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WASHINGTON, 0. C. Published by The Evenin'/ Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. c MAIN OFFICE: llth St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly 1.20* Monthly 90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly 20c 10c per copy *10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional Mr Night Final Edition In these sections where delivery is mode. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States. ■vening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month ..1.50 I month 90c I month 60c » 6 months.. 7.50 6 months .. 5.00 6 months 3.00 * 1 year ...15.00 1 year ...10.00 1 year 6.00 Telephone STerling 5000 : Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class moil matter. Member of the Associated Press. 9 The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use 'for republication of all the local news printed In this .newspaper os well as all A. P. news dispatches. ■ A—12MONDAY, October 17. 1949 New Appellate Judges Of the three new judges named to the United States Court of Appeals by President Truman, only one, Charles Fahy, is widely known in Washington. The two others, Assistant Attorney General David L. Bazelon and Assistant Solicitor Gen eral George T. Washington, have pursued lines of legal work which have not brought them to public notice. Presumably all three are competent lawyers, equipped to assume the duties of a bench which often is looked upon as second only to the Supreme Court in order of importance. But it can hardly be said that these selections will be received with unrestrained gratification. No one of the three has had any judicial experience. All three are Democrats, al though it does not appear that Mr. Wash ington has been politically active in the partisan sense. The main criticism, how ever, runs to the fact that all three nom inees are essentially Government lawyers. Two of them come directly from the Department of Justice, and the third, Mr. Fahy, is a former Solicitor General and has spent by far the greater part of the past fifteen years in some kind of Govern ment legal work. It is difficult to believe that these men, no matter what their competence as lawyers may be, will not take with them to the bench a point of view that is colored by their background as Govern ment advocates. Civilian Defense and the Atom Presumably, as head of the Navy’s Aviation Ordnance Branch, Commander Eugene Tatom is an expert in his field. But he has gone off the deep end in telling the House Armed Services Committee that people would be safe if they stood at one end of the National Airport’s 6,855-foot runway while an A-bomb exploded at the other. Not in a long time has there been such an absurd effort to belittle the preternatural destructiveness of the atom. To lend some authority to his statement, Commander Tatom has quoted from a medical report of the United States Stra tegic Bombing Survey, which found, in its study of the Hiroshima explosion, that radiation effects seemed to decline sharply at a point beyond 6,500 feet from where the bomb went off and that only 11 out of more than 2,000 school children were killed In an area between 6,562 and 8,202 feet away. It is silly, however, to cite such phenomena as evidence that an atomic blast is not so bad, after all. The fact is that it is almost indescribably terrible, and nobody should be misled by testimony to the contrary. Thus, despite Commander Tatom’s at tempt to minimize the atom’s power, the facts stand as follows: (1) In Hiroshima, one A-bomb dropped by one plane caused virtually total destruction within a radius of one mile from the bursting point, with heavy damage extending an additional two miles, and with lighter damage hitting in every direction for three or four miles beyond that. And (2) a ghastly combination of flash burns, blast effects, secondary fires and lethal radiation killed about 80,000 Japanese and injured another 80,000 within a matter of seconds—casual ties adding up to approximately two-thirds of the city’s total population. It is because of this unprecedented deadliness of the A-bomb (and the type being produced at present is considerably more devastating than the one dropped on Hiroshima) that a dark question mark hangs over the future of civilization. It is because of it, and because the Russians apparently are now able to make the weapon on their own, that the Senate House Atomic Energy Committee has scheduled hearings on the problem of civilian defense. Ever since the first atom blast, that problem has been with us, but there is little evidence that we have made much progress in dealing with it, even though our concentration of big industrial cities makes us one of the most vulnerable countries in the world. In this connection, according to the Strategic Bombing Survey, the central fact to be kept in mind is that “the overwhelm ing bulk of the buildings in American