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The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the u*e lor republleotion of all the local news printed* rfwipopBr os wll o» oil A. P. n«w> dupoten—._ SATURDAY, Ocfobtr 1, 1949 Day Care Centers 5 One may sympathize with the sentiment to restore the full appropriation for day pare centers without agreeing that such restoration is wise. 4 This experiment in public daytime care Of the children of working mothers was undertaken during the war, with support from Federal funds. It was looked upon as an advisable method of increasing depleted manpower for war work. It enabled many mothers to go to work in war plants—and in comparable work here in Washington—who otherwise would have been kept at home by the needs of their little children. After the war there was an effort to continue the experiment, not as an in dustrial necessity, but as a social or welfare necessity. Of course, it is not a social necessity. It is a great con venience to a limited number of parents. But because it is so limited, it is discrim inatory. It provides public facilities, sup ported mainly with public funds, to a handful of parents. If such facilities are to be provided at all by Government, they should be available to everybody. The expense of the centers is so high that the community could not possibly under take to extend their benefits to everybody who wanted them, or who might qualify under some means test as eligible. The present cost per child from public funds— exclusive of the amount contributed by parents able to make some contribution— runs about $367, as compared with the $122-a-year cost of educating a child in the elementary grades of public school. The number of centers now operated has decreased from twelve, with 400 chil dren enrolled in 1947, to six, with about 272 children in attendance. The House and the Senate Appropriations Committee reduced the current appropriation of $100, 000 to $50,000 for the next fiscal year, which would cut them down still more. The Senate, however; has restored the full amount. It would be wiser to let the centers gradually go out of existence as a public charge. They represent a luxury, maintained for the benefit of a few parents, which cannot be justified as a responsibility of the community or as a legitimate charge against public funds. The Sturdy Swiss Franc Amid the avalanche of monetary devalu ations which followed the unexpectedly drastic cut in British pound sterling, one currency continues to stand firm as a financial rock of Gibraltar. This is the Swiss franc. By monetary experts everywhere, that Is considered an extraordinary perform ance, because the Swiss franc has been under tremendous pressure, psychological even more than tangible. Uneasiness was widespread in Switzerland itself, because at first sight it seemed inevitable that, at the present Swiss franc parity, a 30 per cent devaluation of the pound and most other European currencies would alto gether exclude Swiss exports from those markets. This would be disastrous, be cause Switzerland produces only about one half its food and virtually no raw materials for its industry. Consequently, it must import more than 30 per cent of its total production, compared with less than 10 per cent in the United States. Moreover, as nearly every European coun try devalued its currency, Swiss invisible exports, especially its tourist business, seemed vitally hit. Indeed, it was feared that the Swiss themselves might be tempted to spend their holidays in neigh boring lands. This wave of pessimism notably affected the alien owners of liquid capital which had sought refuge in Switzerland as the safest haven in an uncertain world, together with a swarm of exchange specu lators, mostly foreigners, who had made the Swiss “free” currency market their base of operations. Jumping to the con clusion that Switzerland would soon be forced to devaluate, these financial “nerv ous Nellies” stampeded out of the Swiss franc, first ^nto the American dollar and then into currencies like sterling which seemed safe because it had been drastic ally devaluated. This meant, among other things, that Swiss bonds in unparalleled quantities were thrown onto the market to procure francs for buying dollars. And some Swiss Investors became Infected with the scare. However, Swiss high finance remained unperturbed. The Swiss National Bank calmly met all demands for dollars at the official rate of 4.31 Vi, while the Swiss Federal Council soon issued a strong official declaration that no reason what ever existed for changing the present gold parity of the franc. Thereupon, pessimism abated and it is generally agreed that the near-panic is over. As a result of maturer appraisal, mone tary experts are generally convinced that, technically, the Swiss franc is impregnable. The Swiss National Bank’s gold holdings and monetary reserves are more than enough to cover the entire outstanding note issue and all other liabilities now in sight. Only if Switzerland were unable to maintain exports, visible and invisible, so as to keep its balance of payments in equilibrium, would a readjustment of the value of the franc in terms of gold become necessary. And while such an ' eventuality is not theoretically excluded, there is nothing to indicate that it is imminent, while there is considerable evidence that the consequences of devalu ation in other