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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, October 01, 1949, Image 6

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With Sunday Morning Edition.
WASHINGTON. 0. C
Published by
The Evening Star Newspaper Company.
SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President.
B. M. McKELWAY, Editor.
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SATURDAY, Ocfobtr 1, 1949
Day Care Centers
5 One may sympathize with the sentiment
to restore the full appropriation for day
pare centers without agreeing that such
restoration is wise.
4 This experiment in public daytime care
Of the children of working mothers was
undertaken during the war, with support
from Federal funds. It was looked upon
as an advisable method of increasing
depleted manpower for war work. It
enabled many mothers to go to work in
war plants—and in comparable work here
in Washington—who otherwise would have
been kept at home by the needs of their
little children.
After the war there was an effort to
continue the experiment, not as an in
dustrial necessity, but as a social or
welfare necessity. Of course, it is not
a social necessity. It is a great con
venience to a limited number of parents.
But because it is so limited, it is discrim
inatory. It provides public facilities, sup
ported mainly with public funds, to a
handful of parents. If such facilities are
to be provided at all by Government, they
should be available to everybody. The
expense of the centers is so high that
the community could not possibly under
take to extend their benefits to everybody
who wanted them, or who might qualify
under some means test as eligible. The
present cost per child from public funds—
exclusive of the amount contributed by
parents able to make some contribution—
runs about $367, as compared with the
$122-a-year cost of educating a child in
the elementary grades of public school.
The number of centers now operated
has decreased from twelve, with 400 chil
dren enrolled in 1947, to six, with about
272 children in attendance. The House
and the Senate Appropriations Committee
reduced the current appropriation of $100,
000 to $50,000 for the next fiscal year,
which would cut them down still more.
The Senate, however; has restored the full
amount. It would be wiser to let the
centers gradually go out of existence as a
public charge. They represent a luxury,
maintained for the benefit of a few
parents, which cannot be justified as a
responsibility of the community or as a
legitimate charge against public funds.
The Sturdy Swiss Franc
Amid the avalanche of monetary devalu
ations which followed the unexpectedly
drastic cut in British pound sterling, one
currency continues to stand firm as a
financial rock of Gibraltar. This is the
Swiss franc.
By monetary experts everywhere, that
Is considered an extraordinary perform
ance, because the Swiss franc has been
under tremendous pressure, psychological
even more than tangible. Uneasiness was
widespread in Switzerland itself, because
at first sight it seemed inevitable that, at
the present Swiss franc parity, a 30 per
cent devaluation of the pound and most
other European currencies would alto
gether exclude Swiss exports from those
markets. This would be disastrous, be
cause Switzerland produces only about
one half its food and virtually no raw
materials for its industry. Consequently,
it must import more than 30 per cent
of its total production, compared with
less than 10 per cent in the United States.
Moreover, as nearly every European coun
try devalued its currency, Swiss invisible
exports, especially its tourist business,
seemed vitally hit. Indeed, it was feared
that the Swiss themselves might be
tempted to spend their holidays in neigh
boring lands.
This wave of pessimism notably affected
the alien owners of liquid capital which
had sought refuge in Switzerland as the
safest haven in an uncertain world,
together with a swarm of exchange specu
lators, mostly foreigners, who had made
the Swiss “free” currency market their
base of operations. Jumping to the con
clusion that Switzerland would soon be
forced to devaluate, these financial “nerv
ous Nellies” stampeded out of the Swiss
franc, first ^nto the American dollar and
then into currencies like sterling which
seemed safe because it had been drastic
ally devaluated. This meant, among other
things, that Swiss bonds in unparalleled
quantities were thrown onto the market
to procure francs for buying dollars. And
some Swiss Investors became Infected with
the scare.
However, Swiss high finance remained
unperturbed. The Swiss National Bank
calmly met all demands for dollars at the
official rate of 4.31 Vi, while the Swiss
Federal Council soon issued a strong
official declaration that no reason what
ever existed for changing the present gold
parity of the franc. Thereupon, pessimism
abated and it is generally agreed that the
near-panic is over.
As a result of maturer appraisal, mone
tary experts are generally convinced that,
technically, the Swiss franc is impregnable.
