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Itself Has Frustrated Unification of Forces Admiral Denfeld Gave Facts on Elimination Of Naval Air Power By David Lawrence Amazing and even shocking are the revelations made by Admiral Louis E. Denfeld, chief of naval operations, in his testimony be fore the House Armed Services Committee. Unless the document is read through from beginning to the end, members of Congress and observers generally will not be able to understand the surprising statement that ‘'unification” has been frustrated in the office of the Department of Defense itself —the very agency created tc bring about unification. Hitherto there have been ru mors and reports, but now the country is given facts which estab lish that there has been a delib ' erate effort to eliminate airpower from naval operations, along with an effort to reduce the Navy’s op portunity to maintain effective control of the seas. Likewise, despite the pointed warnings from Congress, there has been an effort in the Depart ment of Defense to eliminate naval aviation and deprive the Marine Corps of its opportunity to maintain an effective service for amphibious operations. Navy Not Consulted. Most important of all is the disclosure that the head of the Navy was not consulted on im portant matters of policy and budgets affecting the scope and size of the Navy or its weapons. What is most surprising of all is that the B-36 was ordered in quantity before it has been eval uated by the very machinery set up inside the Defense Department to obtain such a scientific ap praisal. Significant, too, is the revela tion that civilians do not run the Department of Defense and that decisions are being made without adequate representation of the Navy. Admiral Denfeld calls for a “full partnership” in the defense setup for the Navy, and says Congress didn’t intend to merge services or reduce their effectiveness below minimum re quirements. He adds it is not merely that “morale” has been adversely affected but that "the security of the United States” has been vitally impaired. If any other admirals or cap tains had said these things, their comments might have been re garded as personal expressions. But when the Chief of Naval Oper ations says them, he speaks by the book * as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He gives facts as well as opinions, to which the Nation is entitled. He argues that, while it is regrettable to have such an airing of views, it would have been much worse to allow these facts not to have been revealed. For now the public can know them and decide upon cor rective measures. Points to Okinawa. Admiral Denfeld affirms the value of strategic bombing if it is done with precision and selec tivity and not by just dumping bombs in vast areas without re gard to military targets. He in sists that the size of our Navy is not related to the size of an enemy navy, but that naval air power is as much a part of the national air power in invading the enemy's strongholds as any other form of air power. He says, in effect, that without the Navy’s air power at Okinawa—long after the Japanese fleet had been an nihilated—the ground action there wouldn't have been successful. “I maintain,’’ he testified, “that the Initial air offensive is not solely a function of the United States Air Force. This country’s total military air power is the combine! strength of the Air Force, the Navy and the Marine Corps." But the most depressing fact in the admiral’s testimony that “unification” has not been lived up to in the office of the Depart ment of Defense is contained in this excerpt: “Even though plans to effect this reduction in forces in 1950 are under way, the Navy was re cently directed further to reduce the obligation authority for fiscal year 1950 by about $350,000,000. I understand this action was recommended by the Management Committee under the Secretary of Defense. The Navy was not asked the implications which would be involved by a reduction in funds of this magnitude. I can only assume, therefore, that this action was largely arbitrary. For all practical purposes, this re duction was firm on Septem ber 8th." The plain meaning of this is that, despite the testimony in the present hearings and before the present appropriation bill even has become law, the Navy’s aviation has been cut in half and anti-submarine patrols and other vital services have been seriously cut back by order of Secretary of Defense Johnson—and it is doubt ful if the damage done can be repaired before Congress meets again in January, if then. i Reproduction Rights Reserved ) TRANSFER & STORAGE CO. 460 New York Are. N.W. NA. 1070 Export Pocking OUR SPECIALTY Brakes Relined While You Wait Ford '39-'48 ) cn Plymouth > OQ.OU Chevrolet I \3 Free Adiuitmente for life of lininae Duplicate of D. C. Teatini Machine CLIFT'S “«vKfcs <11 Md. Avo. S.W. ME. <232 At Ath A Independence Atc. S.W. • block! troa D. C. Teitini Station, on E. I, ftoatea 1 and M. This Changing World Britons Pay Little Heed to Communism Despite Hardships of Working Classes By Constantine Brown LONDON (By Air Mail).