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Sunny and windy this afternoon, highest about 72. Fair with low near 48 tonight. Tomorrow sunny and cool, high in upper 60s (Full report on Page A-2.) Midnight 62 6 a.m. ..-60 11 a.m. --_65 2 a.m. -.-60 8 a.m .-..60 Noon-61 4 a.m. ..-60 10 a.m. -_-64 1 p.m. ---63 Late New York Markets, Page A-15. Guide for Readers Pftlt Amusements .A-26 Comics _C-12-13 Crossword -C-12 Editorial -A-8 Editorial Art's A-9 Finance -A-15 Fate Lost and Found A-3 Obituary _A-10 Radio _C-13 Sports -C-l-3 Women's Section ...B-3-6 An Associated Press Newspaper 97th Year. No. 261. ' Phone ST. 5000 ★★ WASHINGTON, D. ‘ C., FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 1949—SEVENTY-SIX PAGES. City Home Delivery, Daily and 8unday, $1.20 a Month; when 8 8T Sundays, $1.30. Night Final Edition. $1.30 and $1.40 per Month. vuit J. u TRUMAN REPORTS ATOMIC BUST IN RUSSIA ______:--- 4 Top U.S. Officials Conclude Reds Have Knowhow' to Make Bombs Time Necessary To Produce Supply Of War Missiles By Garnett D. Horner President Truman announced today that “we have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the U. S. S. R.” His statement indicated that the Russians have made an atomic bomb, although did not say so specifically. The President gave no details about the effect of the explosion, or exactly when or where it oc curred, and officials familiar with the “evidence” refused for security reasons to amplify his statement. Quickly after the White House announcement, the British gov ernment announced it also has evidence of an atomic explosion in Russia. Mr. Truman emphasized that the United States always has taken into account the probability of the development of atomic en ergy by other nations. No Military Changes. Secretary of Defense Johnson told reporters there has been no change in the disposition of Amer ican military forces as a result of the development in Russia. To re porters who asked him about the significance of the development, he said: “Don’t overplay it.” Another official said there is no particular reason to suppose that the atomic explosion in Russia will materially make the prospect of war greater or more immediate. It w'as pointed out that one atomic explosion by the Russians did not serve to give them an overriding military superiority. The United States has been build ing up a stockpile of atomic bombs since the war. Held for Effective Controls. Mr. Truman said the Russian development does emphasise again j the necessity for “truly effective enforceable international control of atomic energy.” Soviet opposi tion to international controls and Inspection has blocked agreement on such proposals in the United Nations. The President’s statement was released to reporters at the White House as he was going over the situation with his cabinet. The text follows: "I believe the American people, to the fullest extent consistent j with national security * are en titled to be informed of all de- j velopments in the field of atomic energy. That is my reason for making public the following in formation. “We have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the U. S. S. R. Developments Expected. . j “Ever since atomic energy was first released by man the eventual development of this new force by other nations was to be expected. This probability has always been taken into account by us. “Nearly four years ago I pointed out that ‘scientific opinion seems to be practically unanimous that the essential theoretical knowledge upon which the discovery is based is already widely known. There is also substantial agreement that foreign research can come abreast of our theoretical knowledge in time.’ “And in the three-nation decla ration of the President of the (Continued on Page A-4, Col. 6.) Truman Planning Trip To Fort Bragg Oct. 4 President Truman plans to fly to Port Bragg, N. C., on October 4 to see a demonstration of drop ping both soldiers and heavy equipment from the air, the White House announced today. The parachute air-drop demon stration will be put on by the 82d Airborne Division. Mr. Truman will review other troops at Port Bragg and be the luncheon guest of Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge, the post commander. White House Press Secretary Charles G. Ross said that if bad weather should interfere with the plans for October 4, the trip would be made the following day, if pos sible. The President plans to leave here by air at 8:45 a.m., arriving at Port Bragg at 10 am., and re turning to Washington about 5:45 p.m. the same day. Secretary