cities could not stand up against an atomic bomb bursting a mile or a mile and a half from them.” Further, because relatively few of our industrial structures are blast resistant and because many of our great metropolises are more crowded than urban Japan, an A-bomb attack on us could cause casualties far greater than Hiro shima’s and Nagasaki’s. Accordingly, given the kind of world we have, with the atom uncontrolled and with war an ever present possibility, the problem of civilian defense is an urgent one for the Nation. Unfortunately, however, the solution is elusive. To begin with, we would have to spend hundreds of billions of dollars and disrupt our society if we tried to go under ground or carry through a mass dispersal ©f our cities. In a practical, economic and social sense, we can do little more than decentralize certain facilities on a small scale, seek to locate new industrial con struction in non-crowded areas, fireproof the interiors of otherwise strong buildings, set up a nation-wide network of civilian shelters, and work out long-range life saving, evacuation and disaster-relief pro grams. Well over three years ago, the Strategic Bombing Survey recommended that imme diate action be taken on these and similar measures. The task of the joint Congres sional committee will be to see what, if anything, has been done about them. Of course, as the Survey has observed, they would be merely “ineffectual palliatives” in the event of an all-out atomic attack on us, but coupled with a military estab lishment capable of swift retaliation against any aggressor, they would be far better than nothing at all. French Cabinet Building The building of French cabinets is a delicate art, and the products of this politi cal carpentry are apt to be equally fragile. The record shows that the average life of a French cabinet is only a few months. This is due to the political fragmentation of the legislature. No one party ever gains even a plurality in the lower house, much less a majority. Thus, any cabinet must be the product of a coalition whose con stituent elements have more or less diver gent views, especially on domestic issues. The present National Assembly contains four major groups—the Socialists, the Radicals, the MRP or leftist clericals, and the Communists. In addition, there are a number of conservative groups on the “extreme right,” more or less influenced by the movement headed by Charles de Gaulle, which Is not directly represented in the Assembly because it grew up since the elections from which the present As sembly resulted. Th^ first three major groups above men tioned have a negative bond of union in their determination to keep out of office both the Communists and the extremists of the right. And it is from this “middle of-the-road” bloc that cabinets must be made. But positive agreement on policies is difficult, because each party stands for different things. The Radicals, despite their title, are traditional liberals who want economy, lower taxes, the diminution of official controls, and encouragement of •private enterprise. The Socialists stand for a managed economy favoring the work ing classes. The MRP stands about mid way in these respects. The recent Queuille cabinet, after last ing surprisingly for 13 months, fell over the wage-price crisis precipitated by the franc’s devaluation in the wake of sterling. The Socialists insisted that wages be gen erally raised to compensate the workers for increased living costs occasioned by devaluation. The Radicals opposed this as inflationary and as canceling out the economic advantages of devaluation. When no agreement could be reached, Premier Queuille, himself a Radical, resigned. There followed a frantic search for a new political combination which resulted in the confirmation by the Assembly of a new Premier in the person of Jules Moch on a compromise program under which the lowest-paid workers would get a small wage bonus, coupled with an effort to end government control over wages and a re turn to collective bargaining between em ployers and labor. This last is obviously a concession to Radical principles. However, M. Moch got his confirmation by the slimmest possible margin—exactly one vote. And he still has to choose his cabinet, which involves a complex inter play of partisan politics and personalities. M. Moch has shown his ability as Minister of the Interior in previous cabinets, espe cially by his stern handling of the Com munist-inspired political strikes last year. That has won him the undying hatred of the Communists. He thus represents the conservative wing of his Socialist party, and as such will be more acceptable to the Radicals and MRP. But he cannot count too much on the support of his own Leftist party members, who strive to pose as the friends of labor against Communist charges. Thus, however his cabinet may be made up, M. Moch is in a very ticklish position, and the general opinion is that