The Swiss National Bank’s gold holdings
and monetary reserves are more than
enough to cover the entire outstanding
note issue and all other liabilities now in
sight. Only if Switzerland were unable
to maintain exports, visible and invisible,
so as to keep its balance of payments in
equilibrium, would a readjustment of
the value of the franc in terms of gold
become necessary. And while such an '
eventuality is not theoretically excluded,
there is nothing to indicate that it is
imminent, while there is considerable
evidence that the consequences of devalu
ation in other countries will not be nearly
as serious as was at first feared. Despite
sterling devaluation, British export prices
should remain high enough to keep Swiss
products competitive in many lines. In
deed, all countries that have devalued will
have to pay more for imported foodstuffs
and raw materials, and those increased
costs combined with contingent labor
pressure for compensatory wage advances
should limit export price cuts or even
lead to rising price scales. On the other
| hand, production costs in Switzerland will
! tend to decline, because most Swiss im
ports of foodstuffs and raw materials come
from countries that have devalued their
currencies. Even the tourist business will
presumably not be as badly hit as was at
first feared, because, since no franc de
valuation has occurred, travel costs in
Switzerland will not be increased. This
applies especially to guests from the
United States and other countries not
affected by devaluations. Incidentally,
the United States is a major Swiss export
market, while it and other undevalued
lands account for nearly one half of Swiss
export totals.
These and other favoring factors under
line Switzerland’s basic financial strength
and econorfdgsstability—a cheering portent
amid current economic confusions and
uncertainties.
Moscow Scraps Yugoslav Treaty
Moscow’s summary denunciation of the
“treaty of friendship, mutual alliance and
postwar co-operation” between Soviet
Russia and Yugoslavia. is perhaps even
more significant for the reasons alleged
as justification than for the action itself.
Every step in the noisy quarrel between
the two countries made it increasingly
obvious that this treaty, concluded with
such fanfare of fraternity between Marshal
Tito and Vyacheslav Molotov, had become
a farce. Its formal scrapping by Moscow
is therefore as logical as it was eventually
to be expected, and, as indicated by the
action of Poland and Hungary, presumably
will be followed by a similar breaking of
treaty links between all of Russia’s obedient
satellites and the contumacious Yugoslavs.
Whether this virtual severance of diplo
matic relations between the Soviet bloc and
Yugoslavia is, or is not, the prelude to open
hostilities, cannot accurately be forecast,
though the Soviet-Yugoslav crisis has
thereby been further exacerbated.
What was not so predictable is Moscow’s
justification for this drastic diplomatic
step. It rests exclusively upon the recent
treason trial held in Budapest, Hungary.
There, the chief defendants, former top
notch members of the Hungarian Commu
nist Rgrty, “confessed” to treasonable
dealings with the Yugoslav government—
and also with American diplomats and
other official agents then in Hungary.
These "confessions” Moscow takes at full
face value, although Marshal Tito has
denounced them as a phony Comintern
propaganda stunt, and although the ac
cused Americans have branded them as
the most arrant nonsense. This linking
of the United States with Yugoslavia in
subversive plotting aimed at both the
Commmunist regime in Hungary and its
mentor, the Soviet Union, renders the
entire testimony highly suspect.
Nevertheless, the Soviet note to Yugo
slavia goes all out on the assumption of
joint Yugoslav and American complicity.
It asserts categorically that the Budapest
treason trials “revealed that the Yugoslav
government has already for a long time
been carrying on profoundly hostile dis
ruptive propaganda against the Soviet
Union.” The note then goes on to assert:
“The Budapest trial has also shown that
the leaders of the Yugoslav government
have conducted and are continuing to
conduct their hostile and disruptive work
against the U. S. S. R. not only on their
own initiative but under the direct in
structions of foreign imperialist circles
• • • that the present Yugoslav government
is completely dependent on foreign im
perialist circles and has become trans
formed into an instrument of war of their
aggressive policy.”
Considering the basis on which they are
made, these allegations would be astound
ing if they had not been made by a govern
ment whose diplomatic methods violate all
accepted canons of International comity.