countries will not be nearly as serious as was at first feared. Despite sterling devaluation, British export prices should remain high enough to keep Swiss products competitive in many lines. In deed, all countries that have devalued will have to pay more for imported foodstuffs and raw materials, and those increased costs combined with contingent labor pressure for compensatory wage advances should limit export price cuts or even lead to rising price scales. On the other | hand, production costs in Switzerland will ! tend to decline, because most Swiss im ports of foodstuffs and raw materials come from countries that have devalued their currencies. Even the tourist business will presumably not be as badly hit as was at first feared, because, since no franc de valuation has occurred, travel costs in Switzerland will not be increased. This applies especially to guests from the United States and other countries not affected by devaluations. Incidentally, the United States is a major Swiss export market, while it and other undevalued lands account for nearly one half of Swiss export totals. These and other favoring factors under line Switzerland’s basic financial strength and econorfdgsstability—a cheering portent amid current economic confusions and uncertainties. Moscow Scraps Yugoslav Treaty Moscow’s summary denunciation of the “treaty of friendship, mutual alliance and postwar co-operation” between Soviet Russia and Yugoslavia. is perhaps even more significant for the reasons alleged as justification than for the action itself. Every step in the noisy quarrel between the two countries made it increasingly obvious that this treaty, concluded with such fanfare of fraternity between Marshal Tito and Vyacheslav Molotov, had become a farce. Its formal scrapping by Moscow is therefore as logical as it was eventually to be expected, and, as indicated by the action of Poland and Hungary, presumably will be followed by a similar breaking of treaty links between all of Russia’s obedient satellites and the contumacious Yugoslavs. Whether this virtual severance of diplo matic relations between the Soviet bloc and Yugoslavia is, or is not, the prelude to open hostilities, cannot accurately be forecast, though the Soviet-Yugoslav crisis has thereby been further exacerbated. What was not so predictable is Moscow’s justification for this drastic diplomatic step. It rests exclusively upon the recent treason trial held in Budapest, Hungary. There, the chief defendants, former top notch members of the Hungarian Commu nist Rgrty, “confessed” to treasonable dealings with the Yugoslav government— and also with American diplomats and other official agents then in Hungary. These "confessions” Moscow takes at full face value, although Marshal Tito has denounced them as a phony Comintern propaganda stunt, and although the ac cused Americans have branded them as the most arrant nonsense. This linking of the United States with Yugoslavia in subversive plotting aimed at both the Commmunist regime in Hungary and its mentor, the Soviet Union, renders the entire testimony highly suspect. Nevertheless, the Soviet note to Yugo slavia goes all out on the assumption of joint Yugoslav and American complicity. It asserts categorically that the Budapest treason trials “revealed that the Yugoslav government has already for a long time been carrying on profoundly hostile dis ruptive propaganda against the Soviet Union.” The note then goes on to assert: “The Budapest trial has also shown that the leaders of the Yugoslav government have conducted and are continuing to conduct their hostile and disruptive work against the U. S. S. R. not only on their own initiative but under the direct in structions of foreign imperialist circles • • • that the present Yugoslav government is completely dependent on foreign im perialist circles and has become trans formed into an instrument of war of their aggressive policy.” Considering the basis on which they are made, these allegations would be astound ing if they had not been made by a govern ment whose diplomatic methods violate all accepted canons of International comity. Moscow’s note will convince few persons outside the Iron Curtain except Commu nists. Under these circumstances one can only speculate why Moscow chose to base its action solely on such flimsy grounds. But since Moscow rarely acts precipitately, it is reasonable to assume there must be a motive satisfactory, at least, to the Soviet high command. What that motive is will presumably soon be disclosed. 'Jakey' Devers Retires General Jacob L. Devers, retiring from the Army today after forty-four years of active service, has seen revolutionary changes in the science of warfare since he began to study it at West Point back in 1905. He saw the advent of the air plane as a military weapon; he helped to develop the tank as an infantry spear head and he has had a part in revising strategy and tactics to meet requirements of an atomic age. But he leaves his last command, the Army Field Forces, with the deep conviction that victory in an atomic war will entail more than strategic bombing or push-button-directed rocket assaults. "Jakey” Devers, as he is popularly known to his fellow fighters, was never given to reticence on matters which he felt quali fied to discuss. And, with good cause, he has felt qualified to express himself force fully on the role of ground troops In any future