of the Army Gray and Gen. J. Lawton Collins, Army Chief of Staff, have been invited to accompany him. Approximately 20,000 Third Army troops stationed at Fort Bragg will be reviewed by the President before lunch. Following lunch, the 82d will demonstrate the latest techniques in dropping artillery and heavy equipment by parachute, Mr. Ross said. Then a mass parachute drop of one bat talion of infantry is planned. McMahon Urged Atom Parley Before Truman Made Statement Senator Repeats Call for Meeting With Stalin; U. N. Meeting Is Jolted by Announcement Senator McMahon, Democrat, of Connecticut, chairman of the Joint Congressional Atomic Ener gy Committee, today repeated a suggestion he made with prophe tic foresight in the Senate yes terday that President Truman in vite Soviet Prime Minister Stalin to a meeting on the question of atomic controls in behalf of peace. Senator McMahon talked with reporters after the President an nounced that he has evidence that an atomic explosion occurred in Russia. At the same time, Trygve Lie, secretary-general of the United Nations, said in New York that “if it is true that they (the Rus sians) have the atomic bomb it shows how indispensable interna tional agreement is.” The announcement by Presi dent Truman created a stir in the 59-nation assembly. Senator McMahon told report ers after a hurriedly-called meet ing of his committee that his sug gestion for a Truman-Stalin meeting is as good today as it was yesterday.” Senator McMahon revealed that he knew nothing about the in formation made public by Mr. Truman today when he addressed the Senate yesterday afternoon, but was called to the White House and told of it later in the day. He added that no other Sena tors had the information when they began voting on military aid for Western Europe kt 6 p.m. yes terday. Senator McMahop, how ever, sent out notices for today’s joint committee session imme diately after the vote. Closeted with the committee today were Acting Chairman Pike of the Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. Robert Oppenhemier, one of (See McMAHON~Page~A-4.) Attlee's Government Decides to Stake Life On Vote in Commons General Election Certain Immediately if Laborites Are Beaten on Devaluation ty th# Auociattd Pf»« LONDON. Sept. 23.—The Labor government decided today to stake its life on a vote of confidence in the House of Commons. Parliament meets in special ses sion Tuesday for a three-day de bate on the cheapening of the pound. A source close to the cabinet dis closed the decision by the govern ment to force a vote of confidence. If the government loses, it must resign. That would mean a new general election immediately. Because of the Labor Party’s top-heavy majority in Commons such a setback is unlikely. Grumbling From Unions.. Labor has 393 of the 640 seats in the House of Commons, the Conservatives, 189. The remain der are held by Liberals and splinter parties. But there has been loud grumbling from its huge trade union wing over the prospect of a rise in the cost of living as a re sult of devaluation. There also is a big bloc of left wingers in Commons who have been increas ingly discontent with party policy. To forestall defeat by a stay away strike of unhappy party members in Parliament, the party leaders are sending out a “three line whip.” Form of Motion Uncertain. This is the most urgent of &U party orders to attend debate and support the government in any |vote. The penalty for ignoring such a whip can be expulsion from the party. The form of the government motion, the informant said, has not yet been decided. It may be a straight motion that the de valuation move by the cabinet be approved. Whatever its wording, it will in effect be a motion of confidence in the government. The government’s main speak ers in the debate will be Prime Minister Attlee, Sir Stafford Cripps, Chancellor of the Ex chequer; Harold Wilson, president (See BRITISH, frage A-2.) Vishinsky Expected To Reply Today to China's Accusation Soviet Foreign Minister Puts Name on List of Assembly Speakers |y **>• AuacistMj Prm N*W YORK, Sept. 33.