Moscow’s note will convince few persons
outside the Iron Curtain except Commu
nists. Under these circumstances one can
only speculate why Moscow chose to base
its action solely on such flimsy grounds.
But since Moscow rarely acts precipitately,
it is reasonable to assume there must be a
motive satisfactory, at least, to the Soviet
high command. What that motive is will
presumably soon be disclosed.
'Jakey' Devers Retires
General Jacob L. Devers, retiring from
the Army today after forty-four years of
active service, has seen revolutionary
changes in the science of warfare since
he began to study it at West Point back
in 1905. He saw the advent of the air
plane as a military weapon; he helped
to develop the tank as an infantry spear
head and he has had a part in revising
strategy and tactics to meet requirements
of an atomic age. But he leaves his last
command, the Army Field Forces, with
the deep conviction that victory in an
atomic war will entail more than strategic
bombing or push-button-directed rocket
assaults.
"Jakey” Devers, as he is popularly known
to his fellow fighters, was never given to
reticence on matters which he felt quali
fied to discuss. And, with good cause, he
has felt qualified to express himself force
fully on the role of ground troops In any
future world war. From his recent public
comments, it is evident that he does not
believe he is saying good-bye today to a
dying military arm. On the contrary, he
foresees a vital, if grim, future for the
foot soldier and his supporting weapons
in an atomic conflict. Not long ago he
warned the American people not to be
“deceived by those who say that any
future war will be wholly a push-button
affair.” It may begin, he said, with the
pushing of a button in some remote
rocket-launching site, but he is sure that
it will end only when infantrymen capture
and occupy the enemy's strong points.
It was because of this conviction that
he has Insisted that the Air Force give
adequate emphasis to tactical as well as
strategic air power—to the close support
of armored columns and infantry divisions
on the field of combat. In this stand he
has been stanchly backed by General
Bradley and other believers in the indis
pensability of ground forces. General
Devers’ advice and experience will be
missed by the Army. Fortunately, his
place of well-earned retirement near
Herndon is not so far from the Pentagon
as to preclude ready access to his views
upon some future occasion. That he will
continue to give the military establish
ment well-reasoned, objective counsel
whenever called upon can be taken for
granted.
Not the Place for War Games
The mock amphibious assault Thursday
on a Boston “beachhead,” resulting in the
death of a news photographer, the injury
of three naval officers and the endangering
of civilian spectators, was a good example
of how not to stage peacetime maneuvers.
Simulated warfare of the type which ended
in this tragic accident is all right in a
proper location, but a spot within city
limits where thousands of persons, includ
ing children released from school, have
congregated is not a proper place.
The spectacular demonstration was a
public relations stunt in connection with
the annual convention of the Marine Corps
League. But the Navy and Marine Corps
will not benefit from the sort of public
relations which attended the fatal exer
cises in South Boston. According to Police
Commissioner Sullivan, the Boston Police
Department was not consulted “in any
way, shape or manner” regarding the show,
beyond a request to supply a police detail.
A Navy spokesman said the Navy “as
sumed” that police arrangements had been
made by the Marine Corps League. Com
missioner Sullivan indicated he would
have advised against holding the demon
stration if he had been consulted, because
the spot picked is in a populated area.
But for the police detail, he said, others
might have been killed or injured when
a mortar on shore exploded. A woman
spectator was struck by a stone believed
hurled by an underwater explosion. The
demonstration included TNT blasts by
underwater demolition teams and simu
lated dive-bombing attacks on landing
craft, tanks and troops by air units.
Mock war games as realistic as those
held in Boston are dangerous enough when
staged in the wide open spaces, but they
are a necessary part of our defense train
ing that cannot safely be neglected. The
Boston exercises should bring an official
ban on the holding of any such maneuvers
in built-up communities.
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell
“ARLINGTON.
“Dear Sir:
“I wonder if you could tell me why huge
black ants come in like an army through
a crack under the front screen and big door
and march up the side of the door to the
picture molding next to the ceiling.
“I find others on the wall of the upper
stairway marching into the top door trim
ming.
"Earlier I found huge red ants coming
under the back screen door all over the back
hall and kitchen walls.