world war. From his recent public comments, it is evident that he does not believe he is saying good-bye today to a dying military arm. On the contrary, he foresees a vital, if grim, future for the foot soldier and his supporting weapons in an atomic conflict. Not long ago he warned the American people not to be “deceived by those who say that any future war will be wholly a push-button affair.” It may begin, he said, with the pushing of a button in some remote rocket-launching site, but he is sure that it will end only when infantrymen capture and occupy the enemy's strong points. It was because of this conviction that he has Insisted that the Air Force give adequate emphasis to tactical as well as strategic air power—to the close support of armored columns and infantry divisions on the field of combat. In this stand he has been stanchly backed by General Bradley and other believers in the indis pensability of ground forces. General Devers’ advice and experience will be missed by the Army. Fortunately, his place of well-earned retirement near Herndon is not so far from the Pentagon as to preclude ready access to his views upon some future occasion. That he will continue to give the military establish ment well-reasoned, objective counsel whenever called upon can be taken for granted. Not the Place for War Games The mock amphibious assault Thursday on a Boston “beachhead,” resulting in the death of a news photographer, the injury of three naval officers and the endangering of civilian spectators, was a good example of how not to stage peacetime maneuvers. Simulated warfare of the type which ended in this tragic accident is all right in a proper location, but a spot within city limits where thousands of persons, includ ing children released from school, have congregated is not a proper place. The spectacular demonstration was a public relations stunt in connection with the annual convention of the Marine Corps League. But the Navy and Marine Corps will not benefit from the sort of public relations which attended the fatal exer cises in South Boston. According to Police Commissioner Sullivan, the Boston Police Department was not consulted “in any way, shape or manner” regarding the show, beyond a request to supply a police detail. A Navy spokesman said the Navy “as sumed” that police arrangements had been made by the Marine Corps League. Com missioner Sullivan indicated he would have advised against holding the demon stration if he had been consulted, because the spot picked is in a populated area. But for the police detail, he said, others might have been killed or injured when a mortar on shore exploded. A woman spectator was struck by a stone believed hurled by an underwater explosion. The demonstration included TNT blasts by underwater demolition teams and simu lated dive-bombing attacks on landing craft, tanks and troops by air units. Mock war games as realistic as those held in Boston are dangerous enough when staged in the wide open spaces, but they are a necessary part of our defense train ing that cannot safely be neglected. The Boston exercises should bring an official ban on the holding of any such maneuvers in built-up communities. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “ARLINGTON. “Dear Sir: “I wonder if you could tell me why huge black ants come in like an army through a crack under the front screen and big door and march up the side of the door to the picture molding next to the ceiling. “I find others on the wall of the upper stairway marching into the top door trim ming. "Earlier I found huge red ants coming under the back screen door all over the back hall and kitchen walls. “I combat them, but what do they want? “Respectfully, G. R. D.” * * * * - Ants are always on the go. Propelled by their instinct of the hive, or nest, they search for safe living quarters and for food. These two aims consume their lives. You may be sure that when ants swarm, or go in "armies,” they are after one or the other. Some ants bore in wood. There must always be a suspicion that ants indoors may be after a safe hiding place, in which pursuit they may cause wood damage. The carpenter ant, for instance, is one of the largest—and is entirely black. They usually stick to the woods, espe cially to a fallen tree. Sometimes a stump suits them. Often a little sawdust gives them away. The interior is carved in a marvelous group of passages and rooms. Divisions between cells and passages are as thin as paper. The ants do all this with their Jaws. They can bore, chisel and carve with them. If something hits the stump a blow, the ants are in a turmoil instantly. They must see to it that the young ones are taken down quickly. Each mature ant takes a young one and bodily carries him down into the passages. Ants are marvelous in their ability to carry large insects as food. Coming to the nest, they work to get the big insect into the right position, then shove it down a passageway. Everything they do must be done in the dark, of course. It is not known whether they have some sixth sense, or utilise un known powers of radar, in doing all their interior work in the darkness. They fight with their jaws, and also are acid throwers. There is no conception in the ant world of anything being under handed. They use formic acid to throw on each other, and that is all right in the ant world, which is a sort of communism. They have no rebels. Each