he will not last long. The chief hope lies in the common fears of the center bloc against both Communists and De Gaullists, coupled with the knowledge that, if no lasting cabinet can be formed, the As sembly must dissolve and new parlia mentary elections take' place. That alter native none of the trio wants, because it is thought such elections would diminish their present parliamentary strengths and show gains especially for the De Gaullists. So Premier Moch may do better than is anticipated. But the situation is basically unstable and unpredictable. Remote Control of Local Fares The request of the Washington, Vir ginia & Maryland Coach Company for a flve-cent Increase in bus fares on all its lines brings into focus anew the unsatis factory setup for handling public utility problems of this nature. The Arnold Lines, as the company popularly is known, operates not only in intrastate but in interstate commerce. In fact, most of its business is conducted across thei boundary between Arlington and the District of Co lumbia. Yet the bus service rendered by this company is truly local, concern ing primarily the residents of nearby Vir ginia living within the Washington Metro politan Area. Although local in every respect, the fact that the company’s buses cross the Po tomac River confronts it with three dif ferent systems of public utility supervi sion—Virginia’s, the District’s and Fed eral. The District PUC has evidenced no desire to take active part in fixing fares or schedules inside the District for Virginia bus lines. It would be a difficult thing to do, anyway. So the company has filed two sets of petitions—one with the State Corporation Commission in Richmond and one with the ICC. It is not legally re sponsible to the Arlington PUC, which is just an advisory group, devoid of regu latory functions or powers. So the thousands of Virginians who de pend on Arnold buses to bring them to Washington every day for business or pleasure must look to two non-local utility agencies for consideration of their side of the pending fare case. But the ICC has nluch larger problems to worry about than the question of fares on Arnold buses —questions involving Nation-wide opera tions by bona fide interstate bus, railroad and truck networks. It should not be called upon to take time, with its inade quate facilities and undermanned staff, to settle utility matters that are more local than interstate. And the State Corpora tion Commission is so far removed from the scene of Arnold operations as to make it inconvenient for Arlington and Fairfax citizens to present their protests against a further fare rise on interstate hauls. 'Under these conditions, it is doubtful that the public interest can be protected as fully as it should be in the recurrent Virginia bus fare petitions. The Arlington PUC is doing what it can on the public’s behalf. • It l^s prevailed upon the County Board to request that full opportunity be given the advisory group to study' the company’s case and to make reply. This opportunity should apply both to the pro ceedings in Richmond and before the ICC. For, as the Arlington commission pointed out in a statement to the board, the bus company has not as yet been required by any regulatory agency to show that poor management complained of in past years has been eliminated. Certainly the com pany should be compelled to show that it is operating efficiently and is being man aged economically, before another fare increase is granted. The consideration of these local ques tions should not be left to an overburdened national agency or a detached State body in Richmond. They could better be settled in the area affected. It is such reasoning that has brought an increasing demand for a Metropolitan Area PUC, created by Dis trict-Virginia-Maryland compact to handle just such fringe utility problems as the Arnold fare case. Gifford Pinchot Forest Gifford Pinchot was well known in Washington, and the dedication of a national forest in the State of Washington as a living acknowledgment of his services as a conservationist is a matter of interest here. He was the first chief of the National Forest Service, but for a long while pre vious to his appointment to that position he was busy with the systematic study of many difficult problems relating to timber, its growth and its uses. Without Mr. Pinchot’s talents and ex perience vast areas might have been exploited irreplaceably. The very fact that he was interested in preserving the forests had a good effect upon the forest indus tries. From 1898 to 1910 he represented the Federal Government in the crusade to keep America reasonably green. Many persons disagreed with him, and he did not win all his battles. But nobody challenged his sincerity, nobody questioned the depth of his patriotic devotion to the commonweal. He himself said near the end of life: "I have been a Governor now and then, but I am a forester all the time—have been, and shall be, to my dying day.” It is in recognition of that aspect of his career and of the durable fruits there of that the Gifford Pinchot National Forest has been dedicated. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell “PORTER STREET. "Dear Sir: “I wonder if you would tell me something about chimney swallows. Recently I have been watching these birds fly into a big chimney on Connecticut avenue near Porter. "I have been told they stay in the chimney day and night except for a brief period in the late afternoon. “Soon there will be heat and smoke in that chimney, and then where do they go? “What did swallows do before there were chimneys? "Yours truly, L. D. H.” * * * * Before there were chimneys for the chim ney swifts, there were hollow trees. Tall hollow sycamores were favorites. Often the giants of America’s original for ests were hollow, but still standing, veritable “chimneys” of the woods. To these hollow trunks the birds naturally took, and so 1t was no wonder that when man finally erected tall chimneys in Amer ica, they utilized them, too. Barn swallows and cliff swallows, near relatives to chimney swifts, had to adapt themselves to man's inventions, too. * Both these birds took to barns, and build ing nests under bridges, because of the in sects brought to them in this way by the animals. The chimney swift found that tall chim Seys were even better for his purposes t.hftn ill hollow trees. For one thing, the right sort of tree became increasingly difficult to find, whereas the chimneys “grew” taller and broader. If heat and smoke finally drove them out, and some of the birds were lost, it was only the penalty they had to pay for living in industrial America. Mankind itself, suffers in the same way. • Not many persons have seen the swifts alight any place, and at one time there was thought to be a mystery about their migra tion. These birds eat only what they can catch in the air, taking huge quantities of insects. It may be realized that when real autumn cold kills off the small insects, the swifts must leave for the South, where they can still find their favorite foods flying around. The gathering of these birds above a chimney and their downward absorption in it, like smoke in reverse, is a wonderful | sight. * * * * John Burroughs, the naturalist, described it as follows: “One fall they gathered in this way and took refuge for the night in a large chim ney-stack near me for more than a month and a half. “Several times I went to town to witness the spectacle, and spectacle it was; ten thou sand of them, I think, filling the air above a whole square like a whirling swarm of huge black bees, but saluting the ear with a multitudinous chippering instead of a humming. “People gathered on the sidewalk to see them. It was a rare circus performance free to all. “After a great many feints and playful approaches, the whirling ring of the birds would suddenly grow denser above the chimney; then a stream of them as if drawn down by some power of suction, would pour into the opening. “For only a few seconds would this down ward rush continue; then, as if the spirit of frolic had again got the upper hand of them, the ring would rise and the chippering and circling would go on. “In a minute or two the same maneuver would be repeated, the chimney, as it were, taking its swallows at intervals to prevent choking. “It usually took a half hour or more for the birds all. to disappear down its capacious throat.” ' Swifts resemble woodpeckers, in that they can press the tail against the surface as an additional support. So they can cling to the inner surface of a chimney, but cannot manage to perch on a bough as most birds do. They resemble swallows, in that they have small bills, long wings and large mouths for scooping in insects. Letters to The Star How Long Must Eastern High Wait for Those Traffic Lights? To the Editor of The Star: Every six months four cars are destined for ruin at Seventeenth and East Capitol streets. Thirty-one accidents have been recorded by the District Traffic Division since 1945. Any day you may be injured, if not killed. Three vehicles were involved in a serious accident, September 21. If this accident had occurred 45 minutes earlier, a student from Eastern High, Eastern Elertlentary, Eliot Junior High, or Holy Comforter might have figured in the tragedy. Must we wait six, 12 or more months for the traffic division to install lights? Shall we sit by with our hands folded until an Easternite is killed? A policeman has been stationed at the corner for nine years. During the entire period a light has been promised. Statistics gathered by the Easterner’s staff show that approximately 651 cars pass the intersection between 3 and 3:30 p.m. when an estimated 2,000 children from the four neighboring schools cro^s. Many cars ignore the speed rate and travel too close together to stop suddenly. No policeman is on duty. At approximately 4:15 p.m. a policeman