— There are no more than 25,000 members in the British Commu nist Party, a remarkably small number when one considers the hardships i of the working I classes and the intellectuals. To all those who are ac ‘customed to | thinking that hardship s breed commu nism this low figure is as tounding. The average wage for HI 6 tl in Comtintin# Brown. British factories is six pounds a week. In terms of dollars that represents $16.80, though in view of the difference in the cost of living it means a little more than that. One wage-earner explained to me that after paying for rent, meals, taxes and dues to the union and welfare fund, as well | as for his transportation to and from work, he was lucky if at the end of the week he had three shillings (52 cents). This sum ;had to cover an occasional pint of beer (which is regarded not as a luxury but a necessity) as well as ; cigarettes. Tobacco, considered | a luxury by the govei'nment, is heavily taxed and the cheapest j cigarettes are about 35 cents a j package. ! Salaried Workers Hard Hit. Salaried workers, whether clerks, teachers, professors or army or navy officers, are equally hard hit. Most of them cannot qualify for government-built apartments, which are intended exclusively Tor the woikers. And with the shortage of housing for middle ; oracket workers rents, though controlled, are higher because of j various devices by which owners are able to squeeze higher rents out of tenants. But w'hile dissatisfied elements in all other countries are lured by the promises of the Commu | nists, in Britain even the small ! flash of Communist red which i appeared after the war subsided i to the point where it is now ; the palest pink in the Western ! \frorld. Those whom we know in the United States as fellow-travelers ; have become practically extinct in Britain. There are no "front'’ organizations, representing them selves as fighting for the under | dog and for true liberalism. They have not been legislated out of existence. They have not been interfered with in any shape or form. The Communists have simply talked themselves out of public favor. It has been suf ficient for the government to show that their activities were un-British in the sense that they did not respect tfie traditional freedom which has existed in this country for so many centuries. The British Communist Party, which has a few representatives in the House of Commons, has all the advantages of any other polit ical parties. Its influence on the over-all political life of the coun try is practically nil. There are a number of reasons why communism is not a problem in the British Isles. The Labor government has prpmised the I workers a British utopia and from the first days of its coming to :power has striven- to fulfill iti promises. Well-Disciplined People. The policies of the Labor gov ernment, while nowhere nearly as drastic, revolutionary and far reaching as those of the Com jmunists, are satisfactory to the British working class. Being well disciplined and a patient people, they are not alarmed that the Labor Party’s pledges have not yet been completely fulfilled. They believe firmly in parliamen tary processes and are willing to bide their time until Britain has been completely socialized. In the process of making over Britain economically th* Labor government has waged war on the capitalists of this country. But it is not a physically destruc tive war as the Communists preach. It is a war of attrition carried on by the process of legis lation and based on a Parliament freely elected by free English subjects. At the same time the Labor government does not intend to interfere with what is dearest to the hearts of the English peo ple, i.e., its ancient institutions ■fend traditions. While the Com munists in their early days ad vocated abolition of titles, the House of Lords and private prop erty, the Labor government hon ors and respects them all. It was these institutions which made Britain at one time a great world power. They will continue as monuments to the past, just like St. Paul’s Cathedral, St. James’ Palace and other histori cal sites throughout the country. Moreover, the rank and file of the people—who are pure of blood since there has been no immigra jtion for centuries—dislike and suspect anything alien. Faith and Vision People Ahead of Congress in Calling For Strengthened United Nations By Thomas L. Stokes ! It is often in a small way, in calm discussion by groups of ear i nest men, that profound changes | in the course of history have their I beginnings. It was so with the men 1 —elderly, mid dle - aged and young — who | gathered in a room in Phila delphia in 1789 and wrote the Constitution of the United States which transformed a struggling, un certain and I loose confeder- Thorn*! L. Stake., ation of jealously independent states into a strong federal union which now, exactly 160 years lat er, is the most powerful single in | fluence in the world. It was so, very close to this time, with a group of men in the House of Representatives of both political parties who gathered to gether in early 1943 in the midst of war at the instance of a young Arkansas Congressman, J. Wil liam Fulbright, now a Senator, ! and worked out the Fulbright Re solution which, when approved by both branches, put Congress on record as favoring full co-opera tion by the United States with | other nations after the war to [maintain international peace and 'justice. That, in itself, was the genesis