one does what he does according to the way he is bom and the food he has received. They have courage, it is true, but also slavery; they have industry, but also no regard for others; they might be called patriotic, in their odd way, but have constant war and destruction. In their way they take-care of each other. The young ants we attended by older ones, which unfold the legs of the young ones as they come from the cocoons. * * * * Prom the earliest days the ants have interested mankind. In the Bible we find: “Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways and be wise. Which having no chief, overseer or ruler, provldeth her bread in the summer and gathereth her food in the harvest.” Our correspondent may feel that the armies of ants are after food, then, and may be they are. There are on the market various small metal containers called ant traps. They may be secured at hardware stores. These will attract ants and kill most of them. They should be so placed that children and pets cannot get at them. Ants make slaves of other ants, and, some species are so dependent upon their/ slave ants that they cannot feed themselves! Ants may not have “chiefs,” but they do have queens. Several queens live together in the same hill. Queens and worker ants Hve as long as six or seven years, but males die young. All in all, being wise in the ways of the ant scarcely appeals to the modern Ameri can. We like our democracy and our equal ity, and we can see nothing in ant, wasp or any other form of communism to attract go getters. ..*•* Letters to The Star Two Views of Teachers Of Children in Atypical Schools. To the Editor of the 8t»r: I'm accustomed to writing for the news pages rather than the editorial section of a newspaper, but somehow I felt I must answer the letter signed “Teacher” on your editorial page of the edition of The Star, dated September 28. Strangely enough this stupid letter (I dare call it stupid because I believe I am better informed) occupied much space on the letter page. "Teacher's” facts are forcefully stated and the letter seems authentic. First of all she lays much stress on the fact that people like Unruh, the Camden, N. J., killer are “atypical,” meaning I pre sume “different.” "backward,” and “mal adjusted.” I differ with her. Unruh is not backward, nor atypical. He never at tended the type of school she excoriates in the District of Columbia. Its the over-brilliant, smart aleck or just plain "bright,” good or so-called good boy who occasionally goes berserk due to other strains and stresses than “atypical” causes. Unruh was a product of the “hate school.” He had been taught to hate as a child. And he hated Mr. Cohen the druggist next door who was prospering as a pharmacist. He (Unruh) had attended a school for phar macy in Philadelphia. Unruh was educated, had served honorably in the armed forces, was a devoted student of the Bible. Is all that atypical or is this “Teacher” really stupid? It was envy and hatred of Mr. Cohen the druggist which led him to hatred of all of his neighbors—all of those in business on the street where he ran wildly shooting down everyone in his way. They typified success to him and he hadn t made the grade in the pharmacy school. V This “Teacher” fears for the atypical child of Washington. Well, she needn’t. If she were reporting the truth, she could tell what actually happens in Washington schools where the “different” child is sent. She could tell you that often this so-called different or atypical child needn’t be sent out of his regular school or grade. It is the lazy, stupid teacher w'ho finds something wrong or unpleasant about a child and condemns him to attendance at one of these schools. But these boys usually are nice youngsters, sometimes with a speech difficulty and sometimes with very poor parents who can’t dress them respectably. They are not potential killers. They often turn out to be artists—men who love their fellow men and try to help them. R. S. i _. I I To the Editor of the Star: _ On September 28. a letter appeared in your column regarding •typical children. The letter was signed "Teacher." While I agree with most of the remarks in that letter I would like to add a few of my own, My son is attending one of these classes provided by the District of Columbia public school system. While there always is ex treme need for further advancement in this as in every field of education, I feel that this city is making great progress in regard to the retarded child. , ^ , My youngster has attended public and private schools in several States. I feel that he now is getting training and education equivalent to one of the finest private schools in the country where the tuition was $200 a month. He is getting this same schooling ih the District of Columbia with no tuition although most of the credit for that goes to his teacher who buys much of her working material with part of her own insufficient pay check. _ . As for inexperienced or unqualified teach ers for special classes I sincerely hope the writer of the September 28 letter did not mean to stress the number of M. A. or PhX>. degrees that a teacher has, for It is my opinion that it takes far more than a de gree to make a good teacher. Many of these children are not maladjusted because of wrong training or for lack of interest in the home. Some have started life with less than an average chance because of birth injuries