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WASHINGTON. 0. C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Ptnnsylvania Avo. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Avo. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Daily Only Sunday Only Monthly 1.20* Monthly . 90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly 20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sunday* are in a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition in those eections where delivery is mod*. Rate* by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month .. 1J0 I month ... 90c I month 40c 6 month*.. 7.50 6 months .. 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year _15.00 1 year ...10.00 I year . 6.00 telephone Sterling 5000 littered at the Post Office. Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Pres*. 1 The Associated Pros* is entitled exclusively to the use for •’•publication of all th« l^al n»w* printed in this Itewspoper as well as oil A. F. ntwi dispatcher *—6 * SATURDAY, OctobT, 22, 1949 Their Crime As apt a comment as any on the sen tencing of the eleven Communist leaders (an be found in the brilliant charge Federal Judge Harold R. Medina gave tome days ago to the Jury that convicted them. The words bear repeating: 5.These defendants had the right to advocate by peaceful and lawful means any and all changes in the laws and in the Constitution; they had the right to criticize the President of the United States and the Congress; they had the right to assert that World War II, prior to the invasion of Russia by Germany, was an unjust war, an imperialist war and that upon such invasion it became a just war worthy of all material and moral support; and they had the right publicly to express these views orally and in writing. They had the right thus to assert that the Government was at all times exploiting the poor and worthy workers for the benefit of the trusts and monopolies. “They had a right thus to assert that What they call the democracy of Russia is superior in all respects to American democracy. They had a right thus to assert that the Marshall Plan was a mistake, that billions of dollars should be loaned to Russia and that legislation adversely afTecting Communists should not be passed * * * Unless a minority had a right to express and to advocate its views, the democratic process as we understand it here in America would cease to exist • * *” But though they had all these and similar rights—the like of which is un known in Russia—they did not have the right to break the law against criminal conspiracy to teach and advocate action for the overthrow or destruction of our Government by force and violence. After an extraordinarily long trial, during which they had every conceivable oppor tunity to defend themselves, a jury of their peers found them guilty of that crime after viewing visible evidence and hearing millions of words of testimony. And so now the eleven have been sen tenced accordingly—not because they have been leaders of the Communist Party, which is still legal in this country; not because of being members of that party, which is as yet no crime here; not because of open revolutionary preachments, which are not outlawed among us; bxjt because of secretly conspiring, in violation of a specific law, to promote the violent overthrow of the United States Government. The judgment, however, is not final. They will appeal now to the higher courts. That is another of their rights—to seek a reversal, which is not inconceivable. One can only puzzle over the workings of minds that would sweep away this type of freedom and justice in order to transform America into the image of the Red tyranny. There seems to be a kind of hideous mys ticism involved in the crime. Yugoslavia's Election In electing Yugoslavia to the Security Council, by the closest possible margin, the United Nations General Assembly has in effect rebuked the Soviet Union for its semi-threatful effort—through Foreign Minister Vishinsky—to fore# the .accept ance of satellite Czechoslovakia. In effect, too, the Assembly has given a boost to the rebellious Marshal Tito in his struggle against the growing pressures of the Kremlin’s Cominform. Both before and immediately after the election, Mr. Vishinsky made clear Russia's bitter opposition to Yugoslavia’s seating as a member of the Council. As set forth in his unusual press conference just prior to the vote—and as repeated afterward in other but not less emphatic language— his line of argument was that the U. N. Charter and “established tradition, a gentlemen’s agreement,” provide that'the Council’s non-permanent members should be selected on a strict geographical or bloc basis, with candidates being chosen by the remaining member nations of the group or region. 