“I combat them, but what do they want?
“Respectfully, G. R. D.”
* * * *
- Ants are always on the go.
Propelled by their instinct of the hive,
or nest, they search for safe living quarters
and for food.
These two aims consume their lives.
You may be sure that when ants swarm,
or go in "armies,” they are after one or
the other.
Some ants bore in wood. There must
always be a suspicion that ants indoors
may be after a safe hiding place, in which
pursuit they may cause wood damage.
The carpenter ant, for instance, is one
of the largest—and is entirely black.
They usually stick to the woods, espe
cially to a fallen tree. Sometimes a stump
suits them.
Often a little sawdust gives them away.
The interior is carved in a marvelous group
of passages and rooms.
Divisions between cells and passages are
as thin as paper. The ants do all this with
their Jaws. They can bore, chisel and carve
with them.
If something hits the stump a blow, the
ants are in a turmoil instantly. They must
see to it that the young ones are taken
down quickly.
Each mature ant takes a young one and
bodily carries him down into the passages.
Ants are marvelous in their ability to
carry large insects as food. Coming to the
nest, they work to get the big insect into
the right position, then shove it down a
passageway.
Everything they do must be done in the
dark, of course. It is not known whether
they have some sixth sense, or utilise un
known powers of radar, in doing all their
interior work in the darkness.
They fight with their jaws, and also are
acid throwers. There is no conception in
the ant world of anything being under
handed. They use formic acid to throw on
each other, and that is all right in the
ant world, which is a sort of communism.
They have no rebels. Each one does what
he does according to the way he is bom
and the food he has received. They have
courage, it is true, but also slavery; they
have industry, but also no regard for
others; they might be called patriotic, in
their odd way, but have constant war and
destruction.
In their way they take-care of each other.
The young ants we attended by older ones,
which unfold the legs of the young ones as
they come from the cocoons.
* * * *
Prom the earliest days the ants have
interested mankind.
In the Bible we find:
“Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider
her ways and be wise. Which having no
chief, overseer or ruler, provldeth her bread
in the summer and gathereth her food in
the harvest.”
Our correspondent may feel that the
armies of ants are after food, then, and
may be they are.
There are on the market various small
metal containers called ant traps. They
may be secured at hardware stores. These
will attract ants and kill most of them.
They should be so placed that children and
pets cannot get at them.
Ants make slaves of other ants, and, some
species are so dependent upon their/ slave
ants that they cannot feed themselves!
Ants may not have “chiefs,” but they do
have queens. Several queens live together
in the same hill. Queens and worker ants
Hve as long as six or seven years, but males
die young.
All in all, being wise in the ways of the
ant scarcely appeals to the modern Ameri
can. We like our democracy and our equal
ity, and we can see nothing in ant, wasp or
any other form of communism to attract go
getters.
..*•* Letters to The Star
Two Views of Teachers
Of Children in Atypical Schools.
To the Editor of the 8t»r:
I'm accustomed to writing for the news
pages rather than the editorial section of
a newspaper, but somehow I felt I must
answer the letter signed “Teacher” on your
editorial page of the edition of The Star,
dated September 28.
Strangely enough this stupid letter (I dare
call it stupid because I believe I am better
informed) occupied much space on the letter
page. "Teacher's” facts are forcefully stated
and the letter seems authentic.
First of all she lays much stress on the
fact that people like Unruh, the Camden,
N. J., killer are “atypical,” meaning I pre
sume “different.” "backward,” and “mal
adjusted.” I differ with her. Unruh is
not backward, nor atypical. He never at
tended the type of school she excoriates in
the District of Columbia.
Its the over-brilliant, smart aleck or just
plain "bright,” good or so-called good boy
who occasionally goes berserk due to other
strains and stresses than “atypical” causes.
Unruh was a product of the “hate school.”
He had been taught to hate as a child. And
he hated Mr. Cohen the druggist next door
who was prospering as a pharmacist. He
(Unruh) had attended a school for phar
macy in Philadelphia. Unruh was educated,
had served honorably in the armed forces,
was a devoted student of the Bible. Is all
that atypical or is this “Teacher” really
stupid?
