ways have been opened to traffic, there has been important progress in railroad repair, and agriculture has been restored to a point where, in 1948, the wheat crop reached 90 per cent of the prewar average, as compared with 30 per cent at the war’s end. Last but far from least, the military news is decidedly favorable. It looks as though the fighting, except for mopping up operations, is about over. The back of the rebellion has been broken, and there is one thing that can be said without any reservation: The Communists did not get Greece. The decision was made, the stand was taken, the difficulties were overcome by patience and hard work, and the onward march of communism in that part of the world was stopped. This is a fact of recent history which should not escape the notice of those who hesitate now at doing the things that have to be done and accepting the risks that have to be taken if the battle against communism on the larger front of all Western Europe is to be carried to a suc cessful conclusion. Archaeology in Arabia Announcement of the discovery of ‘‘a fabulous ancient city” buried in the sands of Arabia already has stirred new interest in archaeological investigation of that neglected country. Wendell Phillips iden tifies the remains he has located as those of Timna, a town which the historian Pliny described as containing forty temples. During at least twenty-five centuries the ruins of what must have been a con siderable metropolis have been covered by the shifting pulverized Tock of the desert. Thus they have been preserved from a conclusive oblivion. But the task of exploring such ‘‘a treasure house” of antiquity must give all but the hardiest investigators pause. Mr. Phillips illustrates the size of the job when he says that nomads living nearby dug fifteen feet in quest of the base of an obelisk without attaining their objec tive. The sand has been piling up around Timna for so long that any attempt to clear it away necessarily would require quantities of time as well as labor. The results, however, should be worth while. Even if the shrines mentioned by Pliny are not unearthed, the excavation ought to bring to light important cul tural remains. Too little is blown of the lost civilizations of the Near East. Arabia is “a missing link” of a sorUpetween Greece and Egypt. It easily may have been a bridge to India, to China and even to pre Columbian America. Work already under way in Turkey, Iraq and Palestine sug gests the possibilities in the territory of the sultan of Muscat and Oman. Through his realm in remote ages moved a traffic comparable with that of modem Mediter ranean trade. Conditions of climate certainly have been friendly to the “treasure house’’ to which Mr. Phillips refers. Even articles of wood survive a long while in the dry sand. Perhaps the excavation of Timna, if means can be obtained for it, may mean a fascinating new chapter in the grad ually expanding story of how ideas have migrated from one quarter of the globe to another. Allan Davis Perhaps the explanation of the success of Allan Davis’ life might be found in the fact that in his youth he chose a vo cation which brought him enduring happiness. No other man loved the work of teaching more than he did. He was a natural educator. His interests were basically social. He developed a philoso phy, if not actually a religion, of cultural democracy from which thousands of stu dents benefited. How much a pioneer he was is evident when it is remembered that when Business High School was established in 1890 and he was appointed its principal such institutions were considered merely, experimental. There were many persons who did not agree that a merchant ought to be able to write intelligibly or figure beyond simple arithmetic or know anything about the larger aspects of production and distribution. Mr. Davis bad to prove tne merit oi ms faith in commercial classes as distinct from those which were strictly academic. The task demanded of him a tireless devo tion. But he rose to his opportunities with an ardent spirit, a contagious en thusiasm. His pupils were his friends, and he delighted in his contacts with them, both as a pedagogue and as a fellow citizen. The number of his civic affilia tions was legion. Whatever helped the community enlisted his co-operation. His wife, their sons and their daughter com prised a dynasty of “aiders and abettors” of all manner of good causes. The same observation applied to many of his grad uates with whom he kept in touch long after they had gone out into the world to test in practice the value of his guidance and example Gradually, Mr. Davis earned a national reputation in his profession. He headed the business division of the National Edu cation Association and was active in other schoolmasters’ organizations. But it was to Washington that his best efforts always were pledged. The city engaged his heart in his youih, and he delighted to serve it. Thus his name will endure in the annals of the Capital as that of one who was useful to his neighbors, and this is a re ward which he certainly would prefer to all others. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell One is not very likely to run into the black widow spider, but no doubt it is best to be on the watch for it. The bite is worse than that of a cobra, it is said. The fact that there are better remedies for it now than when it created a furor a few years ago should permit no one in a garden to become careless. In the old days, persons bitten were put in a tub of hot water, where they gasped for breath and life. Now, the bite is handled better, but it still is no iun. After all. any one should have a healthy respect for all spiders. And the black widow is a meanie, worse than most, and all the more so because she is not so large. Somehow, many persons feel that the larger a spider, the worse it may be, whereas often enough the big ones are perfectly harmless except to the nerves. The black widow is about the size of a 10-cent piece. It is covered with a black fuzz, and has red markings on the under side. The legs are rather long, 2 inches, which frighten many people, but it is not the legs one need be afraid of. The creature is called the “black widow” because she eats her mate. Both spiders bite, but the female is the dangerous one. They are far more likely to be found in the South, but specimens have been dis covered in all the States, and even in Canada. Experts tell us that there are certain lurking places where they are most likely to be discovered. These are dark places under tree stumps and under logs and rocks, in the outdoors; in chests, ice boxes, basements and garages, indoors. This spider spins a web, and in it places her egg sac. This is white or buff-colored, and is filled with almost 1,000 little spiders! And, what is worse, the old lady lurks nearby to guard it. And guard it she will, if you try to inter fere with her during the incubation period of about 40 days. Nature cannot be hurried. She requires 40 days and nights to bring forth the perfect little spiders, each one with a neat and poisonous bite of its own. These egg cases are made and guarded from spring to fall. , No one should attempt to open one, be cause the maturity of the inner spiders will be unknown, and it would be no fun to have 1,000 of them run at you, to say nothing of having the mamma spider race toward you on those long legs of hers. If a determined person still desires to monkey with the egg sac of a black widow spider, he should wear gloves, remove the sac carefully, and then crush it suddenly, or, better, turn it in a hot blaze. He will be doing a service to his country by so doing. The mother spider often plays possum. She has been known to remain motionless for hours, oply to leap up and bite when least expected. Water from a hose sometimes will cause her to play dead, so this method of rid dance cannot be depended upon. If bitten, the thing to do is to apply tinc ture 6f iodine at once, and then get in a hot bath, while some one else is putting in a call for the doctor. But the best thing to do is not to get bitten, by this or any other spider. This will mean, in most cases, just a little ele mentary caution when in the woods, or fields, or prying in dark places indoors or out. And a healthy caution about strange things—such as spiders, for instance. A healthy respect for them and their ways and their place in nature. Just what this place is, in respect to the black widow, is undetermined. Most persons will think extermination for it and the mosquito and the rat Is the best solution, and they will be right. Letters to The Star Northers Reader Would Refute Criticism of the South To the Editor ot The Star: The intemperate reference to the Dixie - crat "traitors” by Howard Horwill in The Star of August 25 calls for some forthright cortiment to refute his argument—and why not by a Northern-born and educated man who grew up to know scores of Union pen sioners, many of whom never worked a day and some of whom had had their war records "corrected” by legislation in order to live a life of ease? Most of the last 50 years I have lived in the South and Southwest. I found I had to be re-educated. I learned that secession (while not desirable) was constitutional and that New England was first to consider such a step in the War of 1812. Also that there was a strong movement in New York which, with several other States, had reserved the right to secede when the Constitution orig inally was adopted, and the “Sons of Liber ty,” encouraged by their mayor, attempted to secede in 1864. That is now a dead issue, having been settled by the great Civil War. Was it "baneful” for the Dixiecrats to