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WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by Thg Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY. Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Dolly and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly 1.20* Monthly _90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly _20c 10c per copy *10c additional when 5 Sundays are In a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition In those sections where delivery is made. Rates b/ Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month .. 1 JO 1 month ... 90c 1 month 60e 4 months.. 7.30 4 months .. 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year_15,00 1 year 10.00 1 year ..6.00 Telephone Sterling 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper, as well os all A. P. news dispatches. A—10 _FRIDAY, October 7, 1949 The Sasscer Bill Is Broad Surprising and regrettable was the action of the Arlington County Civic Fed eration in opposing the Sasscer bill to effect a better co-ordination of govern mental activities in the Washington Metropolitan Area. It is surprising be cause it had been expected that this im portant group would add its support to the Interfederation Council and other civic groups which favor passage of the Sasscer proposal for an interarea commis sion of inquiry. It is regrettable because the vote of the federation obviously was based on a misunderstanding of the broad objective of the measure. The federation’s Committee on Legisla tion and Legal Action apparently was under the impression that the Sasscer bill would apply chiefly to co-ordination of systems within the District-Maryland Virginia area. The committee, in advising against approval of the bill, made the curious statement that “there seems to be no purpose in considering tax matters, in the Metropolitan Area * * * except to im pose a sales tax on Virginia.” It is absurd, of course, to suggest that Congress or the proposed three-jurisdiction commission could “impose” a sales or any other kind of tax on a particular State. If Virginia adopts the sales tax, it will be because Its citizens vote it into existence. (Inci dentally, sixty-five out of the State’s one hundred boards of county supervisors are on record in favor of a sales tax.) It is true that the Sasscer bill specifies taxes as one of the problems to be studied by the proposed commission of inquiry. But the bill also directs the commission to study “other matters of general planning and regional operations” in the Metro politan Area. The commission would be created by compact among the jurisdic tions Involved, which means that the State Legislatures of Virginia and Maryland would have to approve the plan. The two States would have equal representation With the District on the commission. The Sasscer bill offers a splendid oppor tunity to explore the areas of conflict and confusion which now exist in various governmental operations in this vicinity. These areas include public utility regula tion, fire and police protection in fringe sections and sundry highway, parking, soning and other planning problems com mon to Washington and its suburbs. From such a study might come valuable recommendations for the better integration of inter jurisdictional policies and activ ities. Every civic organization in the Metropolitan Area should get behind this co-operative movement. Pioneering in Civilian Jets The Canadian aircraft industry has the distinction of being the first in the West ern Hemisphere to design, build and fly a Jet plane for civilian transport purposes. Like Britain—first in the world to produce euch a plane—our neighbor to the north thus is ahead of us in this field, for up to now no company in the United States has even started to construct a commercial Jetliner. As demonstrated in an impressive test flight over Toronto the other day, the new plane—called the Avro Jetliner, a product of A. V. Roe Canada Limited—is a swift, smooth and highly maneuverable four-engine craft capable of carrying 50 passengers at a cruising speed of about 430 miles an hour, or at least 100 miles faster than our fastest propeller-driven transports now in civilian domestic service. Unlike its British counterpart—which Is designed for non-stop trans-Atlantic flights at a speed of upwards of 500 miles an hour (lunch in New York and dine in London)—the Avro is limited to a range of about 1,000 miles, being meant specifi cally for relatively short-haul service be tween cities in Canada and the United 8tates. According to present plans, how ever, it is to be equipped eventually with much more powerful engines—a fact sug gesting that it will be developed for over the-ocean travel. It is unfortunate that America has let the British and Canadians take the lead in this field. Our plane manufacturers, of course, have not been idle in the design and production of jet fighters and jet bombers, but to date their output of commercial craft has been limited to the conventional propeller type. It has been suggested that the economics of the business—and perhaps public taste—do not warrant a heavy investment in civilian jetliners at this time, but in Britain and Canada the experts appear to think otherwise. In any case, regardless of the economic pros and cons, the fact remains that the United States has been content to let the British and Canadians do the trail-blaz ing in’ developing jets for civilian trans port. Manufacturers ip England and Canada, however, have had an advantage ever our own aviation industry, in that government subsidies have encouraged private firms to