It was envy and hatred of Mr. Cohen
the druggist which led him to hatred of all
of his neighbors—all of those in business
on the street where he ran wildly shooting
down everyone in his way. They typified
success to him and he hadn t made the
grade in the pharmacy school. V
This “Teacher” fears for the atypical
child of Washington. Well, she needn’t.
If she were reporting the truth, she could
tell what actually happens in Washington
schools where the “different” child is sent.
She could tell you that often this so-called
different or atypical child needn’t be sent
out of his regular school or grade. It is
the lazy, stupid teacher w'ho finds something
wrong or unpleasant about a child and
condemns him to attendance at one of
these schools. But these boys usually are
nice youngsters, sometimes with a speech
difficulty and sometimes with very poor
parents who can’t dress them respectably.
They are not potential killers. They often
turn out to be artists—men who love their
fellow men and try to help them. R. S.
i _.
I
I To the Editor of the Star: _
On September 28. a letter appeared in
your column regarding •typical children.
The letter was signed "Teacher." While I
agree with most of the remarks in that
letter I would like to add a few of my own,
My son is attending one of these classes
provided by the District of Columbia public
school system. While there always is ex
treme need for further advancement in this
as in every field of education, I feel that this
city is making great progress in regard to
the retarded child. , ^ ,
My youngster has attended public and
private schools in several States. I feel that
he now is getting training and education
equivalent to one of the finest private
schools in the country where the tuition
was $200 a month. He is getting this same
schooling ih the District of Columbia with
no tuition although most of the credit for
that goes to his teacher who buys much of
her working material with part of her own
insufficient pay check. _ .
As for inexperienced or unqualified teach
ers for special classes I sincerely hope the
writer of the September 28 letter did not
mean to stress the number of M. A. or PhX>.
degrees that a teacher has, for It is my
opinion that it takes far more than a de
gree to make a good teacher. Many of
these children are not maladjusted because
of wrong training or for lack of interest in
the home. Some have started life with less
than an average chance because of birth
injuries or prenatal lack of development.
They are difficult to teach.
The real purpose of this letter is to give
a word of thanks for the D. C. teachers
who are doing this work despite the lack
of co-operation they sometimes find about
them and to express deep appreciation for
their patience, their ability to teach <which
is not measured by a college degree) and
above all for their continued interest in
these children. A MOTHER.
A Mother Pleads for Funds
To Maintain Day-Care Centers
To the Editor of the Star:
I am one of the mothers who for the past
five months have been doing everything
possible to get full appropriations for the
ehild day-care centers. These centers take
care of children from the age of 2 up to and
including children in school. Mothers don’t
put their children in these centers to go
shopping or to play bridge, nor do they
work in order to be able to buy fur coats.
We put our children in these centers be
cause we are divorced or deserted or because
our husbands are ill and can’t work. There
are some whose husbands are dead. Yes.
some whose husbands died in military
service.
I have done everything possible to try to
get the Senate to pass this bill. Why
should the public not look at these
centers in the same light as it does on
schools for very young children? The money
appropriated for these centers is used mostly
for maintenance of the buildings and to pay
the teachers. We mothers pay a fee which
provides most of the food. The centers are
open 12 hours a day, which means a teacher
and a half for each group of children.
Would not the taxpayers’ burden be larger
if we mothers didn’t pay taxes but were
supported by welfare agencies? We cer
tainly can’t leave a 2 Vi-year-old child to
shift for himself, can we?
We can give billions of aid to European
children. But doesn’t charity begin at home,
if you want to call this charity? I pay
$5.50 a week to have my child taken
care of. Is that charity? I agree I would
have to pay more for private care and not
receive half as much care. The question
is: Should our children run loose while
we mothers work? They probably would
wind up as delinquents if they had no
supervision. If they did, the public would
be supporting them anyway in delinquent
homes. MRS. HELEN SIMBORSKL
Dissents From Mr. Dawson’s Views
On Catholic Activities
To the Editor of the 8t»r:
In an article appearing in The Star on
September 27, Joseph M. Dawson, Executive
Director of the Baptist Joint Conference
and Committee on Public Relations, regis
tered objection to “Catholics changing our
Constitution or gaining control of our gov
ernmental machinery.”