—Russia’s Andrei Vishinsky gets a chance to reply today to charges in the tJnited Nations Assembly that the Soviet Union is aiding and direct ing the Communist drive in China. The Soviet foreign minister put his name on the list of Assembly spifckfcrs after Dr. T. F. Tsiang, delegate for the Chinese Nation alist Regime, called on the U. N. yesterday to help check the spread of Communism in Asia. Mr. Vishinsky reserved a choice afternoon spot for his statement outlining Russian policy. He may speak about 3 p.m. Nine delegations, including France, were listed ahead of him on the Assembly roster but they don’t necessarily speak in order. Schuman May Discuss Plea. French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman was expected to touch \ on China’s appeal for help. France’s Indo-Chinese colonies are in the path of the Red tide. Mr. Schuman’s stand was given point by disclosure that the Can ton government would file next Tuesday formal charges in the I Assembly that Moscow gave out and-out aid to the Chinese com munists who have swept over half of China. There was no answer yesterday from Mr. Vishinsky to Dr. Tsiang’s charges that Russia not only di rected Chinese Communist cam paigns but helped their troops and took much of Manchuria as Soviet territory. The Canton government's ap peal did not catch the Western powers unawares but some signifi cance attached to the fact that British and French Foreign Min isters and the American Secretary of State were absent from the Assembly yesterday. Their recent Washington con ferences on the subject of Com munism’s spread supported a belief they were continuing those talks here. Mr. Vishinsky turned up at the fefternoon session, leading an un (See P. N., Page A-3.) Techniquesof Atomic Detection Are Closely Guarded Secrets By Thomas R. Henry Scianca Editor of The Star. There have been recent great advances in techniques for de* tec ting an atomic bomb explosion anywhere in the world. The entire field is highly re* stricted. Washington scientists can only say that they know a great deal that they can’t talk about. There are various methods of detecting such an explosion. First, an atomic explosion sets up earthquake waves which are easily detected on some of the extremely sensitive seismographs nqw available. Such waves set up by the Bikini explosions, according to a report recently published by the American Geophysical Union, were detected by seismographs In California. All details ot the techniques aye top secret, however. Another obvious method of de tecting an atomic bomb . blast would be by measuring the radio activity of the atmosphere. But in general several days would be ex pected to pass before a "hot cloud” would drift beyond the borders of Russia. All information on this also is highly classified. There have been several reports of premature atomic bomb explosions in Russia during the past few years. The great Russian atomic bomb plant is believed to be at the new city of Alma Ata, capital of the Soviet province of Kavakstan in Central Asia. It was widely rumored that this was the scene of a tremendous ex plosion about a year ago in which some of Russia’s foremost nuclear physicists and their German col laborators were wiped out.A This report, however, never has been verified. Senate Calls Up Military Pay Boost Measure Byrd Opposes Bill, But Won't Lead Fight Against It A bill to boost the pay of most j members of the armed forces from j the rank of private up was called up in the Senate today, and only scattered opposition was expected. The measure provides total pay increases costing about $348 000, 1000 a year. Senate Majority Leader Lucas made the bill the first order of business. Senator Byrd, Demo crat, of Virginia, who has led the fight to save Federal money, said he would make a short statement against the bill but will not lead a battle against it. However, an estimated 30 Sen ators lined up behind a move to slice the pay increases being pro posed for cabinet members and civilian workers who get more than $5,000 a year from the Gov ernment. These bills will be brought up as soon as the Senate acts on the military measure. Senators McFarland, Democrat, of Arizona and Cain, Republican, of Washington led a bipartisan move to send one of these, rais ing the salaries of cabinet mem bers and other executives, to the! Senate Expenditures Committee for a check on how it conforms to the pattern laid down by the Hoover Commission on Govern ment Reorganization. That would mean no pay boosts for the Cabinet in this session of Congress. Chairman McClellan said the expenditures group can't possibly complete any such study before Congress quits for the year. Senator Taft, Republican, of Ohio told a reporter be will oppose 'boosts in cabinet pay because of ! unsettled economic conditions and ; the effect such increases might have on industrial wage negotia tions. May CaU for Limit. If the move to send the bill to committee fails. Senator Cain said | economy pleaders will propose an amendment under which no execu tive could