or prenatal lack of development. They are difficult to teach. The real purpose of this letter is to give a word of thanks for the D. C. teachers who are doing this work despite the lack of co-operation they sometimes find about them and to express deep appreciation for their patience, their ability to teach <which is not measured by a college degree) and above all for their continued interest in these children. A MOTHER. A Mother Pleads for Funds To Maintain Day-Care Centers To the Editor of the Star: I am one of the mothers who for the past five months have been doing everything possible to get full appropriations for the ehild day-care centers. These centers take care of children from the age of 2 up to and including children in school. Mothers don’t put their children in these centers to go shopping or to play bridge, nor do they work in order to be able to buy fur coats. We put our children in these centers be cause we are divorced or deserted or because our husbands are ill and can’t work. There are some whose husbands are dead. Yes. some whose husbands died in military service. I have done everything possible to try to get the Senate to pass this bill. Why should the public not look at these centers in the same light as it does on schools for very young children? The money appropriated for these centers is used mostly for maintenance of the buildings and to pay the teachers. We mothers pay a fee which provides most of the food. The centers are open 12 hours a day, which means a teacher and a half for each group of children. Would not the taxpayers’ burden be larger if we mothers didn’t pay taxes but were supported by welfare agencies? We cer tainly can’t leave a 2 Vi-year-old child to shift for himself, can we? We can give billions of aid to European children. But doesn’t charity begin at home, if you want to call this charity? I pay $5.50 a week to have my child taken care of. Is that charity? I agree I would have to pay more for private care and not receive half as much care. The question is: Should our children run loose while we mothers work? They probably would wind up as delinquents if they had no supervision. If they did, the public would be supporting them anyway in delinquent homes. MRS. HELEN SIMBORSKL Dissents From Mr. Dawson’s Views On Catholic Activities To the Editor of the 8t»r: In an article appearing in The Star on September 27, Joseph M. Dawson, Executive Director of the Baptist Joint Conference and Committee on Public Relations, regis tered objection to “Catholics changing our Constitution or gaining control of our gov ernmental machinery.” But the record of American Catholics for the 175 years of our national existence is open to all to to examine. Will Mr. Dawson kindly give instances to substantiate the charges contained in his statement? Perhaps he sees a changing of the Con stitution in Catholic opposition to the ex clusion of non-State school children from certain non-religious benefits in the Federal Aid to Education bills. Actually it is Mr. Dawson who wishes to change the Constitution. The clear intent of the Bill of Rights is to prevent favoring one denomination over another. Mr. Daw son interprets it as forbidding all aid, even indirect, that may be favorable to the Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it Is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. churches, even when absolute impartiality is observed. I challenge Mr. Dawson to state publicly that he is so opposed to co-operation be tween church and state that he insists upon a discontinuance of tax exemption for church properties and tax support for sec tarian chaplain work in the armed forces. DUNCAN BURGOYNE. Differs With Editorial On Parental Delinquency To the Editor of the Star: Your editorial of September 22 on parental delinquency indicates that you have no more understanding of children and their needs than does Police Captain Thompson of the Bethesda substation. If you search your memory a bit, it seems highly probable that you will remember having investigated a new building when you were a child or—if you grew up in a decaying neighborhood—a "haunted” house. And think back as to what you did when you were there! The children of the Bethesda area, on the whole, are good normal children. Their par ents are making a valuable contribution to society in bringing up the coming generation, and they have worked hard to bring them up properly and normally. Then unthinking contractors provide attractive nuisances, which tempt children to do dangerous and sometimes damaging things. Property own ers who leave things lie about or place valu able and breakable objects in exposed posi tions also provide temptations for normal children. Then they raise a hue and erv if the things they fail to care for properly are moved, broken or merely used by inquisitive youngsters. Finally, you take a position in print as bad as the worst! Can't you think back to the time when you were a kid? And can't •you remember doing any of those things you describe as "disgraceful juvenile epi sodes?” Most of us can. And we are not all jailbirds now either—because in our day, at least some people had a sympathetic under standing of children and their problems. D. R. H. Comment on "That Man" Who Insisted on Infallibility To the Editor of The Star: Thanks for printing those baseball pic- j tures (N. Y.