develop and produce jet transports. Here no such Federal aid has been available, although a bill Is pending In Congress to subsidize development of prototypes of new transport planes, in cluding jets. The progress being made A abroad in the jet airliner field may bring early legislative action. Without Federal assistance the aviation industry is likely to continue to lag behind that of other countries. French Cabinet Crisis The proffered resignation of Premier Henri Queullle presumably terminates a cabinet that has lasted more than a year —an unusual feat in postwar French politics. Its life was always tenuous, because it was a coalition of three parties with divergent ideas, especially on eco nomic matters. This trio were the Social ists, the Popular Republicans, and the Radicals—who, despite their name, are really laissez-faire liberals. The bond uniting them was a negative one—a com mon determination to keep the Commu nists and De Gaullists from splitting France on extremist lines and precipitat ing a politico-social crisis perhaps culmi nating in civil war. This middle-of-the-road coalition could work together as long as the dominant issues in French politics were political. But in recent months the emphasis shifted from politics to economics. Despite im provement in business and finance, France’s economy, like that of other European nations, rested on insecure foun dations. To begin with, there was the chronic unbalance between France and the dollar area, unredressed by Marshall Plan aid. Domestically, there was an unsound budgetary condition, revenue being insufficient to cover expenditures. Both of these factors were inflationary, resulting in a steady rise in the cost of living which bore hardest on the working classes. That, in turn, resulted in labor pressure to increase wages, which, if granted, would quicken the inflationary spiral. That was where the coalition govern ment threatened to fly apart. The Radicals wanted to freeze wages and prices, and to make cuts in the budget, in order to lessen the trend toward infla tion and promote financial stability. But the Socialists were for higher wage rates and against budget cuts because they were the champions of labor. Indeed, they felt that unless they took that stand they would lose out to the Communists, who were promising labor the moon, regardless of consequences to the French economy— which they wanted to smash in order to promote the chaos from which they might hope to profit. And the Socialists, though much reduced in parliamentary strength, had Just enough seats in the Chamber to prevent a middle-of-the-road cabinet from existing without their support. This wage-price split had long been latent. It was precipitated by Britain’s recent devaluation of the pound sterling, which forced a similar devaluation of the franc. But franc devaluation, while it aided French exports, increased the price of imports vitally needed to sustain France’s economy. Since most of those imports came from the dollar area, it meant a further rise in living costs. And that, in turn, intensified labor demands for higher wages. When Premier Queuille and his Radical colleagues refused to grant Social ist proposals for wage increases, the Socialists withdrew their support and the political fat was in the fire. French parliamentary politics are re sourceful, and it is not impossible that another middle-of-the-road cabinet may be patched together by a reshuffling of personalities and mutual compromises. None of the three parties Involved wants to open the door to the waiting extremists. Yet it is hard to see how any fresh com bination, however clever, can do more than adjourn an eventual showdown on economic attitudes and policies so incom patible. Sooner or later, France’s eco nomic problems must be resolutely faced. It is to be hoped that this will be done realistically rather than '’in terms of partisan politics. To do that would be to court disaster on the political as well as the economic plane. German Mark Imbroglio The controversies surrounding devalua tion of the Deutsche mark, the currency of Western Germany, are regrettable. They involve not only a clash between the new government of the Federal Republic of West Germany and the Western Allied High Commission but also differences of opinion among the Allies themselves as to the extent of devaluation. This makes for a rather scrambled situation whose consequences may be unfortunate. When Britain devalued the pound ster ling by approximately 30 per cent, it be came obvious that the Deutsche mark must be revalued along with most of the other continental European currencies. The trouble was that nobody was in precise agreement as to Just what cut in the mark’s value should be made. The Ger mans wanted a,deep slash from its pre vious rate of 30 cents (U. S.) to 22.5 cents, which would have been about commensu rate with the pound’s devaluation. The French, however, who were already pro testing Britain’s action as giving it an unfair advantage on the world’s trade markets, did not want the mark cut below 24 cents, asserting that the proposed Ger man rate would give West German exports a similarly unfair advantage. They also insisted on a special rate for Ruhr coal to prevent what they termed “dumping.” The Americans favored a mark cut very near to or identical with that proposed by the Germans, with the British seemingly somewhere in between. It was perhaps these inter-Allied dis agreements that emboldened the German chancellor, Dr. Adenauer, to come before the Parliament and reject the Allied com mission’s “proposal” that the rate be fixed at 