arrives to protect the 180 Government workers who cross. A policeman stationed at the crossing before 9 o’clock, arrived be tween 8:16 and 8:37 a.m. during one week. Approximately 798 students crossed before 8:40 a.m. Saving a youngster’s life should be an im portant enough project to interest civic or ganizations and parents. When the District protects 180 Government workers and leaves 2,000 school children unguarded, it is time for action. Accidents and traffic prove the necessity of installing a traffic light here. Another nine years, or even six months, is too long to delay. Or will the community wait until death invades a neighborhood family? CAROLYN CUNNINGHAM, Editor of the Easterner, Eastern High. A Non-Catholic View On the Church-State Issue To the Editor or The Star: D. M. Byrnes, in his letter of October 12, apparently attempts to show that the ma jority of Catholics approve of America's principle of "separation.” He places the burden of his proof upon a pamphlet which quotes “one of the outstanding authorities on canon law;” yet, nowhere does the pam phlet claim that “separation” is in harmony with canon law. Speaking as of 1913, it states that “American Catholics have not the slightest desire for that ‘protection’ which has so often meant the oppression of the church.” Speaking as of a more recent date (not specified), its author says that such “is still, I think, the attitude of the overwhelm ing majority today. I think Catholics would do well constantly to remind themselves that the more they rely upon the freedom guar anteed by law, the better off they and the church are. The more they tend to rely upon the state to implement their moral or dog matic beliefs, the worse off they are.” Though these quotations constitute an enlightened— and out of official Catholic character—plea for “separation,” do they not also strongly' imply a Catholic trend away from it? The references from Catholic canon law which have appeared frequently In the Star’s letter columns have clearly shown that canon law specifically condemns “separation” and demands “union” as the ideal condition. Obviously, the “Catholics” of the pamphlet are strictly of the lay variety—who its au thor seems to hope will never conform to the rules laid down for the hierarchy. As suming the pamphlet to be a sincere ex pression rather than a deliberate attempt at confusion, it spotlights the thus-far pathe tic figure of the Catholic liberal—hoping and trying to be the "voice in the wilderness” that might bring to pass that American “Reformation” which alone can resolve the otherwise inevitable conflict between Roman Catholicism and American democracy. HOLTON R. SMALL. Hyattsville, Md. / A Spaniard writes In Defense of His Country To the Editor of The Star: Charles Allen Renfro in a letter to The Star on September 30, said some things about Spain which are absolutely wrong. It would take too long to correct all his erroneous statements, so I will only answer the principal errors in his letter. In the first place he says that Spain “during the course of many decades has been liberal in her treatment of minority faiths." If this is true then Spain is still liberal today, because nothing has changed. In the exercise of their dissident faiths the Protestants and Jews do not go under ground because their chapels are publicly built. There is a‘Gothic Protestant Church on Beneflcencia street in Madrid. If there are not many Protestant churches in Spain it is because there are not many Protestants in the country. In their churches the Protestants are free to baptize, celebrate marriages and funerals as they like and they do not need to go “to remote mountains and streams to do so." The Catholic Church regulates only the marriages of Catholics. The civil code says that the law recognizes two forms of mar riage, “the canonical for those who profess the Catholic religion and the civil.” The Protestants can celebrate their marriage after or before the civil marriage as they choose. Liberty for the practice of dissident faiths was granted in article 11 of the 1870 con stitution and has been reaffirmed by article 0 of the Fuero de los Espanoles which is the law published in the Franco regime. This law provides tha«t all Spaniards are equal before the law, riot just Catholics. FRANCISCO de S. LARCEQUI. Madrid, Spain. Says Colored Teachers Denied Opportunity to Honor Mrs. Doyle To the Editor of The Star: Many school teachers of approximately one-half of Washington public school child ren feel keenly that neither they nor their official representatives were allowed to share in the honor paid Mrs. Henry Gratton Doyle by the “city school teachers,” as the news article was reported. Once before upon the retirement of Dr. Ballou as super intendent- of all the schools, colored school teachers were asked to contribute to a token of appreciation for Dr. Bollou and chipped in to the extent of $500 or more. But when a dinner was given