enter an "unholy” alliance with the Repub licans to prevent a rubber stamp Congress approving the packing of the Supreme Court in 1935, even though the objective was ac complished later, so that now the general public has no respect for either the Court or the Presidency. Americans do not want a "people s court,” iron curtain pattern. The attack upon Senator * Fulbright was most unfair. He, together with Senators Hoey, Byrd and a galaxy of others are among the most erudite in Congress; and no man can honestly question the integrity of their acts which transcend party dicta torship. If it is true that the Southerners formed a group of “willful men” in opposing the District home rule bill, what about the group of equally willful men who attempted to force the said bill down our throats after a similar bill had been rejected in a refer endum? Why is it that the do-gooders always go away from home to experiment? The South has been successful in dealing with its own racial problems. Moses instituted segrega tion and Ezra enforced it. It guarantees Negroes their own places of congregation as Henry Wallace and Glen Taylor found out to their discomfiture. And why is it there is no Negro postmaster in Minneapolis nor Boston, plus a lot of other places where “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” continues to be re quired reading? The civil rights cry of our opponents is a sham though it does prove to be good vote-winning bait from the gullible. Let’s quit talking about the Dixiecrats betraying the Democratic Party. It wds the misnamed liberals that moved in with labor autocrats in an unholy alliance that stole the party of Jefferson, bag and bag gage. From 1900 to 1932, as a mere private citizen or newspaper editor, I consistently supported the Democratic ticket with one exception and confess with sorrow my aid in smearing that great man, Herbert Hoov er. But with the advent of the Blue Eagle and kindred socialistic ideas, I have re pented. Splinter parties are undesirable and even dangerous as France proves. How ever, the conservatism of the Dixiecrats lnust live, either as a single party or as part of a coalition. Fruits of War Still a Problem. Mr. Horwill speaks of the South as com prising backward areas and plainly shows himself prejudiced and uninformed. There may not be as many backward areas in the North, but they exist. There are blighted areas in the South for which the North is entirely responsible. Mr. Horwill’a reference to Gresham's Law is pedantic. If it is applicable, it will show the Intrinsic value of such Southerners ,as previously named who refuse to be led by party ex pediency, placing patriotism above all things. Following the War Between the States; the South was devastated. Practically the entire white population was disfranchised and the newly freed men given the fran chise. Carpetbaggers from the North moved in and manipulated the controls which levied crushing taxes on the land, to a large extent lying fallow as it did when Henry Wallace made his experiment in New Deal days—and he had never seen a cotton plant. Legislatures issued bonds and carpetbag gers pocketed the money. This is the dis passionate account by some old men who served in the legislature at Raleigh with ignorant ex-slaves lolling in chairs with their bare feet on their desks. (See Leslie’s and _Harper’s weeklies of that period). These were the bonds Europeans bought and vainly tried to collect. Arson, pillage and terrorism became general and gave rise to hooded night riders who had no other recourse in their disfranchisement. You cannot expect the South to forget its heavy burden and humiliation of Reconstruction days. It cannot forget the actual encour agement of crime on the part of the ex slaves by the Federal commander of New Orleans after the surrender. Taxable values were destroyed. There was no Marshall Plan nor other aid as to Germany today. The reaction to oppres sion, with ignorance and thievery in ascend ancy, was the passage of the poll tax laws. Discriminatory freight rates have throttled manufactures for years and the South was impoverished by sending dollars North to buy what it produced In raw form. Today a murder in an isolated Georgia community is spread on our metropolitan front pages as a mob lynching. A parallel instance in the North, if mentioned at all, is a gang killing—the result of a feud. O. G. CARRELL. Single Tax Doctrine Set Forth v As Cure for 'Most of Our Troubles’ To the Editor of The St*r: Our voteless District now has a sales tax on top of all the sneak-thief taxes hidden in the price of everything on which it will fall. However, we are faring no worse than other parts of the country having the vote. The Stalinites are acting in a way to keep the Red hysteria of our house-of-have keyed up to the tune of billions on top of our billions of public