of the United Nations. I May Be So, Again It may be so, again, with the group of men and women in Con gress of both parties and private | citizens from all walks of life I who gathered in a House commit tee room this week to talk and plan for the next step. This is the evolution of the United Na tions of various and diverse na tional states into a really strong and effective world federation or union. The, objective is exactly the same on a larger scale as that which the men of Philadelphia achieved so notably in 1789 when they welded a weak and loose con federation into a strong union. We should by now have experi enced enough, learned enough, suffered enough, to do the bigger job. It should be no more diffi cult if we have faith, persistence and vision. A careful reading of history reveals the skepticism with which many regarded the aim of those men in Philadelphia 160 years ago. Scoffing cynics said it was impossible. But history shows how they accomplished their pur pose through faith, persistence and vision. These essential ingredients of progress were mentioned in pub lic hearings before the House Foreign Affairs Committee this week on pending resolutions for a stronger and more perfect union of nations of the world, and so also were the long-ago meetings in Philadelphia and the more re cent meetings here in 1943. Two Resolutions. Discussion centered chiefly about two resolutions. One is sponsored by nearly a fourth of Congress—105 House members and 22 Senators. It would ex press the will of Congress that an objective of our foreign policy should be the strengthening and development of the United Na tions into a world federation with defined and limited powers ade quate to preserve peace and pre vent aggression through enact ment, interpretation and enforce ment of world law. The other, sponsored by a ; smaller but representative group of members of Congress of both parties, would put Congress on record for creation of an Atlantic union of the Western democracies, thus excluding Russia, as the basis of an eventual world union. This project is more restricted in scope but more far-reaching within , its confines, since it would involve ' a common parliament and mutual I finance and defense arrangements, | Again it was a House member | from Arkansas, Representative I Brooks Hays, Democrat, who led discussion in behalf of the all embracing federation and who gave it its full meaning by ex pressing the hope that our Fed eral system that works for 150,000,000 people can be given by us to the world. A young war veteran and fresh man House member. Representa tive Bennett, Democrat, of Florida, spoke for his proposal for a pleb iscite or referendum of the Amer ican people on world government, which he argued was the proper way to proceed, and likewise he would have Congress spell out the powers and limits of pro posed world government. To this Representative Vorys, Republican, of Ohio, veteran House member and an original sponsor of the Fulbright Resolution as of this one, replied that a resolution should be a prospectus, not a blueprint. Another freshman member, Representative Howell, Democrat, of New Jersey, told of a poll he had taken among his constituents that showed 7,000 for world fed eration and only 191 either against or with reservations, some minor. He concluded by express ing what is perhaps the real truth, as it often is: “The people are ahead of us on this issue.” LOUIE —By Harry Hanan . I,.i, 'rrtjn. riw ounm wi Preparation for Trouble 25,(XX) British Troops in Hong Kong, But Trade May Suit Red China Better By Doris Fleeson HONG KONG (By Air mail).— An inspection of British prepara tions for trouble if Red China wants to play it that way under lines their hopes for peace and trade in stead. The troops are here — 25, 000 of them— five times a s many as were here last April. They include famous name regiments from the United Kingdom, a tank corps, a Spitfire squa- no')* Fi«son. dron and a regiment of fierce Gurkhas. But they are packed away in the hills and vales of Hong Kong and the new territory while tho British navy, which hovers around the harbor, slips in and out with the same noticeable lack of osten tation. There are no parades and no warlike demonstrations of any kind. To see the troops and their maneuvers it is necessary to drive into the hills over winding roads. The roads themselves are still po liced by the Hong Kong civil force, mainly Chinese. There is no attempt, either, to play down the presence of these reinforcements. A British infor mation officer conducts corres pondents or visiting V.IP.’s about them on request. But their pres ence is left to speak for itself. Some Surprises. What it really says iS difficult to assess in a quick visit. It is hard to see a tank corps' value in such rugged terrain and the lack of bombers surprises an air-con scious American. Military observers explain that the Chinese Communists have no air force but a big. old-fashioned army of foot soldiers. Nor do they have a navy. If any assault is to be made on Hong Kong other than from infantry, it u'ould have to come from New China's friend, Russia, who does have planes and submarines, some of them very good. It is not anticipated that Russia will so move. Should she do so, the fat would be in the fire and Hong Kong would be only a small part of the story. lrade May lake Hold. Here under the guns, nobody is making flat predictions about what will happen eventually but there seems to be a reasonable optimism about the immediate | prospects. The red leaders are I making some threatening noises but they have not actually taken the offensive. It is calculated that they will be considerably busy at home for awhile, mopping up the Nationalists and consoli dating their power. Looking ahead, some observ Fly TCA’s "MAPLE LEAF" ROUTES TCA operates throughout Canada. Trans-Atlantic to Europe. Trans Border to and from United States. Bermuda and Caribbean. Kor full information, call your travel agent or TCA ticket ottice. 