in his honor no colored school official; even of the Board of Educa tion, was invited. In a few days on Oct. 18, one member of the school board, Mrs. Velma Williams, is being tendered a test imonial dinner for her civic services and as in the past on similar occasions many white citizens will be invited and will be present. It is not the writer’s intention to suggest that purely social functions should not be discretionary as to invitees. We realize also, unfortunately, that we have a dual school system, although the colored min ority is fast becoming the majority. This year more than half of the elementary public school children are colored, and more of the junior high pupils are colored. It is most ironical that the testimonial to Mrs. Doyle culminated from an institute whose theme was, “Human Relationships in Democratic Education." The main speaker, a Dr. Melby of New York University was quoted as saying, “teachers have got to de vise machinery for setting the human spirit free.” Other quotes from his speech in dicate that Dr. Melby must have closed his Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. eyes to the greatest need, that of develop ing better human relationship in democratic education for all the people of the com munity from which all our public school children come. How futile and how sense less it is to prepare our children to live in a world with Europeans, Asiatics, Africans and Islanders and fail to grasp the oppor tunity to have them live with their neighbors at home. Another instance of wearing mental blinders on the part of educators and educational statesmen is the development of a supplement to the course of study of the Fairfax County Elementary Schools en titled, "Suggested Materials for Enrichment in Teaching Morals and Spiritual Values.” The booklet for grade VI of approximately 50 pages liberally quotes from the Bible, Hebrew life, and classic literature, and deals with attitudes of honesty, truth, integrity, love, friendship, humility, open-mindedness, self-sacrifice, courage, loyalty, reverence, and faith but leaves out the attitude of tol erance although a reference is made thereto under the heading of activities. Not one word indicates the presence of Negro citizens, although this ••substitute” for religious instruction in public schools lists one activity, “comparing Hie Indian tribes as to forms of democracy practiced due to the influence of religion.” Both these recent Instances indicate that were Christ in our midst he would wonder about our professions of Christianity. I repeat, our educators on these two occasions have missed a great opportunity to develop the larger ideals of democracy and Christ ianity- E. B. HENDERSON. Concerning Price Competition And Basing Point Systems To the Editor of The Star: The bill relating to basing point methods of pricing, which was reported out of con ference on October 12, is a very important measure. There is reason to believe that it would not pass either house or, if passed, that it would probably be vetoed by Presi dent Truman, if it were fully understood. Basing point systems and the closely similar zone price and freight equalization systems are all methods of formula pricing. In every industry using them, each supposed competitor makes, at each destination in the country, whenever he cares to bid, the same uelivered price as every other “competi tor” makes at the same destination. One or another of these systems is used in all building supplies industries, except insofar as they have recently modified their methods in deference to the basing point decision of the Supreme Court in the cement case. The results In building costs have been widely observed but too seldom attrib uted to the use of these systems. Now in every one of these industries, in sofar as these systems are employed, price competition is destroyed and the public is deprived of the principal advantage, eco nomically, of our world-vaunted "free en terprise” system. The bill as reported by a majority of the conferees is designed greatly to increase the difficulties of the Federal agencies enforcing anti-trust laws in their efforts to restore price competition to industries which use these systems. It Is designed to prevent the Federal Trade Commission and the courts from imputing, to those who use identical pricing systems, a mutual under standing to match one another’s delivered prices exactly and thereby unlawfully to eliminate price competition. “A Logical Absurdity.” The expressed aim to foster competition under the circumstances is a logical ab surdity. The mutual understanding to make identical delivered prices is as nearly per fect as if industry members had signed a cartel agreement fixing prices. Everybody knows the delivered prices are identical to buyers at each respective destination. The competitive urge to make lower prices to hold one’s trade is gone. In place of it is the fear that if one should reduce his