debt, to bluff *them out of undertaking an aggressive war they have no intention of starting. With our statesmen and brass hats prancing to the Communist inspired medley, there is small chance of any let-up in the kind of taxes that make tax payers of all who have anything to spend, including our penny spending children and the many given public or private aid who are unable to make ends meet because of taxes Around this bedeviled globe there are peo ple fighting to free themselves by freeing their land of its lords, while we stand pat on a system inherited as colonies, that gives them first grab out of the people’s bread basket and leaves capital and labor to endless wrangling over division of what is left. Levies on land are fought because, in full < reverse of taxes on what it provides, they detract from its sale value and cannot be passed on. One result is that our landowners, urban and rural, who are owners for use, not speculation, are mulcted in taxes on their improvements and everything else, far in excess of the rental value of their lands. Furthermore, the high cost of collecting such taxes burdens them and other consumers far beyond public needs. Our voters have yet to learn that they can’t get the wealthy by taxing wealth. If a majority of them had the gumption to insist on gradual retirement of income and other predatory and inflationary taxes by an in , creasing allocation of the social values in our land to public use, where they rightly belong, Letters for publication mutt bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. most of our troubles, such as the housing and slum problem now Increasing the tax load, would resolve themselves. The public purse would get more on a much smaljer de mand through a great reduction in costs of collection. Our rackrented farm tenants and sharecroppers would have a fair chance to become landowners and, with other workers, have more complete possession of the fruits of their labor. We could then be on the way to adding economic freedom to our much lauded freedoms of expression that, however handy as vents for our convictions and prejudices, are of little or no avail toward giving us the equality of opportunity dreamed of by the founding fathers, and an equitable distribution of the Nation’s wealth such as would be our best defense against the aims of “isms” to enslave us under an all-dominant state. WALTER N. CAMPBELL. Government Employe Seeks Freedom and Security in Vain To the Editor of The Star: I am a Civil Service employe and have worked for the Frankford Arsenal since 1941. During the war I served in the United States Army and spent three of the best years of my life working the best way I knew how for the freedom of my country. When I was discharged from the Army I went back to work for the Frankford Arsenal because that was where my job was and because by working there I could continue working to ward the same goal that I fought for dur ing the war, the goal of making and keep ing this a free country. The end of the war in Europe and Far East did not leave the world free like we thought it would. It still left Russia— Russia, the country that is casting its shad ow of evil over my children, myself and my country. This is not the freedom that I and others like me spent years of our lives to enjoy. It is only a freedom for people who don't look ahead, a freedom for people who don't know what it’s like to be bombed or for people who havenlt seen the devastated war-torn countries of the world, who haven’t seen the oppressed, frightened peoples who inhabit the countries under iron curtains. We, the people who have been there to see such things don’t want to go around thinking that the same thing might happen to our country Just because we were unprepared. We all agree that the Government should cut Federal spendflng; but cut out Govern ment subsidies, don’t cut down on this country’s insurance for freedom from Rus sian oppression. I’m sure that you wouldn't stop payment on your life insurance policy so that you might eat cake Instead of bread. I think if the support prices were taken off of corn and other grains we all would be able to afford meat, cake and other luxuries, and still afford to hold a large Insurance policy against Russia. As an American citizen and a Civil Serv ice employe, I ask you to try to do some thing to h^p make us veterans who have given our best for our country feel more secure in our jobs and feel that our coun try is carrying the right Insurance and enough Insurance to keep our country "The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave.” HERBERT R. SMITH. Philadelphia.