But the record of American Catholics for
the 175 years of our national existence is
open to all to to examine. Will Mr. Dawson
kindly give instances to substantiate the
charges contained in his statement?
Perhaps he sees a changing of the Con
stitution in Catholic opposition to the ex
clusion of non-State school children from
certain non-religious benefits in the Federal
Aid to Education bills.
Actually it is Mr. Dawson who wishes to
change the Constitution. The clear intent
of the Bill of Rights is to prevent favoring
one denomination over another. Mr. Daw
son interprets it as forbidding all aid, even
indirect, that may be favorable to the
Letters for publication must bear
the signature and address of the
writer, although it Is permissible for
a writer known to The Star to use
a nom de plume. Please be brief.
churches, even when absolute impartiality
is observed.
I challenge Mr. Dawson to state publicly
that he is so opposed to co-operation be
tween church and state that he insists upon
a discontinuance of tax exemption for
church properties and tax support for sec
tarian chaplain work in the armed forces.
DUNCAN BURGOYNE.
Differs With Editorial
On Parental Delinquency
To the Editor of the Star:
Your editorial of September 22 on parental
delinquency indicates that you have no more
understanding of children and their needs
than does Police Captain Thompson of the
Bethesda substation. If you search your
memory a bit, it seems highly probable that
you will remember having investigated a
new building when you were a child or—if
you grew up in a decaying neighborhood—a
"haunted” house. And think back as to what
you did when you were there!
The children of the Bethesda area, on the
whole, are good normal children. Their par
ents are making a valuable contribution to
society in bringing up the coming generation,
and they have worked hard to bring them up
properly and normally. Then unthinking
contractors provide attractive nuisances,
which tempt children to do dangerous and
sometimes damaging things. Property own
ers who leave things lie about or place valu
able and breakable objects in exposed posi
tions also provide temptations for normal
children. Then they raise a hue and erv if
the things they fail to care for properly are
moved, broken or merely used by inquisitive
youngsters.
Finally, you take a position in print as
bad as the worst! Can't you think back to
the time when you were a kid? And can't
•you remember doing any of those things
you describe as "disgraceful juvenile epi
sodes?” Most of us can. And we are not all
jailbirds now either—because in our day, at
least some people had a sympathetic under
standing of children and their problems.
D. R. H.
Comment on "That Man"
Who Insisted on Infallibility
To the Editor of The Star:
Thanks for printing those baseball pic- j
tures (N. Y.-Red-Sox i.
For the benefit of that man Grieve, it
might be said that the same kind of in
sistence on infallibility by race track judges
brought on the photo-finish.
In more than 35 years of actual and side
line participation in baseball, the Grieve
decision is the Century’s Mr. America. A
tougher name would be more appropriate,
however. MORE LIGHT.
Calls on Negro Leadership
To Erect Office Building
Yo the Editor of The SUr:
One of your more regular correspondents
pays quite a tribute to the white people, by
animating that association with them by
colored people would make the Negroes
‘ first class citizens.”
But it’s not quite as simple as that. First
class citizenship is enjoyed by colored and
white citizens in this country.
What is it that the white people have that
your correspondent envies? Is it the fine
hotels and apartments that they have built,
or is it the excellent theaters and restau
rants? Is it the fine stores and shops or
tie modern office buildings? Is it their
choice of association and friendships, or
something else? If these things are the
ingredients of first class citizenship, then
the over one-quarter million colored citizens
in the District better get busy'and do some
building of their own.
What’s the matter with colored leadership
that it can't erect a decent office build
ing, restaurant or theater in the downtown
district? The Negroes in the District are
prosperous, but the Negro leadership frowns
on any efforts of colored business men to
erect a building for the accommodation of
our colored people downtown. Why? They
want to get in on a rain check without the
investment of any money.
Many citizens are becoming bored with
the constant references to the Constitution.
When the Constitution was written there
were no colored people about, either to help
write it or make any suggestions. However,
tl*e Constitution says nothing about segre
gation, which exists now and always will
exist. You neither can raise nor reduce a
man’s citizenship standing by legislative flat.