de livered prices, he would be regarded as “price cutter,” a renegade and enemy to his industry, and be treated accordingly. Much of this, I strongly believe, is not understood by many members of the Con gress. They do not realize, for example, that the once-famous “Pittsburgh plus” case.' decided by the Federal Trade Commission against the United States Steel Corp. in 1924, could not have been brought if the law had then been what it will be if the conference bill is now enacted. Few members of the Congress probably realize that if that corporation should con clude to revive the old “Pittsburgh plus” system, which seriously discriminated against every buyer of extensive steel lo cated from Indiana* west to the Pacific and from Kentucky to the Gulf, this measure would enable that corporation to do so. It would preclude action by the Federal Trade Commission. And if, in such event, the other steel companies should conclude, as they traditionally have done, to follow that company’s pricing methods, and could prove that they did so “independently” whatever that means, the results in fixa tion of delivered prices, serious discrimina tion against fabricators and consumers of the West and South, and in the destruction of competitive enterprise, would be placed, through this bill, beyond the reach of the Federal Trade Commission. If basic industries like steel, cement and lumber and many lesser industries are to be thus encouraged by the Congress to de stroy price competition, many results can easily be foreseen. Among them are: The undermining of efforts to enforce the Sher man Act through promoting efforts to cir cumvent the anti-trust policy: the ultimate necessity for the Government to polidfe prices, in lieu of having them kept in check by competition; the ultimate necessity for the Government to police wages, as a co rollary of policing prices; the furnishing to foreign opponents of this country of strong arguments against the sincerity of our pro testations for free enterprise; and the ship wreck of American efforts to preserve free institutions among democratic peoples who are already skeptical as to our firm and per manent adherence to a free competitive economy. EUGENE W. BURR. Questionable Collection Methods Cited In Case of Roosevelt Stamps To the Editor of The Star: President F. D. Roosevelt was indeed a great stamp impresario, as the editorial in The Star of October 4 states; so much so that, according to John T. Flynn, pages 274 and 275 of his best seller, “The Roosevelt Myth,” he impressed into his personal col lection while he was president many thou sands of dollars worth of imperforated flrst sheets of new stamp issues for which he paid only the face value. In addition, again quoting Mr. Flynn, he ordered delivered to himself a large number of dye proofs of stamp issues going all the way back to 1896, which because of their value had been ordered kept in the Bureau of Printing and Engraving* by President Theodore Roosevelt. Mr. Flynn states that these dye proofs alone sold for $59,000 when F. D. R.’s estate was settled. I have not had the pleasure of reading Mrs. Shawen’s story, but I think it might be a little more enlightening if these in cidents were added. B. W. JONES Byrd Asserts Antarctic Has Huge Coal Deposits Uranium Deposits A Possibility, But Detection Is Difficult By Thomas R. Henry America's need for the vast, high land mass around the South Pole—of which an area somewhat larger than the continental United States never has been seen by man may become apparent in the next half cen tury. It is known to contain enormous coal de posits, the remains of its great forests of 300,000.000 years ago w'hen its climate may have been semitropical. Coal veins stick out of the mountaintops, protruding above the thick icecap. There is almost certainly oil under the ice. This is the view of Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd. Proposals for his fifth Antarctic expedition, with Navy ships and personnel, now are before the Joint Chiefs of Staff after having been canceled for reasons of economy this summer. The possibility that Antarctica may con tain considerable supplies of uranium which can be mined still must be considered. Ad miral Byrd says. Search for the essential element of the atomic bomb has been al leged to be the reason for the renewed in terest in the Antarctic continent where six nations are trying to establish claims this year. Generally this has been discounted by all familiar with the polar cohtinent be cause of the extreme difficulty of detection under ice. The idea that uranium deposits may be present has rested on no tangible evidence. But within the past few months, Admiral Byrd says, Chilean naval parties who are setting up permanent bases on the shores of the Palmer peninsula, farthest north ex tension of Antarctica, have claimed definite evidence of uranium deposits. Also Sir Douglas Mawson, Australian Antarctic ex plorer who