* Mr. Baruch Explains Why He Favors Mobilisation Law To the Editor of The Stir: On my return from Europe I find a copy of your editorial of July 4, "A Security Essential”. I am sorry if I seemed too harsh but I do not think I was, in view of the fact that we are spending $15 billions for armaments, are about to arm Europe, and have undertaken an obligation to go to war if Western Europe is attacked—and in view of hew costly our failure to have a mobilization plan has proved in the past. Everything we are doing abroad is neces sarily weakened by our lack of a mobilization plan and yet it is the one form of prepared ness which would cost us nothing—nothing but a little courage to put into law now what we know would have to be done if war came. ^fhere are plans and studies but if war should come, they would have to go to Con gress to be passed upon and we cannot afford this delay. I want an over-all mobilization plan en acted into law now, to be set in motion by the President with the concurrence of Con gress. We will not have time to debate what we should do. We will only have time for such action as we can? take to defend our selves and carry the war to our aggressor. BERNARD M. BARUCH. (Editor’s Note: While agreeing with Mr. Baruch’s main thesis, the editorial suggested that he had perhaps been a bit too harsh in criticising the President. His criticism gave the impression that the President had stymied all mobilization planning. Actually, however, measurable progress has been made in the field. Whether Congress would be willing to adopt Mr. Baruch’s idea if the President asked for such legislation is an open question.) Opposes Chewing Gum As Well as Cigarettes To the Editor of The St»r: Robert G. Wood (letter of August 24) was not alone in giving more than a glance at the improved look of the Government girl, minus a cigarette. The Government could render no better service than to make this course of instruction compulsory. It also might stress the way a person who chews gum looks. Taxpayers ought to demand that Federal employes represent and not misrep resent the very best in deportment, char acter, efficiency and personal appearance. A. L. A. A Sharp Question About Working Wives To the Editor of The Star: In this process of axe-wielding, what is going to be done about cases where two and more members of one family are hold ing high salaried positions in the Govern ment? With a few exceptions, it seems more im portant for the head of a family to have food for his children than for a married woman to be working for luxuries she could well do without. SUN SET. “Canoodler,” An Old Word In a New, Modern Usage To the Editor of The Star: / It was a little over half a century ago that, as a callow young editor of a weekly news paper in a midwestem town, I accepted the usual courtesy of a “comp” to a one-night stand from the "straw hat circuit” which infested,the local "opry” house for a night. The "piece de resistance” was a comedian who proclaimed himself a "canoodler.” And “What is a ‘canoodler’?” brought the response: "The word ‘canoodle’ is derived from the word ‘canoodle’—to divvy, to stand in with.” In the half century that has intervened and in view of recent developments, I have wondered whether the "five-percenter” is not the reincarnation of the "canoodler” of my early days, for after all "a rose by any other name would emit the same perfume.” JERRY A. MATTHEWS. Stars, Men and Atom Atomic Radiation Effects On Heredity Under Study Mice, Fish, Flies and Weeds Used in Research Projects By Thomas R. Henry Mice, trout, molds, flies, com and weeds are being used In research projects scattered over the country to determine the precise effects of atomic radiation on heredity. One of the bugbears which arose from the first atomic bomb explosions was that the effects would be shown in abnormalities among the descendants of even mildly ex* posed persons for many generations. The problem also arose concerning workers in atomic plants, X-ray technicians, and others exposed to radiation. The effects undoubtedly are real, according to the Atomic Energy Commission’s semi annual report to Congress, but very little scientific evidence is available. Obviously human subjects cannot be used In experi ments. But, it Is pointed out, the mechanics of heredity are about the same throughout nature—in a blade of grass as In a mouse or a man. Submicroscopic Particle*. In each of the countless billions of cells which constitute the body of a human being there are approximately 10,000 submicro scopic particles known as genes. Each con trols some phase of the body’s development. One. for example, might be the determiner for blue eyes, another for red hair, another for long fingers. A particle of radiation strik ing any one of these genes would alter or nullify its function. It 1s the same in any other living organism. Some of the most important work to date has been done with bread molds at the commission's Oak Ridge, Tenn., laboratory and at the University of California. These, says the report, are almost ideal organisms