23.8 cents—that figure obviously repre senting a compromise between the Ameri can and French viewpoints. Dr. Adenauer went on to challenge the commission’s right to decide questions of monetary ex change and foreign trade. And Parliament uproariously approved his forthright stand, all parties criticizing the Allied proposal as caused by selfish motives at the expense of the German people. However, the very next day, Chancellor Adenauer announced that the new rate for the mark would be 23.8095—virtually an acceptance of the Allied view. This obvious backdown followed a conference between the chancellor and the high com mission, the tenor of which can be judged by a communique issued immediately after the conference by the commission, which •aid that an exchange of views had taken place “with complete frankness” and that the Western Allies had given “the reason for their decision.” That word “decision” clearly meant that the high commission had asserted its paramount authority in the issue and that the chancellor had had to bow to It. The Deutsche mark is therefore devalued as the Allies intended it should be. But whatever the economics of the matter may be, German public opinion is inflamed by the “decision,” and the Communists are doing their best to stimulate popular re sentment by jeering at the “subservience” of the Federal Republic to the Western Allies and its lack of real authority. The Public's Business There is no merit in Mrs. James W. Williams’ suggestion that meetings of the Board of Education be closed to the press. The board member made this surprising proposal at Wednesday’s meeting, which was marked by frequent disagreements among members and between them and school officials. She said she felt that the airing of grievances was inadvisable. “Rather than criticize in public the things we don’t like,” Mrs. Williams told her colleagues, “we should tell the superin tendent and his stafT and let them correct them.” One of the subjects debated at the meeting was the alarming deterioration of the Cadet Corps. This is a subject of wide public concern. To exclude the public, including the press, from the dis cussions over the cause and cure of cadet ills or over other school problems would be a most undemocratic way of conducting the public’s business at the Franklin School. There are a few personnel mat ters which properly are handled by the board in closed session, but to erect an Iron Curtain around all of the board’s meetings would be unwise in the extreme. In the case of the Cadet Corps, there have been allegations that apathy on the part of the school administration has contributed to the decline in popularity of the cadets. If these allegations were true, it would be no solution of the prob lem to shut off the “airing of grievances” and leave matters in the hands of the criticized officials. The public has a right to know what is wrong with our school system, as well as what is right with it. j The more publicity given its shortcomings, ’ the greater the likelihood of effective remedial, action. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “ARLINGTON, Va. Dear Sir: “This letter has been put off too long. We, too, share your admiration for the lowly starling. His Japanese beetle larvae eating should compensate for his less desirable qualities. “This spring we brought down from the attic two partially feathered starlings. They thrived greedily on water-soaked bread and worms brought in by the neighborhood children. “In due time several attempts were made to encourage the birds’ flying to no avail. Perhaps they are slower than other species, or perhaps they were Just plain lazy* and enjoyed being fed by hand and their nice, safe box. The robins in my next-door neighbor’s window had hatched later than these and already flown. * * * * ‘‘One morning my husband settled the matter by tossing the starlings toward the woods behind our house. Happy day, they flew away; no more worm hunting, hand feedings, nor paper changing. That is what we thought! Thirty minutes later they were at the screen begging to come in. We finally convinced them that they were not human beings and belonged out of doors. However, the 30-minute feedings persisted. Any time one of us stepped out in the yard, a bird landed on our head or shoulders squawking for food. “We thought they would surely take to the woods that first night. But no, at sun down there they stood at the back door begging to come in. On the door being opened, they waddled in like two old ducks. For nearly a week, when night time came, to the back door they came, to be put to bed in their basement box. Gradually the call of the wild won over domesticity. We saw them less and less. Now we cannot dis tinguish them from any other starlings, but we like to believe that they are among the ones who feed in our yard. “Our 8-year-old says no one will believe this tale unless they see our color movies of our baby starlings to prove it. “Sincerely, W. F. H.” * * * * This is a nice tribute to a good bird. Starlings, common sparrows and our own blue jays are always interesting as under dogs. There is an instinctive desire of many to defend these of teq-abused creatures. This column has carried a letter giving a splendid account of a battle between a wasp and a large spider. The writer said that one cannot take sides in a thing like this, and that is true, as a generality; but certainly one often can and does rush to the defense of the smaller creature. We would advise any one who sees an unusual combat to help give the smaller the oppor tunity to get away. This interference is slight, indeed, but