9 Hence, according to Mr. Vishinsky, Czechoslovakia, the candidate of Moscow dominated Eastern Europe, had a pre . scriptive right to the vacant place, where as the Yugoslavs could not possibly be regarded as acceptable. And he went on to warn that if the “machinations” of the “Anglo-American bloc” (actually, Britain voted for the Czechs) resulted in a majority for Yugoslavia, the Kremlin would not recognize the election as “either lawful or just • • • The Soviet Union never has and never will reconcile itself to violations of the Charter.” ‘ “Never” is a big word in diplomacy. It conjures up what Mr. Vishinsky him-' self described as unpleasant complica tions and “painful consequences” for the U. N., although he sidestepped a query from his pre-election press audience as to whether Russia would refuse to sit on the Security Council beside Yugoslavia by saying: “The Soviet Union never tells in advance what it is going to do.” Yet, since the Assembly’s vote is a blow to the Kremlin’s prestige, it is predictable that the Russians will be at least tempted to try vigorous counteraction of some kind. As for the position taken by the United States, which openly backed the Yugoslav candidacy, Secretary of State Acheson has already hit back at the Vishinsky line of argument as being unfounded in either law or precedent. For its own part, before being chosen by the Assembly, Yugoslavia made the persuasive point that acqui escence in the Soviet claim would have been tantamount to accepting “the prin ciple that no small country in conflict with a great power can be so selected.’’ Aside from its meaning as a factor aggravating East-West tensions, and al though the Russians may react in a way that could create a new crisis, this bitter dispute is an indirect tribute to the importance of the United Nations. Mos cow would not thus bluster and threaten over an inconsequential matter. It obvi ously fears the role which the Council and the U. N. generally might play if there is thinly veiled or open Red aggres sion against Yugoslavia. This is indeed the involuntary homage which vie* pays to virtue. Why We Are in the Red In saying that he has no liking for un balanced budgets, President Truman has blamed the present heavy Federal deficit on the “rich man’s” tax bill enacted last year (with the help of many Democrats) by the Republican-controlled 80th Con gress. At the same time he has suggested that he intends to fight for higher taxes when the Senate and House return in January. As he has put it, he wishes some body would tell him just how else the Government can be expected to stop oper ating in the red. All this, of course, opens up a wide area of controversy. To begin with, as an incidental matter, it is difficult in the extreme to comprehend the President when he describes as a “rich man’s” bill a measure that has removed some 7,400,000 low-income Americans from the tax paying rolls and granted tax cuts ranging from 12.6 per cent for millions in the lowest brackets to 5 per cent for the small minority in the highest. In other words, proportionately speaking, the wealthy under this legislation have received less relief than the unwealthy. As for the relationship of current Fed eral finances to the 1948 tax reduction (amounting to roughly $5,000,000,000), the President can make a good case for his view that if there had been no such cut, the Nation would not now be facing a deficit that may add up to more than $7,000,000,000 by the end of this fiscal year. But neither Mr. Truman nor any body else caij be sure whether he is right or not. After all, it can be argued with considerable force that if the taxation level had not been lowered, the recession might have been much worse, with the result that Government revenues today would have been considerably less than they are. Apart from this might-have-been ques tion—which cannot be answered with certainty, one way of the other—the President has raised a challenge of sorts in asking how the budget can be balanced without a tax increase and in indicating that he will press for such an increase at the next session of Congress. Senate and House authorities on the subject have been quick to respond. A composite of their views may be summed up as follows: (1) The way to get out of the red is to start making real economies, and (2) in stead of boosting taxes, it may be wise to lower them some more in order to create investment and other free-enter prise incentives aimed at adding another $100,000,000,000 to the national income, which would automatically increase Fed eral revenues. sound as mese suggestions may oe, however, the fact remains that Congress as a whole, including both parties, has j shown no disposition to follow them. Leaving aside tremendous defense outlays and other items that are either impossible to reduce or too vital for sharp slashes, neither the Senate nor House has