with which to study just how the genes exert their effects on heredity. Some of the results may have far-reaching practical significance. By radiation several hundred variant strains of abnormal molds have been pro duced. Each strain lacks specifically a sin gle ability to carry out a certain chemical reaction—such as synthesizing a necessary vitamin, building up a particular catbon compound essential for its cells, or produc ing one of 20 or more of the chemical* known as amino acids which are the con stituent parts of proteins, the building stones of the body. Some of these proc esses are essentially Identical with those necessary in human growth. Initiates Reactions. A gene or combination of genes, it is con cluded, acts as the initiator of a chain of reactions. In many cases the first step is the producing of a certain enzyme, of which there probably are many thousands in a human being, which is necessary to build an amino acid, which in turn is necessary to build a protein or a vitamin. This seems the best key yet obtained to an understanding of what has up to now been a complete mystery, the mechanics of heredity. Already, the report indicates, practical applications are in sight. This is especially true in the field of eom breeding. By means of radiation, some of it on seeds exposed at the Bikini tests, more than 500 hereditary lines of corn have been produced. Each appears to have some pecu liarity—that is, to lack some particular hereditary ability. For the most part this is a disadvantage. There always is the prospect, however, of knocking out genes responsible for some trait of corn which i* disadvan tageous and repairing other defects by hybrid breeding. Questions end Answers A reader ton ftt the ignir to urtuMM *t tact by wrltlnt The Xranlni Star, WUfctojrtae. D. C. Information Bureau. 816 By* 0t. K.K., wasn Ineton 2. D. C. Pleau Inclose three (8) sente for return postaee. By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. Are more women than men supersti tious? L. McC. A. A survey of 267 males and 290 females was made and showed that superstitious belief or practice was Indicated In 40 per cent of the male and 66 per cent of the female subjects. Men appear to outgrow superstition mor-e easily than women. Super stitions of women chiefly eoncem domestic activities. Q. What are the chances of two persons’ fingerprints being identical? C. E. D. A. Mathematicians have figured that there is only one chance in 64 million of a single fingerprint from the hand of one person resembling a single fingerprint from the hand of another. If two or more fingers are considered the chances reach figures beyond the range of imagination. Q. How long is the mainspring of a watch? O. D. W. A. The mainspring is from ten inches to two feet long, depending on the size of the watch. Q. How many hours does the sun shine at the North and South Poles on June 21, the longest day of the year? B. I. L. A. The hours of sunshine on June 21 vary from 24 in the Arctic region to none in the Antarctic. At the equator there are 12 hours of sunshine, not only on June 21, but on every day of the year. Moving northwards from the equator the hours of sunshine increase until the Arctic Circle is approached. Moving southwards from thf equator the hours of sunshine decrease until the Antarctic Circle is reached. Q. What flower petals are used In making potpourri? L. C. Mr* A. Recipes call for the petals of violets, Jasmine, lavender, clove gillyflowers, rose mary, marjoram, balm of Gilead, damask rose, rose gbranium, orris, gum benjamin, storax, musk, cloves, orange flower, lemon thyme and mint, chopped up and laid in thin layers of salt in a covered Jar. Q. What territory Is Included in the term South Sea Islands?—L. O. Y. A. The term South Sea Islands Is gener ally used of the islands of the South #a ciflc Ocean. The Pacific Ocean was called the South Sea when discovered in 1513r bj Balboa. These islands include Oceania, Ma laysia, Australasia and Polynesia. --- New England Tourists ; Westward, long ago, New England sent Her children, scattered Pieces of her flinty heart and spent Her blood beside the campfires. Ndmes Came drifting backstrange music—Idaho, Iowa, Wyoming, Oregon. Her saltbox sons, transplanted there, Smelled ghostly English roses on the Bir, Were homesick for awhile, and then forgot. The past was over and done. Now the tourists come, the prodigals. Their speech is prairie-flat, they staxo* At doorways smothered in hydrangea snofl>. On her patch behind the clematis New England counts the license plates, And meditates. “These voyagers in dusty cars, These offspring of the tribe which oddAd stars , A To the old-world galaxy, are not they tdo My children? Though they call me quaint, And cast me off like an old maternal shoe?" She thinks, “They’re smarter children than I knew." BIANCA BRADBURY.