it may save a life that might as well be saved. We recall something that happened at least 30 years ago. Jack Sprat, the cat, had a mouse treed in a small shrub by the front steps. As Jack would spring one way, the mouse, very slowly, would run around the other way. Had this gone on for a time, undoubtedly the cat would have caught the mouse, but a well-dangled piece of string distracted the cat enough to permit the mouse, still very slowly, to walk clean away. So, do not be afraid to interfere, in nature, if you want to, especially if it only denies some creature a meal, or maybe a place in which to lay its eggs. They can find other meals and other places. Interference, with a tear gas bomb, would have been far better than allowing the black panther to tear off the arm of the giant gorilla, as occurred recently. Both animals could have been saved. The starling has now passed the test of legislation. It already had survived the test of thou sands of discriminating persons who had discovered that it is a bird as well as any, 1 and a remarkably intelligent and interesting one. Just as the cats of Illinois were saved from the fanatics of that State by the Governor, so the starlings of the National Capital were saved from the clutches of persona who were willing to put in much work in killing them but none in cleaning up after them. It is true that these birds, in groups, constitute a small problem, but the problem is very slight, indeed, and one not deserving of the solution by death. One would think that recent world history would have given every sensible person enough of such horrible so lutions, but evidently not. Fair-minded per sons of true sensibility must be forever on guard against both Communists and Fascists L in our own midst. Letters to The Star Former Cadet Wants Corps To Stick to Traditional Policies To the Editor of The Star: In a recent letter to The Star, "I. M." raised two points: (1) The High School Cadet Corps was “inspired by glamorous light opera soldiers behind the footlights, who inspired men to picture themselves as handsome stalwarts stealing kisses from winsome misses, to the lilting accompaniment of a Viennese waltz.” <2) It is dangerous for us to teach boys how to drill with rifles they are not allowed to Are and to teach them the intricate move ments of close-order drill while Russia teaches her boys "in every phase of war activity." , Here are my answers, as a former cadet: (1) Although the Cadet Corps may have been “inspired by glamorous light opera soldiers, etc.” (and I doubt very seriously if it was), it continued and, indeed, still func tions after 67 years of existence. Those light opera soldiers sure must have made a big impression. (2) Let me state here, first of all, that every school In the D. C. has a rifle club and a rifle team which every cadet is free to join. “I. M.” wishes us to take away or infringe upon the time in which the Cadet Corps teaches the boys leadership, courtesy, and drill. I should like to ask why we don’t take away the time in which they study Latin, history, or English. To what conclu sion does this lead us? Namely, that it is dangerous to take away any of this time. Russia maintains her army by means of a draft. If our Army feels the need of addi tional trained men at any time it has but to draft men and train them. If our Army feels that it needs civilians trained before they go into the Army let them reopen the summer training camps they had before the depression. The High School Cadets and the Citizens Military Training Corps used these camps at a great advantage to both themselves and their country before they were shut down as an economy measure. JOHN H. MOORE. Today’s Trends Compared With Sophist “Might Is Right” Doctrine To the Editor of The St»r: It may be of little consequence to compare the present with what happened many cen turies ago, but when present-day events have a striking resemblance to the remotest past we are inclined to ask ourselves whether Sophism has been resurrected. It was the Sophists who adopted the phrase “It is might that is right.” I am going to .quote a passage from Draper’s well known work, “The Intellectual Development Of Europe”, in which the author presents us with a clear and concise insight into the ancient Greek philosophy known as Sophism. Says Draper, “Right and wrong are hence seen to be mere fictions created by society, having no eternal or absolute existence in nature. The will of a monarch, or of a majority in a community, declares what the law shall be; the law defines what is right and what is wrong; and these, therefore, instead of having an actual existence, are mere illusions, owing their birth to the exer cise of force. It is might that has determined and defined what is right. And hence it follows that it is needless for a man to trou ble himself with monitions of conscience, or to be troubled thereby . . . “What shall we say of such a system and of such a state of things? Simply this: that •It has indicated a complete mental and social demoralization, mental demoralization, for the principles of knowledge were sapped, man persuaded that his reason was no guide; social demoralization, for he was taught that right and wrong, virtue and vice, conscience, and law, and God, are imaginary fictions, that there is no harm in the commission of sin, though there may be harm, as assuredly as there is folly, in being detected therein; that it is excellent for a man to sell his country to the Persian king, provided the sum of money he received is large enough, and that the transaction is so darkly con ducted that