been in a mood to do an economizing job on the reducibles, such as farm-price sup I ports. Moreover, there has been consid erable reluctance to permit a truly sweep ing Federal administrative reorganization, which former President Hoover believes capable of saving $3,000,000,000. In the circumstances, Mr. Truman—who has set the pace for congressional dedica tion to social welfare and other types of spending—would seem to have good reason to ask for higher taxes. For if the spend ing is to continue without letup, then we must have either the higher taxes or end less deficits leading us into a fiscal wilder ness. But, of course, what with nearly everybody up for re-election next fall, one I must hasten to add that it is about as certain as anything can be that the Senate and House will not only avoid drastic economies but will also reject any presi dential request for a big boost in taxation. What the whole thing boils down to is that everybody in politics is extremely anxious to please the voting public, whose “gimme” pressures;—coming from every direction—are primarily responsible for : the red ink. In fact, if we are frank with ourselves, we must acknowledge that we will keep on drifting toward fiscal chaos | until we ourselves—the American people as a whole—make up our minds either to : stop seeking more and more Federal largesse or to start paying for It in higher and higher taxes till it really hurts. • ________________________ Freeway Signs Needed The new Whitehurst Freeway is living up to the expectations of its sponsors as an expediter of traffic through the con gested Georgetown area. But traffic would move even more smoothly over it if it were marked more adequately with signs to guide motorists unfamiliar with its Key Bridge exit system. At present the unwary motorist sud denly is confronted with three choices after dipping beneath the bridge on his trip westward. He may turn sharply to the right on the loop which carries traffic onto Key Bridge and thence to Virginia, or he may take a,central lane leading eastward on M street, or. he may take a far left roadway which will enable him to continue along Canal road to points west or north. The trouble is that motor ists using the freeway for the first time are not informed sufficiently in advance as to these diverse routes. Consequently, traffic jams and near-collisions have been occurring, especially during rush hours, as drivers discover themselves headed for Virginia when they want to enter M street or Canal road, or vice versa. Some have tried to back up and some have even tried to turn around in the one-way outlets— with serious repercussions on the traffic stream. It is obvious to daily users of the free way that large signs should be posted some distance back from the Key Bridge loop to guide motorists into the proper lanes for Virginia, M street and Canal road. New York and New Jersey expressways are marked in this manner, with the result that traffic flows into exits and entrances with a minimum of confusion and slow downs. Without such a directional sys tem the Whitehurst Freeway will not function as efficiently as its designers intended when they planned the exits in the Key Bridge area. Silent Woman Senator Margaret Chase Smith's boast that she was one of the quietest members of the upper chamber, having consumed only a total of one and a half minutes for a major speech, Is one that she and her native State of Maine can well be proud of. Not only does she help to scotch the canard that her sex is composed of non stop babblers, but she has set a magnificent example to her male colleagues, who have evidently been too busy talking to no tice it. By her enviable record of terseness, the Senate’s only woman member moreover has perfectly represented her laconic con stituency. In rock-ribbed Maine, silence is considered the proper way to carry on a filibuster. The practice there is to let the other fellow do all the talking, en courage him to lay all his cards on the table while showing none of your own. Close-mouthed State of Mainers no doubt have noiselessly applauded week after week as they saw from the Congressional Record that their girl was holding her tongue while less self-contained Solons shouted themselves hoarse. Mrs. Smith’s feat will boost New England pride, which jumped sharply some months ago when an Army survey revealed that their men are the most muscular. Strong men and silent women. A splendid breed, these Yankees. Canasta, with its wonderfully chaotic rules, is a break for the old-line poker crowd. Seems it has drained off that element that was for making everything wild but the ace. In California a plaintiff’s claim to be the sole owner of a laugh like a wood pecker’s is thrown out of court. Our feathered friends may therefore resume. China being China, the new, high minded saviors find