get more than a 50 per cent boost in pay. As it stands, the bill boosts cabinet members from $15,000 a year to $25,000. The amendment i would put the top at $22,500. I What may be more important to some Senators is that under the amendment heads of some agencies who now draw less pay than members of Congress coiildn’t be boosted above the $15,000 the lawmakers receive, of which $2,500 is expense allowance. As examples, the assistant to the Attorney General, who now draws $10,330, would get $20,000 as the bill stands. A long list of assistant secretaries, also drawing around $10,000, would be boosted to $16,00. Dr. Meitner Receives Reich Physics Award •y the Associated Profs BONN, Germany, Sept. 23.— The Max . Planck medal for scien tific achievement was awarded jointly today to Prof. Lise Meit ner, German refugee who helped develop the atomic bomb in the United States, and Pro/. Otto Hahn. Prof. Hahn, who won the Nobel Prize for 1944, is regarded as the discoverer of nuclear fission, the key to the atomic bomb. He is a professor at Goettingen Uni versity. The medal, highest award of the German Society of Physicists, was presented at Bonn University in a ceremony attended by Ger man Federal President Theodor Heuss. Dn Meitner taught nuclear physics at Catholic University following her appointment as a visiting professor in February, 1946. At the end of the term, during which she conducted classes in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, she returned to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Dr. Meitner is the sister of Mrs. Rudolph Allers, whose husband is a professor of psychology at Georgetown University. Dr. Meitner was named the “woman of the year" in 1946 by the Women’s National Press Club at its annual dinner. The award was made because “her research contributed notably to the release of atomic energy." [ WANTAAETO ^ PICK THAT LOCK fOR YOU .SCOTT? i — * S' Balancing of Budget Every Year Unsound, Economists Declare Would Bring Big Fluctuations in Expenditures Or Severe Changes in Tax Rates, They Say By th« Associated Press A group of university economists told Congress today the idea of a balanced Federal budget every year is an unsound principle. If the Government’s spending and income balances each other in good years as well as bad. they said, “there would have to be either big fluctuations in expendi ture programs'or severe and per verse changes in tax rates. “To vary expenditures in this manner,” they continued, “would disrupt the essential services pro vided by the government. “Applied to military expendi tures, it would mean a large de fense program in boom years and a small defense program in de pression years.” The 13 economists, representing Hie National Planning Association, expressed their views in two re ports to a Senate-House Economic Subcommittee. The association had been asked by Senator Douglas, Democrat, of Illinois, head of the subcommittee, to survey Government fiscal, credit and monetary policies. The planning group, which is headed by H. Christian Sonne, describes itself as a “nonprofit, <8ee ECONOMIC, Page A-3.) Veterans Reported Dropping School Plans Due to New Curbs Education Council Official Charges Policy Changes Spirit of GI Bill By George Beveridge Reports of veterans giving up! GI education plans in disgust and apparent widespread misinter pretations by Veterans Adminis tration officials were made today in the wake of VA’s controversial new restrictions on GI Bill train ing programs. At the same time, Dr. Francis J. Brown of the American Council on Education charged fundamen tal differences in the new policies “completely change the whole spirit of the GI Bill.” The new policies force large j numbers of veterans who have fin ! ished or quit previous GI Bill training to show that any new courses they want to take are not “avocational or recreational” in nature, even if the courses have been accepted without question by VA before. , Face Tuition Payment. Furthermore, many of these veterans face the prospect of los ing portions of their subsistence pay and having to pay part of their own tuition in GI programs, even if their training is approved. According to reports reaching the American Council on Educa tion by telephone late yesterday. Dr. Brown said, here is what is happening in some areas: One college at the University of Minnesota is not accepting some veterans because local VA officials have said they will not pay for tuition or subsistence until they ' (See VETERANS, Page A-3.) Britain Demands Recall Of Romanian Diplomat ly th« AiiocloUd Prau LONDON, Sept. 23.