the public, and particularly his enemies, can never find it out. Let him never forget that patriotism is the first delusion of a simpleton, and the last refuge of a knave. Nor was it merely among speculative men that these infidelities were cherished; the leading politicians and statesman became deeply infected with them. To what an appalling condition society has arrived, when it reaches the positive conclusion that there is no truth, no religion, no justice, no virtue in the world; that the only object of human exertion is unrestrained physical enjoyment; the only standard of a man’s position, wealth; that, since there is no possibility of truth, whose eternal principles might serve for an uncontrovertible and common guide, we should resort to deception and the arts of persuasion, that we may dupe others for our purpose”. There is unmistakable documentary evi dence withheld from the American people that, if their contents were brought to the light of day, might serve a better purpose to the interest of our country than concealed by those who have an-interest in withholding the facts. LOUIS P. DILGER. Financial Plight of Railroads Blamed on “Squeeze” Tactics of Labor Tb the Editor of The Star: A. A. Liebman, in a recent letter to The Star, gives some hitherto unsuspected rea sons for the financial plight of the railroads. A few easily confirmed facts may throw an other light on the matter. As to speed, there is plenty of track which is safe for 100 miles per hour, although the Pennsylvania turnpike is hot. On the old Lake Shore rail road between Buffalo and Cleveland, where I worked as a youth, there was even then no limit to speed except motive power and inclination. The same between Toledo and Elkhart, on the Central’s Hudson division where the 999 made its record—in fact, all over the country. Streamliners out of Chicago to the West daily exceed 100 miles per hour on half a dozen roads, and make over-all schedules of between 65 and 70. The trouble with the railroads is labor. Starting with the old full-crew laws in the Middle West, feather-bedding has permeated all operations, so that now a passenger engineer with good seniority will make better than $5,000 per year, working only about five hours every other day—a total of less than 20 hours per week. His con ductor the same. In freight service the take-home pay is generally more, though the hours are longer. There is today a strike threat over the demand for a second “fireman” on diesel locomotives, where even the first fireman has little to do except sit up front and call signals. Trucks have a considerable advantage for less-than-carload shipments in their door-to door service without breaking bulk, and in their easier requirements of crating. Other wise they are little faster, less reliable, more costly per ton-mile, and a definite traffic hazard to all other users of the highway. A single driver, with his buddy alseep on a shelf behind him, is allowed to run his huge' tractor-trailer according to his whim —60 miles downhill, 10 miles up hill, any speed around curves—in a way permitted to no other means of common-carrier trans portation. If he Jack-knifes and lives, he takes it in stride and is back at work the next day. , . There is a place for each method, but the decline of the railroad and the rapid rise of the truck means only that the ICC and the brotherhoods have squeezed the railroads out of the field and the trucks have moved in to fill the void. Inherently, railroad ton-mile and passenger-mile costs Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. are far below possible truck and bus com petition, but labor’s demands have put the railroads at a hopeless disadvantage. Road way and track are the railroad’s smallest worries; “maintenance of equipment” and “conducting transportation" are the ICC accounts In which the labor cost is wreck ing them. HUGH FITZHUGH. Calls for Concerted Effort To Improve Quality of Radio Programs To th« Editor of The Star: I wish to express my thanks and appre ciation to those who have written to The Star in support of my effort to improve the quality Of music heard on most radio stations during the day. I am most thank ful for the information regarding the good music on Station WQQW, and have invested in an PM radio so that I may hear the fine programs at their best. I agree with one writer who said that we should join in a protest against the con tinuous, monotonous round of cheap mod ern ditties, and would suggest that every one who is interested in better radio pro grams write in to the different stations and express their views. I believe that by a concerted effort we may meet with success. PAULINE LANQLEY. — Federation Urged to Get All Facta Before Judging Bellevue Evictions To the Editor ol The Star: According to The Star of October 1 the president and a past president of the Fed eration of Citizens’ Associations advised Bellevue families to ignore eviction orders and said they could “guarantee” that the Federation would break up the “don’t move” suggestion 100 per cent. No one is in a position to guarantee that all 140 delegates will vote as a unit on that question or any other; all that can be guar anteed is that, given the facts, delegates will endeavor to act fairly and justly. If, as I have heard, salaries of some families now living in low-rent housing at Bellevue amount to about $10,000, eviction notices may be in order. The Navy, which has ordered the evictions, is rightly concerned about the inability of its enlisted personnel to find adequate housing, - within the range of an enlisted man’s pay. More than that, it is