the sledding every bit as tough as did the old percentage crowd that milked the property. __ This and That By (paries E. Tracewell Is it pokeberry time in.your yard? If so, you have plenty of birds. Few berries are liked better by the songs ters. They fly in, sample a few berries, then fly away. They are heady berries, full of bright juice, strong and tasty—if you are a bird. • If you are human, and one may hope you are. then the pokeberries are not for you. In the old days, when hearts were young— and fortunately some hearts are always young—one made "ink” out of them. • • • • Pokeberry bushes get planted in odd ways. They have a habit of coming up in shrub bery, especially shrubbery which is not pruned as it should be pruned. This is the great home garden failure. Many a tidy housewife, many a good gardener, looks with pride on everything except the foundation planting. The shrubs are overgrown, moth-eaten, as it were, much too large, much too thick, and often much too sickly looking, because they are hard to handle, and not every one knows when and how to chop. Pruning shrubs is a subject all by Itself. Probably the average homeowner could solve it Easily enough by plain old-fashioned cut ting away, chips falling where they may. • * • Cutting them down from the top, and thinning them out from the sides— Surely that is elementary pruning, enough to cause a first class plant man to shudder, but it would be better than to permit shrUbs and evergreens to grow for 20 years untouched. , The touching time finally comes, of course. The things grow so high an<f so wide, and so darken the downstairs rooms, especially the living room, that the owner is driven to act. He cuts ’em all down. He hews to the line, he lets the whole thing, not just the chips, fall where they may. \ He piles them on the parking, and finds out that no one will collect them. He inquires among the neighbors, and finds out that the collector is very discrimi nating. He refuses to take anything unless it is cut into 4 foot lengths. So one, naturally enough, cuts it all up into 4 foot lengths, to the very inch. But the larger pieces look so nice that way one de cides to use them. Cut a bit smaller, they will burn in the fireplace just as well as any. They go into the garage, and all that is left is a neat pile of boughs and branches, each exac ly 4 feet long, to the inch. Will this appease the collector? One watches as the wagon comes along. The question is, “Will he take them now?” Will he take them now, now that-one has complied with the self-drawn-up regula tions? Well, here he comes! The big red van lumbers along, goes past a few feet. The contraption isn’t going to stop. Now just wait until I see that man again— The van times to a stop. One breathes easier. One nas complied with all regula tions, there is no reason why he shouldn’t stop, but it always makes one breathe easier when he does. Yes, he is going to stop, he does stop, he gets out, he surveys the pile with a critical eye. * One fully expects him to get out a tape measure, now, and take a test leading. One can see him critically adding up the score, “One bough, 49 inches, 1 inch too long; this bough, a full 54 inches, a full 6 inches too long; this here bough, at least 10 inches too long—” No, he is satisfied, he is picking them up, he is tossing them in. A little portion of one’s tax money is paying off, at last. Away goes the van,- with'most of the boughs and bffenches. One is happy to clean un the rest. This is government in operation. This is what Washington fought for. It all comes down to a red van lumbering down the street. And the happy householder, breathing easier, looks fondly at his pokeberry bushes. | They will have to go next, but not until the I birds get through with them. Letters to The Star How Two Pedestrians Feel Toward Offending Drivers. To th« Editor o( The star: According to The Star, the courts are still fussing with a bus driver who is accused of not giving a pedestrian the right of way. In this particular case, a man was killed. There’s something screwy about a setup that clamps down on one offender and allows thousands of others guilty of the same of fense to go scot-ffee. If this man goes to jail, a sizeable number of Washington’s drivers should go with him. They haven’t killed anybody yet but they are just as dangerous. I’ve been crossing Washington streets for four years and in situations in which the drivers and I shared the green lights, I have rarely been given the right of way. In almost every case, the driver going around a corner on my side of the street maintained a high speed and leaned on his horn or cursed at me if I dared to take one step forward. For some reason or other, the law applies only after someone has been killed. KENNETH M. SCOLLON. To the Editor of The Star: Thank you for printing Vera E. Adams’ letter on police leniency with careless drivers. It is as much as our lives are worth to cross the street at Connecticut avenue and Porter street in the evening after getting off a bus going north. We used to have a policeman at that crossing. MRS. ELIZABETH TALTY. Americans Urged to Recognize Importance of Antarctic • Regions To the Editor of The Star: The most important news story of October 13 and maybe the most important one of 1949 was Admiral Byrd’s report that Russians have been exploring with ships and planes in Antarctic regions. Now, it is a well-known fact that Russians are much more familiar with Arctic living than Americans are. It follows that they are probably able and willing to colonize Ant arctica—with slave labor. Why don’t we pol ish up our initiative and colonize Antarctica with free men and women supplied with ma terial comforts and luxuries by free enter prise? Why not? Neither the Americans nor Western Europeans have yet permanent ly settled on this six-million-square-mile continent at the South Pole. The Little America campsite has been populated for periods of about one year’s duration by small groups of courageous United States men un der difficult conditions. There are no occu pants of Little America now, unless it be Rus sians. We do not even know. And the United States Navy’s expedition all set to go there was recently cancelled for “economic rea sons.” The short-sightedness of such deci sion is most regrettable. If we do not stand up at this point in history and proclaim our ownership of and plans for certain Antarctic territory then we as a people, as a Nation, may have this year marked the turning point toward decline. ELIZABETH A. KENDALL. No Posies Here For Henry McLemore To the Editor of The Star: The viewpoint expressed by Henry Mc Lemore in his series of articles from various foreign countries is a good example of the reason why many Americans are so unpopu lar in Europe and elsewhere. Your correspondent *has -sneered his way across the world, not finding one good thing to say about anyone or any place, with the possible exception of Ireland. He is not con tent merely to laugh with other peoples but must actually ridicule them and their cus toms. Mr. McLemore reminds me of some Americans I encountered in England during the war who were always loudly telling the Englishmen what a backward country Eng land was and how much better the United States was. What is more, his articles are full of inac curacies. In the column from Dublin he tells us that none of England’s colonies supported her in the war. That, of course, is not true. All -he colonies,' including the dominions, which could decide for themselves whether or not to enter the war. supported England at once. Contrary to Mr. McLemore, Ireland has been independent for some time, is not even a member of the Commonwealth, but has found it advisable to co-operate with the Commonwealth and has had delegates at most of their meetings. In my opinion these articles represent the type of shallow thinking which makes for international misunderstanding. Mr. Mc Lemore apparently thinks the only thing that matters is the difference in plumbing. RICHARD H. HAKINS. A Salute to T. R.’s “Brats” For Setting a Good Example To the Editor of The Star: A former employe of the White House tells in his book of Teddy Roosevelt’s "brats.” As a subscriber of The Star for 50 years, I have read of sliding down stair rails, racing through the house, wild tossing of balls and other childish antics of his children. I have read also of the Children’s Hour when the family gathered to read and to recite passages from the Bible. Awards were given when earned. Much has been written of their social, political, professional and home lives, but never once have I read of a hint of a breath of scandal. I consider them as good, old-fashioned American stock. An example for modern educators. ANONYMOUS. » • Ultimate Inadequacy of War Held Challenge to Mankind To the editor of Th» star: In an atmosphere of inter-service dis agreement and preparation for what many of us glibly refer to as “the next war,” the teaching of an ancient Greek philosopher has a frightful application. “War,” Heraclitus suggested, “is the father of all and the king of all, and some he has made gods and some men, some bond and some free. . .” Moreover, continued the Ephesian, "greater deaths win greater por tions.” The most competent jurist could not suc cessfully maintain that our concept of battle is on a higher level than that indicated in the philosopher's dictum. War remains our principle means of settling major dis putes. .Only aimagnificent few, like Gandhi in his "soul-force” possess the courage to suggest the ultimate inadequacy of armed conflict. Curious, is it not, that as our protocol becomes more subtle, our diplomats more learned and