LARRY DOOLEY.
Believes U. S. Commercial Corporation
Could Be Revived to Handle Surpluses.
To ttao Miter ot Uio Star:
At the recent meeting in Iowa of farmers
and Republican leaders many of the farmers
present went on record as being against
the Brennan agriculture plan.
It was suggested that the Federal Gov
ernment take the surplus crops of our farm
ers, then trade and barter same for com
modities of foreign countries, turning some
Into cash here: and that an agency should
be set up for that purpose.
We had such an agency, the United States
Commercial Corporation, a subsidiary of the
Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
This agency, when the war was over, took
the Government surplus cotton at around 35
cents a pound, and traded it to the Japanese
and the Chinese at the rate of 31 a pound
for silk both finished and raw. The silk was
brought to the United States and tfbld
wholesale in and around New York City at
a good profit.
The 80th Republican Congress ordered
liquidation of this and other agencies of
the RFC. However, the unit easily could be
reorganised to handle overseas products at
a profit.
Here is one obvious solution for the agri
cultural surplus question.
R. O’FARRELL.
Cites Lincoln on Superior Rights
Of Labor As Against Capital
ft the Miter of the SUr:
A recent letter to The 8tar advocated
outlawing strikes whether the demands are
just or unjust, pointing out that If wages are
raised the cost of living goes up, gaining'
nothing, losing much.
First of all, the answer to how much labor
is entitled to is found in this quotation from
Lincoln: “Labor is prior to and independent
of capital. Capital is pnly the fruit of labor.
Inasmuch, as most things are produced by
labor, it follows that all such things ef right
belong to those whose labor has produced
them. But it has so happened some have
labored and others have without labor
enjoyed the fruits.” .
Yes, a strike hurts everyone. As soon as
the workers see the utter futility of the
strike as a weapon and become convinced of
the marvel of an industrial union managing
production for use, thep a democratic, peace
ful “lock out” of that socially unnecessary
class can come about: and all this with
uninterrupted production.
The advocated “labor court” solution is
faulty. Courts are of no help or interest to
laboring men. BILL ALLEN.
The Political Mill
Lucas-Dirksen Race Called
No. 2 in Election Interest
Defeat of Senate Democratic Leader
Would Be Blow to tTruman
By Gould Lincoln
If the Taft contest in Ohio has become the
Number 1 contest in next year’s congres
sional elections, the Lucas-Dirksen race in
Illinois for the Senate certainly looms as
Number 2 in public interest. Senator Lucas
is the Democratic leader of the Upper House
and his elimination would necessarily be in
terpreted as a blow to the Truman Adminis
tration. Further, a Statewide defeat for the
Truman Fair Dealers in Illinois would be
interpreted as meaning that the farmers
had gone back to voting Republican—after
their lapse in 1848. It would, in other words,
not be encouraging to President Truman
and those of his supporters who wish him
to run again. When Gov. Dewey was carry
ing New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania,
big industrial States, last year, it was the
farm States that pulled Mr. Truman
through.
Senator Lucas is definitely seeking renomi
nation and re-election. That he can have
the Democratic nomination is as certain as
anything can be in politics. Everett McKin
ley Dirksen, bom in 1896, the year that
William McKinley trimmed William Jen
nings Bryan for the presidency, looks now to
be almost as certain of the Republican nomi
nation.
Already Campaigning.
Leaders in the Illinois Republican organiza
tion say as much, and Mr. Dirksen himself
already is campaigning vigorously. Neither
"Curly” Brooks nor Dick Lyons seemingly
is going to seek the nomination. Mr.
Brooks, who had one term as Senator and
was defeated last year by Senator Douglas,
Democrat, by a margin of 307,000 votes,
seems to be as far out of the political pic
ture right now as former Governor Dwight
Green, who likewise was overwhelmingly
beaten in 1048. Mr. Lyons was the Republi
can nominee against Senator Lucas in 1944,
and Mr. Lucas won by 217,000 votes.
Mr. Dirksen is an old hand at the political
game, though he has never run in a State
wide contest for Congress before. He served
in the House for sixteen years, representing
the 16th district, a "down State” district.