—The Brit ish Foreign Office announced to day that it has asked Romania to recall its commercial counsellor in London, Jacques Berman. A spokesman said the action was taken as a reprisal for Ro mania's recent expulsion of a British diplomat from Bucharest. Arthur R. Sarrell, who had been accused of “complicity with black market gangs.” Mr. Sarrell was first secretary of the British Legation in Bucha rest. As Romania demanded, he was withdrawn from his post last month. 6.0. P. Farm Parley Opens With Attack On Brannan Plan Republicans Will Stick To Price Support Policy, Hope Says in Sioux City By Gould Lincoln Star Staff Cor/msponeJcnt SIOUX CITY, Iowa, Sept. 23.— In an effort to persuade the American farmer that his best chance of a successful long-range farm program lies in a Repub lican * controlled Congress, the GOP today opened its na tional farm conference sponsored by the Republican National Com mittee. Delivering the keynote address. Representative Hope of Kansas, ranking Republican member of the House Agriculture Committee and co-author of the Hope-Aiken Farm Act—the present law—as sured the conference that the Republicans will stick to a pro gram of price supports for the fanner—until a better program can be developed which will re sult in fair prices to the farmer. Says Supports Are Accepted. “We do not regard price sup ports as a controversial question,’’ said Mr. Hope. "They have been accepted by our party, by the Democratic Party and by the American public for many y^ars." Mr. Hope, however, launched a bitter attack on the Brannan plan, supported by the Truman administration, which the Demo crats sought to sell to the farmers at a farm conference of thier own (See REPUBLICANS, Page A-4.) Senate Victory, 55-24, Sends Foreign Arms Aid Bill to Conferees I Supporters Surprised By Own Strength in Defeating Economy Bloc By J. A. O'Leary The $1,314,010,000 foreign mil itary aid bill today headed for conference with the House, where administration leaders will try to sustain the victory they won when the Senate passed it late yester day, 55 to 24, without further cuts. It is more than likely, however, they will have to agree on a smaller compromise figure, since the House approved a total of only $819,505,000 when it passed the measure a month ago. Senate supporters of the bill were surprised at their own strength late yesterday when they defeated, 46 to 32, the drive of a strong economy bloc to slash the allotment for Western Europe be low the $1,000,000,000 set jointly by the Senate Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services. A few hours before the roll call, friends of the bill said they would beat the economizers by four votes. They actually had a mar gin of 14. Throughout the long battle, the main point of controversy has been over how much the United States should spend this year in Western Europe to implement the North Atlantic treaty. The administration started out with a figure of $1,160,990,000 for that area. The House cut it in half, to $580,495,000. Then the two Senate committees handling the bill jointly agreed on $1,000, 000,000, but said only half of it would be cash and the balance contract authority, which would not have to be paid out until the fiscal year starting next July. When conferees from the two houses meet in the next tew days, the main controversy will be be tween $580,495,000 in cash for i Europe, or $500,000,000 of cash i (See ARMS. Page A-4.) Bulletin Red Trial Testimony Ends NEW YORK (VP).—The Gov ernment and the . defense rested today in the conspiracy trial against 11 top members of the Communist Party in the United States. The trial is in its 36th week. Federal Judge Harold R. Medina excused the jury until October 4, when ar guments and summations will start. (Earlier Story on Page A-13.) Forrestal's Diary in Custody Of White House, Ross Reveals The White House disclosed to day that it has custody of private papers of the late Secretary of Defense Forrestal. including a diary sought by a House committee investigating the B-36 bomber controversy. The material is being held for safekeeping in a locked cabinet and has not been read by anyone at the White House, Presidential Secretary Charles O. Ross said. It is regarded as the property of the executors of Mr. Forrestal's estate and will be'turned over to them whenever they wish, he explained. Shortly after he resigned from the defense post last March Mr. Forrestal left the papers in* Presi dent Truman's custody, Mr. Ross said. He told the President he did not want to leave