our Senators less confined in perspective, our hearts are no less black. In humaneness few of us have progressed much further than the Java Man. We find it difficult to minimize or refute the proposal that the biggest fist directed to the fairest brow must Anally triumph. Our morality plays handmaiden to politics, local and universal. Intelligent, thoughtful'men are subordinated to vulgar opportunists. Meanwhile, thoughtful men demand a statesman who can disregard the farm vote, log-rolling and private receptions long enough to confront the serious issue of human advancement, a leader who will speak less as an ambitious demagogue and more as a sober legislator with that wisdom bom of knowledge, unafraid of idealism, in sensible to weakness, and willing to bring the fruit of man’s experience to bear upon man’s future. i Adequate, commanding spokesmen in U. N. assemblies, increased student exchange, and a fearless Americ&n support of genuine Letters for publication mu$t bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. democracies everywhere, before "white pa pers” become necessary to rationalize our failures, are prime among the avenues open to peace. Let us reflect as we prepare for war that our manner of settling difficulties and dis putes places us on a level with the lowest vertebrates, that it excels theirs only in efficiency and intensity, springing from the same lust to kill and conquer. Every step beyond this instinct advances our society nearer to the human goal. In war there is no victory. The conqueror possesses a wasteland. KENNETH PAUL SULLIVAN “Spray the Flies” Campaign Begins At Kimball School. To the Editor of The Star: All our lives we’ve been told to “swat the fly”; that flies feed on filth and that filth breeds disease. We’ve done our best to keep our homes dirt and germ-free and especially fly-free. Our children are given regular health check-ups, their teeth are watched for signs of decay, eye and hearing tests are made and they are given vaccines and booster shots to protect their health. But what hap pens? We send them to fly-infested schools where they spend 25 hours a week. No public school in the District of Columbia is equipped with, screens. At Kimball Elementary School (the school of which we have first-hand knowledge) flies flit in and out, breed and spread germs at will. They crawl on hair, clothes and faces, desks and work while our children try to con centrate on learning. The teachers and chil dren who must eat lunch at school have a daily battle—to choke down their food before the flies ruin it. The pests are not only dirt and germ carriers—they are also the most annoying insects in the world. Furthermore, they have never been ruled out by research as possible spreaders of the dread polio virus. The principal of Kimball School, and no doubt principals of other schools, and mem bers of the PTA Health Committee, have tried time and again to have the Health De partment spray the buildings. The Health Department has sent an investigator out many times but they have yet to do any spraying. At first it was on the grounds that the fertilizer used on the lawns was causing the flies to arrive in droves; then that some nearby riding stables were the culprits and now, that those two causes no longer exist, just because it wouldn’t do any good—we are too far out from town. (We are well within the District limits.) We live in a temperate climate and have flies with us the greater part of the year. So the excuse that school is closed during fly season is not valid. It may not be possible to redesign schools overnight to permit the use of screens. However the new buildings now under construction are screenless too. The principal of Kimball School has, out of her own pocket, provided an insecticide with which the custodian sprays frequently. However, what the building needs immedi ately is a thorough fumigation that would penetrate places no mere hand-operated spray could hope to reach. Let’s make this matter public and if enough people feel as we at Kimball do perhaps something may be done about it. DORIS BURRITT, DORA JACOBS. HELEN WILSON, ALBERTA MOSLER. Sees Betrayal By Israel Of Middle East Jews To the Editor of The Star: The Sunday Star reported (page A-2, col. 2) that Iraq has proposed to exchange 100, 000 Jews domiciled for many years in Bagh dad for 100,000 Arab refugees from Palestine. This is the first time I have seen an Amer ican newspaper courageous enough to hint at the disaster which the Israelis are pre paring heartlessly for their co-religionists in the Near East and Africa. I have recently spent six months in Tur key, during which time I toured most of the Arab capitals and talked with leading Arab officials. They are keeping quiet, in the faint hope that the U. N. will insist on Israel obeying the world authority in staying within her borders allotted by the U. N. in repatriating such Arab exiles as wish to re turn to their homes and compensating the others. Failing this, the Arab governments have decided to play their trump card of giving to Arab refugees, person for person, the home and property of Jews long estab lished in Arab lands. Arab refugees will not be allowed to starve if deprived of the mercy of Israel and the U. N.! They will replace the 500,000 Jews in Arab cities who. after all, have been told that their national home is Israel. 