16 foil 58th Street, N. Y. C. -flea 9-6800 Tsaas-maa^nsa Mas V^. 000333 I * FIREPROOF I • PIN CLEAN ■ • BONE DRY | • SAFE B Summer Rug* ’Beautifully Cleaned and Stared far the B| Winter m I^nTT* FTjBh H ^mov!n^rugcleaning«>storage| ers foresee a Hitlerian infiiltration of trained Reas, a propaganda barrage about China for the Chi nese. and internal disorders. Then Britain will have to spend even more than it costs her now, which is a lot, and may decide to throw in the sponge. But the tentacles of trade may have taken hold by then, others think. They argue that China’s need to buy and sell in the West will make the Reds tractable in 1 practice, whatever they say for public consumption. Time then can do her healing work and per haps raise up another Tito here. There is a complete lack of op timism regarding Chiang Kai shek's future, even in Formosa, much less in Canton. The gen eral attitude seems to be that it’s too bad but he asked for it. (Released by The Bell Syndicate, Inc ) McLemore— Takes Dim Outlook On European Sports By Henry McLemore LONDON—If you like sports— and what American doesn’t un less he be a member of the upper upper highbrow group which pro fesses to prefer a batch of Brahms to a belt by Hen rich?—one of the unhappi nesses of being abroad is that the newspapers carry little or no American sports news. With the World Series b e ing played what do « you think I had HenrT McL*mor« to read about in the Express, the Mail, the Times, the Graphic, and all the other London papers? Cricket, so help me! and if you haven’t seen cricket, or read about it, let me tell you that it is fifteen minutes less than nothing—and by a slow clock, too. It is the only game in the world where hundreds of runs are scored, yet nothing happens. It has all the excitement of the Podunk depot four hours after the only train for .the day has passed through. Betting on the Beagles. If you are not reading about cricket you are reading about greyhound racing. ^There are a dozen or more greyhound tracks in London and the citizens go for them like sweethearts go for secluded spots on a picnic. I wouldn't be surprised if two-thirds of the population of London has ,a bet riding every night on some pin-headed beagle with a long tail, a stomach like a hollowed-out broomstick, and all the sense of a vest sleeve. Mixed in with cricket and grey hound racing are football and motorcycle racing. The greatest way in the world to starve to death is to w’ork your head off for years and become an English foot ball star. The clubs (the Shef \ field Wednesdays being the one I read about just because of its entrancing name) draw crowds of 60,000, 70,000 and up, and must make tons of money unless they make it a rule to hire only treas urers guaranteed to abscond on the hour, every hour. Yet the top stars, men who cor respond to Jackie Robinson, Sam my Baugh, Jack Kramer, Bob Fel ler, etc., in this country, draw sal aries which are completely ridicu lous. A top, top player is lucky to get $5,000 a year. Cycle Racing Is Religion. In France and Italy, when you turn to the sports pages and. with the help of an interpreter, try to find out what is happening at home, you get one thing—bicycle racing. Bicycle racing is more than a sport over here—it is a religion. The Tour de France—in which some hundred liniment soaked gentlemen, heads and shoulders hunched over the han dlebars, ride clean around France —is much more important to Frenchmen and Italians than the state of thedira and the franc, or the rise and fall of their govern ments, And the winner of the pedal fixture gains a status just a notch above that of premiers and ministers of state. He can sell his old bandages and bicycle clips for a small fortune and can retire to a life of ease—that is. if a man who really likes to ride bicycles for hundreds of miles knows what a life of ease is. I know how the World Series came out, thanks to a paragraph about as long as a stick of chew ing gum. It is fortunate that I wasn’t there because I would have bet on the Brooks. They looked to be a much better team on paper, but perhaps the Yanks have some thing in their hearts that makes all the paper stuff worthless. And what about Notre Dame? Still winning by 40 points after using everybody in South Bend except the oldest inhabitant? I’ll be back in a few days and I do hope the unification of the services argument has been ironed out. Wouldn't like to come home and have to say, “This is where I came in." (Distributed by McNaught Syndicate. Inc.) 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