no doubt concerned about maintaining a high morale among its men. Navy men must perforce be separated from their families for long periods, so every effort should be made to keep their periods of shore duty free from harassment. Pro vision should be made for them to be with their families, in decent surroundings. Few of us know what it is to spend years away from our loved ones, to have our children changing schools year after year and in the middle of terms, to make close friends and leave them, to have our belong ings damaged and lost during moves from one station to another, etc. While we all have sympathy with any one forced to move from his home, there may be two sides to the question, and any one who will guarantee that the Federation will side with one group or the other 100 per cent is putting himself out on a limb. A DELEGATE. Reader Defends Teachers’ Rights To Petition Congress Directly To the Editor of The Star: Many teachers are puzzled by your edi torial of September 29, in which you blame employe unions for the deadlock on the teacher sick leave bill. You seem to dis approve of teachers directly petitioning Con gress for a redress of grievances, without going through the Board of Education and the school administration as intermediaries. If such a practice were started, school em ployes would be deprived of the small amount of participation in their Government that is allowed to citizens of the District of Columbia. The people of Washington, being without the vote, are without direct participation in their Government and are thus an underprivileged group. The policy you seem to advocate would make the teachers a submerged class within an under privileged group. They would.be relegated from the status of second-class citizenship occupied by other Washingtonians to that of third-class citizenship. It is only fair that you should be interested in the cost of this bill. The American Fed eration of Teachers has supported and will continue to support two amendments to this bill, neither of which would cost the taxpayers of the District a dollar. We ad vocate automatic reinstatement of teachers, after not more than 60 consecutive days of absence due to illness or emergency. We also wish to retain the privilege of absence with part pay for as many as 60 days a year, by hiring a substitute at our own expense, after using up our paid sick leave under this bill. DON B. GOODLOE, Legislative Representative of Local 27 of the American Federation of Teachers. Pay Raise far Congressmen Seen As Justified To the Editor ot The Star: It seems to me that $25,000 a year is not an unreasonable compensation for Senators and Representatives. They must maintain two homes, one here and one in the State or district from which elected. Under present conditions this is very expensive. And after a Representative or Senator or other official has served the country and his constituents faithfully for years, he is entitled to retire ment. When one leaves his business to serve his country it is often at a very considerable sacrifice. The fact that either a Senator or a Congressman does not share one’s opinions and views is no evidence that he is any less patriotic and sincere. Where there is freedom of speech and of conscience it is unreason able to expect that persons will hold the same opinions. Unity in diversity. FRANK W. VEDDER. "After-Forty-Fun” Found In Scouts and Bus Trips To the Editor ot The Star: This letter is addressed to two of your recent correspondents. One of them desired bus rides through the parks; the other wanted “after-forty fun.” National Capital Parks has scheduled a bus trip through Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, on October 16, when the leaves will have turned to dazzling shades of amber, russet and gold. A student of human nature will enjoy the day todc for,, under the able guidance of our park naturalists, democracy at its best attends. Call Michigan 6363, extension 400 for information. Membership in the Audubbn Society is\ open to all from seven to seventy who enjoy the companioship of others. Together we go on leisurely bird walks each week end, attend lectures, seminars or movies and share in the support of an educational and conserva tions! program devoted to renewing and preserving our natural resources. Last of all, may I suggest that corre spondent number two take training for Scout leadership? Many boys and girls who want to join troops are unable to because leaders are lacking.' Here is an opportunity to help young America and keep young yourself. 8. 8. BAKER. South American Soil Study Aids FightonTiniestGerms New Source of Antibiotic* Sought To Treat Microbe-Caused Disease By Thomas R. Henry NEW HAVEN, Oct. 7.—Thousands of soil samples gathered all over South America are being analyzed here for bacteria, mould* ahd other micro-organisms which may se crete substances valuable in the treatment of microbe-caused diseases. Already there have been isolated from them materials which appear to have some value against tuberculosis, amoebic dysen tery and typhoid fever, against which tha known antibiotics such as Chloromycetin and aureomycetin have little value. One organism has been found which seems a rather prolific producer of Vita min B-12, the material first isolated from liver about three years ago, which is of extreme value against pernicious anemia and is probably the most powerful biologi cal material in existence. Although admin istered to patients in thousandths of grams it still is so difficult to produce and scarce that the supply is far below the demand. It may be, says Dr. Paul