4 TheTsraelis are disdainful of the effort to restrain them from expansion, in the name of peace and American prestige in the Near East. But they do not advertise the disaster they are preparing for their co-religionists in the Near East who have lived peacefully with Arabs for centuries. It would be a gross injustice to dispossess and uproot these Jewish communities (none of which is pro-Zionist; all of which, like the majority Of American Jews, want to continue as 100% citizens of the land in which they live.) But the injustice would be merely the Mosiac eye-for-an-eye, evoked by the equally mass eviction from Palestine of Arabs who have lived there peacefully for 1,300 years. The refugees would receive homes and consid erable property, while Israel would receive half a million penniless Jews to add to the national economy of Israel. Israel is now a state, and every one hopes she may prosper now and live, at long last, on her own resources. But' if we want any kind of peace in the Near East, let us hope that the U. N. will insist on Israel returning to her allotted borders, repatriating the na tives who lived there, and learning to deal justly with her neighbor nations. She won the shooting war by virtue of an effective embargo on arms to Arabs while Israel re ceived without stint, arms, armored cars and fighter planes, mostly from behind the Iron Curtain. Now she- is on her own. If she stays on, and in, her own she can live in prosperity and peace. But if she condemns Near East Arabs and Jews alike to disaster and homelessness, if she continues insolently to occupy Jerusalem and Nazareth in de fiance of the U. N. Partition Plan and of the will of Christendom, then she will have to live in the midst of hate, and faoe ultimate moral and political bankruptcy. . MARCO POLO, Jr. Wonders If Public Interest Is Considered in Work Shutdown To the Editor of The Star: Page the boy from Athens who sought the truth. - 1 Surely when the lions and the lambs sit in blissful peace, as evidenced by the com placent attitude of the three-day week coal mining “vacation,” with both management and labor anxiously watching the top of the ground coal piles, and the past furled buying of steel anticipatory to a steel strike, and the current daily illogical paid advertis ing and propaganda both by labor and man agement in steel, there is a faint suspicion of a meeting of the minds inimical to the publfe interest. One wonders if there is not a "hold or raise the price” objective by mutual consent that best serves an understanding minority at the expense of the many. B. E. CASSOU. The Political Mill Truman's Tax Plea Sounds Familiar but Terrifying Budget Will Not Be Balanced as Lon$ As Emphasis Remains on Spending By Gould Lincoln President Truman’s suggestion that the only way to balance the Government budget is to increase taxes has a familiar if some j what terrifying sound. It is the old tax and tax, spend and spend technique—which won election after election in New Leal days. But in those days Federal taxes did not approxi mate what they are today—which is just a bit shy of the all-time-high taxes during the last war. Today, four years after the close of the war, with the country experienc ing during those years tremendous produc tion and* all-time-high employment, the demand is now for billions more to spend. Part of this heavy spending is justified. It is for the safety of the Nation and the American people—to prevent another world war. There is another danger which the American people run, however, which is a bankrupt Nation. The prospects, according to those who have made it a business of examining the Government’s fiscal affairs, are for a deficit at the close of the present fiscal year amounting to $3,000,000,000 to $8,000,000,000. If that kind of thing is con tinued, the end can only be disaster. No Effort to Cut Spending. As long as the emphasis remains on spend ing the Government will not balance its budget; it will not make possible a further decrease in taxation. Politically, the ad ministration appears to find itself on th# horns of a dilemma. It must either reduce its spending plans—which will lose it votes —or it must increase taxes. With an elec tion coming up next year, a new tax bill is not likely to sit well. The emphasis could be transferred to saving, if