-Red-Sox i. For the benefit of that man Grieve, it might be said that the same kind of in sistence on infallibility by race track judges brought on the photo-finish. In more than 35 years of actual and side line participation in baseball, the Grieve decision is the Century’s Mr. America. A tougher name would be more appropriate, however. MORE LIGHT. Calls on Negro Leadership To Erect Office Building Yo the Editor of The SUr: One of your more regular correspondents pays quite a tribute to the white people, by animating that association with them by colored people would make the Negroes ‘ first class citizens.” But it’s not quite as simple as that. First class citizenship is enjoyed by colored and white citizens in this country. What is it that the white people have that your correspondent envies? Is it the fine hotels and apartments that they have built, or is it the excellent theaters and restau rants? Is it the fine stores and shops or tie modern office buildings? Is it their choice of association and friendships, or something else? If these things are the ingredients of first class citizenship, then the over one-quarter million colored citizens in the District better get busy'and do some building of their own. What’s the matter with colored leadership that it can't erect a decent office build ing, restaurant or theater in the downtown district? The Negroes in the District are prosperous, but the Negro leadership frowns on any efforts of colored business men to erect a building for the accommodation of our colored people downtown. Why? They want to get in on a rain check without the investment of any money. Many citizens are becoming bored with the constant references to the Constitution. When the Constitution was written there were no colored people about, either to help write it or make any suggestions. However, tl*e Constitution says nothing about segre gation, which exists now and always will exist. You neither can raise nor reduce a man’s citizenship standing by legislative flat. LARRY DOOLEY. Believes U. S. Commercial Corporation Could Be Revived to Handle Surpluses. To ttao Miter ot Uio Star: At the recent meeting in Iowa of farmers and Republican leaders many of the farmers present went on record as being against the Brennan agriculture plan. It was suggested that the Federal Gov ernment take the surplus crops of our farm ers, then trade and barter same for com modities of foreign countries, turning some Into cash here: and that an agency should be set up for that purpose. We had such an agency, the United States Commercial Corporation, a subsidiary of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. This agency, when the war was over, took the Government surplus cotton at around 35 cents a pound, and traded it to the Japanese and the Chinese at the rate of 31 a pound for silk both finished and raw. The silk was brought to the United States and tfbld wholesale in and around New York City at a good profit. The 80th Republican Congress ordered liquidation of this and other agencies of the RFC. However, the unit easily could be reorganised to handle overseas products at a profit. Here is one obvious solution for the agri cultural surplus question. R. O’FARRELL. Cites Lincoln on Superior Rights Of Labor As Against Capital ft the Miter of the SUr: A recent letter to The 8tar advocated outlawing strikes whether the demands are just or unjust, pointing out that If wages are raised the cost of living goes up, gaining' nothing, losing much. First of all, the answer to how much labor is entitled to is found in this quotation from Lincoln: “Labor is prior to and independent of capital. Capital is pnly the fruit of labor. Inasmuch, as most things are produced by labor, it follows that all such things ef right belong to those whose labor has produced them. But it has so happened some have labored and others have without labor enjoyed the fruits.” . Yes, a strike hurts everyone. As soon as the workers see the utter futility of the strike as a weapon and become convinced of the marvel of an industrial union managing production for use, thep a democratic, peace ful “lock out” of that socially unnecessary class can come about: and all this with uninterrupted production. The advocated “labor court” solution is faulty. Courts are of no help or interest to laboring men. BILL ALLEN. The Political Mill Lucas-Dirksen Race Called No. 2 in Election Interest Defeat of Senate Democratic Leader Would Be Blow to tTruman By Gould Lincoln If the Taft contest in Ohio has become the Number 1 contest in next year’s congres sional elections, the Lucas-Dirksen race in Illinois for the Senate certainly looms as Number 2 in public interest. Senator Lucas is the Democratic leader of the Upper House and his elimination would necessarily be in terpreted as a blow to the Truman Adminis tration. Further, a Statewide defeat for the Truman Fair Dealers in Illinois would be interpreted as meaning that the farmers had gone back to voting Republican—after their lapse in 1848. It would, in other words, not be encouraging to President Truman and those of his supporters who wish him to run again. When Gov. Dewey was carry ing New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, big industrial States, last year, it was the farm States that pulled Mr. Truman through. Senator Lucas is definitely seeking renomi nation and re-election. That he can have the Democratic nomination is as certain as anything can be