Burkholder, of the Yale faculty, that the microscopic soil or ganism from South America may be the answer to this. Substance E Possible. There also is a possibility that some of the organisms will be found to produce the extremely scarce Substance E which holds out high hopes for arthritis sufferers. The quest in this direction started four years ago when Dr. Burkholder found in a sample of soil from a ploughed field near Caracas, Venezuela, a micro-organism which produced a material which proved active against the germs of typhus fever. This was Chloromycetin. This was one of the most notable medical discoveries of the generation. Typhus and a few other maladies are caused by micro organisms known as rickettsia. They are far smaller than the smallest bacteria. The dividing line between them and the filterable viruses—causers of the common cold, influ enza, mumps, poliomyelitis, and the like is very thin. For the first time medicine had its hands on something which promised to be effective against these ultra-minute living things which get inside the cells of the body where they are safe against the sulfa drugs, penicillin, and the like. Dr. Burkholder is driven in his search by the possibility of finding new substances of equal value. Every organism found is tested. Any soil sample contains a rather wide va riety. He is especially interested in the ob scure class known as actinomycetes, which appear to be a mixture of bacteria and moulds. Chances should be particularly good in South America soils, he believes. Man has lived there a long time and has suffered from the various microbe-caused diseases. With the death of their victims these have gone into the soil. There they themselves may have become the prey of other micro organisms which evolved special secretions to kill them. These, Dr. Burkholder believes, still survive. Conditions for Survival. The same, of course, might be true of North America but the special South Ameri can conditions of warmth and humidity give the organisms a greater chance to survive. The present mounting collection was the result of a 20,000-mile airplane trip by one of Dr. Burkholder’s assistants in which the co-operation of hundreds of collectors scat tered all over the continent was secured. Specimens still are arriving almost daily. The great hope is to find something effec tive against the “small viruses, seen only with the electron microscope, which are re sponsible for such diseases as poliomyelitis and the various forms of encephalitis, or brain inflammations. Thus far nothing has been found, so far as can be determined by animal experiments, although a few at first have shown some promise. Dr. Burkholder also is working with a large collection gathered last summer from all parts of Canada, especially along the southern edge from coast to coast. Of par ticular interest are a cdllection from the rich uranium district near Great Slav Lake in the Far North. Such organisms have evolved for countless centuries in soil rich in radio-activity. There is a high probability that this has caused some striking mutations of species. Questions and Answer? ~A reader can *et the answer to any question of fact by writint The Evening Star Information Bureau, 31fi Eye at. n.e., Washington 2, D. C. Please Inclose three (3) cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. In professional baseball does a "10 year man” have any privileges over and above those allowed other members of the same teams?—E. M. A. Major league players who have an aggregate of 10 complete seasons in the major leagues may not be sent down to a minor league without the player’s written consent. A championship season is figured on the basis of 172 days with the ball club. Q. How many colds may the average person expect to have in a year?—J. E. A. According to medical authorities, the average person suffers from one to four colds and similar infections annually in the United States. Q. Which is the "hoist” and which is the “fly” of a flag?—B. H. A. A. The vertical direction of a flag is called the "hoist” and the horizontal direction, or the length from the staff to the free end, is called the "fly.” Q. What is the official song of the 8tato of Missouri?—F. R. B. A. “The Missouri Waltz” is the official State song, having been adopted by the Legislature on June 14, 1949. Q. Why is payment of money as a penalty called a fine?—C. J. D. A. The word comes from the Latin "flnem facere,” meaning "to put an end to.” In England the term "line” is traced back to 1275, when the courts began to allow con victs to be released from prison when they paid a sum of money. Q. What are the locations of some of the best known bells?—M. B. T. A. Among the best known bells are the Bourdon in the Rockefeller carillon, River side Church, New York City; the huge Czar Kolokol in Moscqw which, because of an imperfection in casting, has never been rung; Big Ben in London, and the Liberty Bell, Philadelphia. At the Mission Inn, Riverside, Calif., is the famous Bell of Mont serrat. One of the oldest bells in Great Britain is 6 inches high and 5 inches across. It is the Bell,of St. Patrick’s Will, at Bel fast. It dates from about 552. House Plants Soon the burnished marigolds, The jewel-gay chrysanthemums, Will shrivel as the sun withholds Its warmth and bleak November comes. Then little house plants take the place Of gardens; out of bowls and pots They point their leaves with timid grace, Small replicas of garden spots. Defying thermostatic jump, Enduring drought or''too much care, They prop the spirit, lest it slump From loss-of-garden-bloom despair. ALICE HARTICH.