the administration, and the Con gress, were willing. It’s a trite answer to pro posed saving to ask where savings can be made in Government services and what have you. The great trouble is that no real effort has been made to but. The Hoover Commission program for governmental re organization is an exception—and if that program is carried out, it has been estimated that savings up to three or four billion dol lars a year can be made. Not all the blame for big spending rest* with the President and his executive aides. The Congress, which under the Constitution holds the purse strings, makes all the appropriations. The demands made on the Congress by groups of citizens for money for all kinds of projects are responsible for many of these appropriations. In the end, therefore, much of the governmental ex travagance must be blamed upon these groups, large and small, who demand, and demand, and demand. One Kay oi nope. There is one ray of hope. Representative Cannon of Missouri, chairman of the House Committee on Appropriations, repeatedly has said that it is his intention to bring be fore the House in the next session of Con gress one appropriation bill, containing all the moneys which are to be authorized and expended. This in place of a dozen big appropriation bills which have been consid ered separately and without reference to an over-all total. If Mr. Cannon carries out his plan, the Congress will be faced for the first time with a measure that gives the complete picture of Government spending— which will be compared with a complete picture of Government receipts. This, if anything, may prevail on the Congress—and even the .general public—to cut Government spending to fit Government revenues. It would be an excellent program also if pro vision could be made that no more should be expended than the estimated revenues. In the Senate, Chairman Cannon has an able seconder in his drive for a single appropriation bill—Senator Harry Flood Byrd of Virginia. These tVo Demifcrats. if the administration would listen to them, could do a real job for the solvency of the country. Republicans are pointing out that the only time the Government budget has been brl ! anced since Franklin D. Roosevelt entered ; the White House in 1933 was during the 80th Congress, when the Republicans con trolled that body. It is a fact. Yet Republi can members of Congress too often during the last session have fa/led to back up pro posed cuts in many of the appropriation bills. They. too. have been on the spending end rather than on the saving. Questions and Answers A reader can get the answer to any question of fart by writing The Even Ida Star Information Bureau. 316 Eye at. n.e.. Washington 2. D. C. Please inclose three (3) cents for return postage By THE HASKFN SERVICE Q. In which State are there most civilian aircraft?—G. D. O. A. California leads the Nation in num ber of civilian aircraft, being considerably ahead of Texas, the second ranking State. Q. How many popular votes did the Pro hibition candidate receive in the last presi dential election?—M. H. A. A. Dr Claude A. Watson of Los Angeles, the Prohibition candidate for President in 1948, received 103,216 popular votes. Q. How much does water expand when it freezes? D. McK. A. When water passes from the liquid to the solid state it expands to an amount of about 1-11 of its volume; that is, one volume of water forms 1.0908 volumes of ice. Q. Are there at present many small one teacher schools in the rural areas of the United States?—K. L. E. A. There are at present fewer than 80,000 one-teacher schools. Although one-teacher schools represent 45 per cent of all schools in the country, only 5 per cent of children attend them. Q. Please explain what is meant by the term “vat dyed” in reference to textiles.— G. F. A. The term designates any material that has been dyed with vat dyes, and is widely used to imply excellent color fastness. Vat dyes are an important class of dyes which are expensive in their first cost and in ap plication, but Justify themselves because of fastness to washing, alkalis, mercerization and bleaching. “Vat” refers to the large vessel used to hold the liquors for dyeing, also to the liquors containing the dyes. Photograph This is my photograph. It’s very well— The eyes are spaced, the small bones carried high, The nose is straight, the mouth curved like a shell, As other faces ar% and it is 1 True to the life, or so my mirrors say. But when I leave it smiling into space, How strange it is, when I have turned away, That I cannot remember my own face ... But oh, the one when I had turned flteenJ I can recall the angle of each curl, The tilted chin, that the long eyes were green— / Oh, I can close those eyes and see that girl! Was I that girl? Is she some part of me? Which one is real—which one just seems to be? YETZA GILLESPIE.