He became one of its foremost speakers.
Because of trouble with his eyes, he de
clined to run in 1948.
Several years ago, Mr. Dirksen declared
himself a candidate for the Republican
presidential nomination. It was a lone wolf
proposition, for the Republican organiza
tion in his State took little interest in his
campaign. However, Mr. Dirksen won him
self a lot of friends, not only in Illinois but
in other States.
The Republican organization is looking for
winners next year. Mr. Dirksen seems ready
made, from their point of view. During his
speeches about the State, Mr. Dirksen has
stressed the need for governmental economy
—and he has been saying that it is time this
country stopped draining itself of dollars
and goods to contribute to Europe and other
foreign nations.
Shift In Position.
The Democrats comment that this is a
shift in position for Mr. Dirksen who doling
the war years went along with the Roosevelt
foreign policy pretty well. However, mere is
a growing sentiment in the Midwest along
the line of Mr. Dirksen's thinking on this
subject. Not so much an isolationist senti
ment, however, as a desire to start saving
dollars in .order to prevent an economic
debacle in this country.
Senator Lucas will be a difficult man to
Deat, no matter who the Republicans nomi
nate. He has won two elections to me
Senate, the first time in 1938. At mat tune
he was completing two terms in the House.
A down Stater, too, he has been able to win
considerable support from Republicans. He
made himself solid with a lot of them when
he delivered a speech in the House in i9o<
vigorously attacking President Franklin D.
Roosevelt's Supreme Court packing bill.
Notwithstanding the fact he is kept closely
in Washington by his duties as majority
leader, Senator Lucas gets word to Illinois
voters each week via the radio, over some 25
stations.
Here is a contest in which the farm vote
will play a tremendously important pait. If
the Republicans fail to convince the farmers
the GOP is their friend, the jig will be up.
Questions and Answers
A r._»er can tet the answer to any Question
ol in., oy writing The Evening Star Information
fcuioai., old aye »t. n.e.. Washlneton 2, D. C.
Please Inclose 3 cents ter return postage.
By THE HASEIN SERVICE.
Q. What is the largest room ever built on
a snip?—G.CJ3.
A. The toain restaurant of the liner Queen
Mary is the largest room ever built on a ship.
It measures 18,720 square feet in area, is
160 feet long by 118 feet wide, and accom
modates 815 passengers at one sitting.
Q. Please name the westernmost town in
the United States.—C.L.
A. The U. S. Geological Survey says that
the westernmost town name carried on most
of the detailed maps of the West Coast is
Ozette, Wash., a very small settlement lo
cated in Clallam County at latitude 48.09
degrees, longitude 124.40 degrees.
Q. Are karakul sheep bred in the United
States?—Gi L.
A. Karakul sheep were introduced into
this country about 35 years ago and are
being bred in various localities. Almost one
third of the number of breeders are located
in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Mature kara
kuls have a gray pelt, while their offspring
have jet black fur that is tightly curled and
silky and is sold as Persian lamb.
Q. Please explain how electronic cooking
is done.—I.W.H.
A. Electronic cooking is done by micro
waves which cause excessive agitation of
the molecules and produce heat by friction.
The electronic range produces energy in the
same way that a radio transmitter does, but
the energy is directed into the oven instead
of out into space. The waves enter through
a glass window in the rear of a stainless
steel cubical oven and a radio antenna in
the top of the oven revolves to help dis
tribute the energy evenly._
October, Burn Your Candles
October, burn your candles at both ends—
Lest they be far from, finished when
November,
Snuffing the last one carelessly, extends
Her frosty blanket over earth. Remember
That every black-eyed Susan bud must
bloom,
Each gentian fringe, and maples flame
until
The memory of them can abolish gloom.
Arrange for not a few, but every hill
To wear its golden slope, its sumac burn*
ing,
Its scarf of haze, and never fear your
' sky
May be too azure, nor the birds returning
Southward may pass too bronzy-breasted
by.
The winter will be puritan, and cold
October, give us all your gypsy-gold!
ELAINE V. EMAN8.

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