in politics. Everett McKin ley Dirksen, bom in 1896, the year that William McKinley trimmed William Jen nings Bryan for the presidency, looks now to be almost as certain of the Republican nomi nation. Already Campaigning. Leaders in the Illinois Republican organiza tion say as much, and Mr. Dirksen himself already is campaigning vigorously. Neither "Curly” Brooks nor Dick Lyons seemingly is going to seek the nomination. Mr. Brooks, who had one term as Senator and was defeated last year by Senator Douglas, Democrat, by a margin of 307,000 votes, seems to be as far out of the political pic ture right now as former Governor Dwight Green, who likewise was overwhelmingly beaten in 1048. Mr. Lyons was the Republi can nominee against Senator Lucas in 1944, and Mr. Lucas won by 217,000 votes. Mr. Dirksen is an old hand at the political game, though he has never run in a State wide contest for Congress before. He served in the House for sixteen years, representing the 16th district, a "down State” district. He became one of its foremost speakers. Because of trouble with his eyes, he de clined to run in 1948. Several years ago, Mr. Dirksen declared himself a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination. It was a lone wolf proposition, for the Republican organiza tion in his State took little interest in his campaign. However, Mr. Dirksen won him self a lot of friends, not only in Illinois but in other States. The Republican organization is looking for winners next year. Mr. Dirksen seems ready made, from their point of view. During his speeches about the State, Mr. Dirksen has stressed the need for governmental economy —and he has been saying that it is time this country stopped draining itself of dollars and goods to contribute to Europe and other foreign nations. Shift In Position. The Democrats comment that this is a shift in position for Mr. Dirksen who doling the war years went along with the Roosevelt foreign policy pretty well. However, mere is a growing sentiment in the Midwest along the line of Mr. Dirksen's thinking on this subject. Not so much an isolationist senti ment, however, as a desire to start saving dollars in .order to prevent an economic debacle in this country. Senator Lucas will be a difficult man to Deat, no matter who the Republicans nomi nate. He has won two elections to me Senate, the first time in 1938. At mat tune he was completing two terms in the House. A down Stater, too, he has been able to win considerable support from Republicans. He made himself solid with a lot of them when he delivered a speech in the House in i9o< vigorously attacking President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Supreme Court packing bill. Notwithstanding the fact he is kept closely in Washington by his duties as majority leader, Senator Lucas gets word to Illinois voters each week via the radio, over some 25 stations. Here is a contest in which the farm vote will play a tremendously important pait. If the Republicans fail to convince the farmers the GOP is their friend, the jig will be up. Questions and Answers A r._»er can tet the answer to any Question ol in., oy writing The Evening Star Information fcuioai., old aye »t. n.e.. Washlneton 2, D. C. Please Inclose 3 cents ter return postage. By THE HASEIN SERVICE. Q. What is the largest room ever built on a snip?—G.CJ3. A. The toain restaurant of the liner Queen Mary is the largest room ever built on a ship. It measures 18,720 square feet in area, is 160 feet long by 118 feet wide, and accom modates 815 passengers at one sitting. Q. Please name the westernmost town in the United States.—C.L. A. The U. S. Geological Survey says that the westernmost town name carried on most of the detailed maps of the West Coast is Ozette, Wash., a very small settlement lo cated in Clallam County at latitude 48.09 degrees, longitude 124.40 degrees. Q. Are karakul sheep bred in the United States?—Gi L. A. Karakul sheep were introduced into this country about 35 years ago and are being bred in various localities. Almost one third of the number of breeders are located in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Mature kara kuls have a gray pelt, while their offspring have jet black fur that is tightly curled and silky and is sold as Persian lamb. Q. Please explain how electronic cooking is done.—I.W.H. A. Electronic cooking is done by micro waves which cause excessive agitation of the molecules and produce heat by friction. The electronic range produces energy in the same way that a radio transmitter does, but the energy is directed into the oven instead of out into space. The waves enter through a glass window in the rear of a stainless steel cubical oven and a radio antenna in the top of the oven revolves to help dis tribute the energy evenly._ October, Burn Your Candles October, burn your candles at both ends— Lest they be far from, finished when November, Snuffing the last one carelessly, extends Her frosty blanket over earth. Remember That every black-eyed Susan bud must bloom, Each gentian fringe, and maples flame until The memory of them can abolish gloom. Arrange for not a few, but every hill To wear its golden slope, its sumac burn* ing, Its scarf of haze, and never fear your ' sky May be too azure, nor the birds returning Southward may pass too bronzy-breasted by. The winter will be puritan, and cold October, give us all your gypsy-gold! ELAINE V. EMAN8.