them in his own house while he was away from Washington. Mr Forrestal leaped to his death from a Bethesda Naval Hospital tower window last May 22. His widow visited the White House yesterday and told reporters later that A$r. Forrestal had kept a diary. Reports that such a diary ex isted came up last month at the House Armed Services Commit tee’s investigation of the Air Force B-36 program and other phases of military aircraft procurement and policies. Committee aides said they hoped to locate the diary for whatever light it might shed on Air. Forrestal’s opinion of the B-36 and related matters. Steel Pact Talks Resumed Under Extended Truce Union and Industry Have Another Week to Settle Differences LONG COAL STRIKE Feared as Negotiations Recess. Page A-11, By the Associated Press PITTSBURGH. Sept. 23.— Agreement of Big Steel and the CIO-United Steelworkers to renew contract talks today lightened strike clouds hovering over the in dustry since July. Philip Murray, union president, and John A. Stephens, vice presi dent, of United Sates Steel Corp. arranged a hotel conference at 1:30 p.m. <EST) to resume ne gotiations under a third Presi dential strike truce. Mr. Murray had proposed a 9:30 a.m. session, but shortly before that hour came announcement both sides had agreed on the afternoon date. Conferences with other steel companies are being arranged by the union. Meanwhile, about 2,400 union members at two Pittsburgh dis trict steel mills continued un authorized walkouts which union and company officials blamed on the tension and uncertainty of the steel situation. Closed are the Universal-Cyclop6 Steel Co. plant in Bridgeville, and the Superior Steel Co. plant in suburban Car negie. Have Week for Talks. Contract negotiators have one week in which to thrash out pen sion and insurance difficulties that three times have brought the Na tion to the brink of a paralyzing steel strike. Talks with the United State* Steel are expected to set the pat tern of the conferences with other steel producers. Big Steel and the union usually determine the course taken by the entire industry. The union also arranged for new | conferences with Crucible Steel | Co., Allegheny-Ludlum Steel Corp., Sharon Steel Corp., Shenan j go-Penn Mould, Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. at Youngstown, Ohio: Rustless Steel Co. at Baltimore and Republic Steel Co. at Cleveland. | Bethlehem steel and the union will open negotiations at 1 p.m. today in New York. The million-member steel union has delayed its strike deadline from midnight tomorrow to 12:01 a.m. October 1. That was in re sponse to a plea by President Tru man to extend the steel truce six more days. The industry had earlier agreed to the extension and said it was ready to bargain. Union Sets Time and Place. The steel workers’ union, which set the time and place of the Big Steel talks, also told 52 qther steel companies it is ready to negotiate. The basis for the talks will be the recommendations of President Truman’s steel fact-finding board. The board vetoed a wage increase but recommended a company-paid pension and insurance program equal to 10 cents hourly per worker. The steel workers accepted the board’s recommendations and in sisted that steel companies do likewise as a condition of further bargaining. United States Steel balked at accepting the recommendations without bargaining. The firm par ticularly objected to pensions and insurance financed wholly by the company. That began a week of feuding by telegram between Benjamin F. Fairless, Big Steel president, and Philip Murray, president of the steel workers. Cyrus Ching, head of the United States Mediation Board, called both sides to Washington to talk things over. A strike fcas a strong possibility for this week end until the President sought another truce. Mr. Truman told a press con ference yesterday the outlook ap (See STEEL. Page A-3.) Local Advertising Record Established By The Star The 39,500 lines of advertis ing space used by a local de partment store and run in a separate 16-page section of to day’s Star represents the larg est amount of advertising ever placed by an advertiser in a Washington newspaper in one day. This local advertising record established by The Star is a further indication of where the local advertiser turns when he has a message of importance to carry to the Washington buying public. The Star continues to carry more department store and specialty store advertising than any other Washington newspaper. Washington shoppers save time and money when they shop first in THE STAR.