is among the best-informed men on the resources of the continent, has main tained the high probability of such deposits. It is possible that these reports have stimulated the recent Russian interests. It is known that unnamed Russian ships car rying powerful aircraft have been cruising in Antarctic waters and presumably making air surveys to locate ice-free areas. All these facts, says Admiral Byrd, now are before the Joint Chiefs of Staff who are reconsidering the canceled expedition which would have involved a dozen ships and about 3.500 men. * * * * First intact preservation of human blood has just been reported here. By special methods of freezing and thaw ing, according to the report to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, approximately 100 blood specimens have been preserved with the majority of the cells unbrokeft for periods up to one month. The report is by Dr. Max M. Strumia of the John S. Sharpe research laboratory at Bryn Mawr, Pa. First the blood is frozen to a solid mass at a temperature of about —14 centigrade. It is then placed immediately in an air cabinet at a tempei^ture of —3, which keeps it in the solid state. It must be thawed rapidly when needed. Difficulty in preserving whole blood in the past has been the practical certainty of breaking the delicate walls of the- blood cells. Their chief constituent is water. This increases in bulk when crystallized to form ice. The surrounding membranes are broken. The secret apparently lies in the —3 preser vation temperature. When a lower tem perature is used the cells quickly disinte grate, Dr. Strumia says. Only a few cells are injured in the new process. The practical significance may be very great, it is pointed out. If the method could be perfected it would make whole blood transfusions possible at all times without donors. Whole blood transfusions of large numbers of persons is one of the major hopes in combatting the deadly radiation sickness which would follow an atomic bomb attack. Fast freezing, it is pointed out, results in the formation of small, uniformly sized water crystals. Slow freezing produces large crystals which are almost certain to ruptur# the blood cell walls. Questions and Answers A reader tan get the answer to any Question ef fact by w.-iting The Evening Star Information Please inclose three (3' cents for return nostage. Bureau, 310 Eye st. n.e.. Washington ", D. C. By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. Should new shoes be polshed before they are worn?—P. H. A. New shoes should be polished, especially if they are tan or brown leather. These types are more porous than others and ab sorb dirt more readily than black. Q. What is the difference between a land mile and a sea mile?—C. M. Z. A. To measure distance on the earth the statute mile of 5,280 feet is used. In navi gation it is more convienent to use the nauti cal mile of 6,080 feet since it corresponds very nearly to the length of one minute of arc (one-sixtieth of a degree) measured east and west at the equator. Q. Can a United States patent be obtained on a foreign invention after some improve ments have been made on it?—C. D. A. The Patent Law provides that a patent cannot be issued to a person if the article has been patented or described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country before his invention or discovery, or more than one year prior to his application. An improvement is not patentable unless inven tion is ever present. Q. Who was the last soldier killed in the Revolutionary War?—B. O. B. A. Hawthorne’s “History of the United States” says that the last man killed in the Revolutionary War was a Maryland officer named Wilmont, who lost his life in a skir mish at James Island about the end of 1782. Q. Please explain where the heart is lo cated in the body?—R. R. A. The heart is a hollow muscular organ varying from 5 to 6 inches in length, lo cated approximately % on the left side of the breast bone and approximately y3 on the rigfyt. The heart of the average adult man weighs 300 grams; of a woman 250 grams. The beat of the apex or tip may usually be felt in the space between the fifth and sixth ribs near the nipple of the left side. A slight portion of the base of the heart extends beyond the right side of the breast bone in the space beneath the third or fourth Tib. Boy/ Whistling The boy went whistling down the lot In rhythm to a tune he got From somewhere just between the stars And the top rail of pasture bars, Song plucked brown-handed out of time, With not much metre, not much rhyme, Yet halting all the wide earth in it From first creation to this minute. Toward his red cow with white-blazed /acj, Toward ragged patch of queen anne’s lace, With buckets swung in either hand, With bare toes curled against green land, His stride was long, his stride was free, And his own music seemed to be The thing which lifted his head up As if he drank life from a cup! AfrOBEL ARMOUR.