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Weather Forecast Fair and cooler tonight, low about 44 in the city and 38 in suburbs. Tomorrow sunny, cool, high about 58. (Full report on Page A-2.) Midnight, 49 6 a.m. ..-50 11 a.m. __.58 2 a.m. —49 8 a.m. ..-51 Noon_62 4 a.m. 50 10 a.m. 54 1 p.m. 64 ^ Late New York Markets, Page A-17. Guide for Readers P»K« Amusements A-28-29 Classified_C-4-9 Comics _C-10-11 Editorial_A-10 Edit'l Articles, A-ll Finance -A-17 Page Lost and Found.. A-3 Obituary-A-12 Radio _C-ll Sports_C-l-3 Women's Section_B-3-6 An Associated Press Newspaper 97th Year. No. 294. Phone ST. 5000 ** WASHINGTON, H. C., WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 2G, 1949—SIXT^ PAGES. i r ■ -; ...-.—. City Home Delivery, Daily and Sunday, SI.20 a Month; when 6 ST PTT'V'TQ! 8undaya. $1.30. Nlent Final Edition. $1.30 and $1.40 per Month. UHi’i i ij BritainCan'tLive On U. S. Charity, Cripps Declares Success Rests on Own Capacity to Produce, He Tells Commons By th« Associated Press LONDON, Oct. 26_Sir Stafford Cripps solemnly warned Britain today it could not exist on the charity of the United States. Opening a two-day debate in the House of Commons on the government's new £280,000,000 • $784,000,000' economy drive, the Chancellor of the Exchequer de clared : “At the root of our success or failure lies our own capacity to produce. The only real solution for our difficulties is more and more economical and efficient pro duction.” High Standard Is Aim. The cut in dollar imports—such as tobacco, food, cotton and gaso line—and a slash in government spending are essential, he said “but cannot of itself bring” success. He said Britain wants to be able to afford a high standard of living “not through the charity of some friendly people, but be cause we can produce enough currently to supply all our own wants.” Cripps said the “most acute of our own and the world's postwar economic problems has been that of the dollar-sterling trade.” “We still have a gap which is being filled by Marshall aid and up till the date of devaluation it was also being filled by a heavy drain on our reserves as well,” Cripps said. Britain devalued the pound from $4.03 to $2.80 September 18. The government sought to increase sales of British goods in dollar areas by knocking down their high prices. Fears Unemployment. Cripps said Britons must pro duce more and use less, or go hun gry and jobless. "Unless we can quickly produce more and get our costs down,” the chancellor told Commons, “we shall suffer a tragic fall in our standard of living, accompanied by all the demoralizing insecurity of widespread unemployment.” Anthony Eden, deputy leader of the Conservatives, termed Cripps’; speech "pious exhortations.” Of Prime Minister Attlee’s speech Monday on his economy program, Mr. Eden said: “I can remember no occasion on ! which a statement by the head of; the government has fallen so far! below the expectation of the na tion's needs.” Detai’s Spending Cuts. In detailing the new cuts in spending, Cripps made these points: The armed services will be re duced 20,000 below the previously expected size of 750,000 by next April 1. The government is lopping off its payrolls 10,000 civil servants, who total more than a million. There will be 25,000 fewer pri vately built homes than the pro jected 200,000 next year. Supplies of consumer goods to (See BRITAIN, Page A-6.) Acheson Charges Reds Keep Aide in Nanking By the Associated Presi Secretary of State Acheson said today that Chinese Communist authorities are using a “flimsy pretext" to prevent the departure from Nanking of Brig. Gen. Robert H. Soule, American Military At tache to China. Mr. Acheson said in a state ment that Gen. Soule has been refused an exit visa because of a demand by Chinese employes of the United States Government that the general remain on the scene until their demands for “ex orbitant servants’ pay” are settled. Mr. Acheson said this Govern ment “will not authorize its repre sentatives in China to submit to such pressure.” Gen. Soule had planned to sail October 19 on a British ship from Shanghai to Hong Kong. Mr. Acheson reported that three members of the American con sulate staff in Shanghai also ran into such delays that they were unable to sail on the same ship. Man, 72, Fearing Operation Dies of Gunshot Wound A 72-year-old former salesman who had expressed fear of an operation next week, died in Emergency Hospital today of a gunshot wound in the head. Homicide squad detectives said Jasper M. Beall, 1510 Vamum street N.W., was shot in his bed room with a .25-caliber auto matic found there. His wife, Mrs. May Little Beall, told police she heard a shot about 7 a.m. and, going to Mr. Beall’s room, found him wounded. He lived for four hours. Police said Mr. Beall wrote a note in which he despaired of an operation he was to undergo a week from today. Mrs. Beall’s mother, Mrs. John P. Little, said Mr. Beall had been in poor health since retiring 12 years ago. British Hit McCloy Statements As Peril to Policies in Reich U. S. High Commissioner Expected to Return To Washington Next Week by Way of London By the Associated Press LONDON, Oct. 26.—Britain has protested to the United States that statements made by Ameri can High Commissioner John J. McCloy are seriously harming Western policies in Germany. Diplomatic officials who re ported this today said Mr. Mc Cloy is going back to Washington early next week for special talks with Secretary of State Acheson. They said he is expected to pass through London. The informants reported the British complaint was made to Julius C. Holmes, minister at the American embassy here, by Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick, who heads the German section of the Foreign Office. The two men met within the last week to discuss various aspects of Western power policy toward Germany and Kirkpatrick ex pressed British concern at two interviews given by Mr. McCloy to newsmen recently. In the first interview published in German and British news papers on October 9, Mr. McCloy reportedly called for an end to “purposeless dismantling" of in dustrial plants in the Ruhr. He was quoted as saying that “even" the British would welcome ending of dismantling. This issue long has been a source of anti-British feeling in West Germany. One reason is that most of the factories being dismantled . are in the British zone. The British, therefore, have the responsibility for carrying out what actually is Anglo-American French policy. McCloyVoicesDetermination To Break Up Reich Cartels FRANKFURT, Germany, Oct. 26 (£*).—American High Commis sioner McCloy yesterday expressed firm determination to split up Germany s industrial cartels. “I am a very firm believer in the anti-trust system,” he said. “It stimulates production and rarely if ever depresses it. I be lieve we can very substantially re adjust the old industrial com plexes of Germany." Mr. McCloy's comments came in response to news conference questions as to the progress of the Allied decartelization program in Germany. “There is no lack of intention to proceed with decartelization,” he said. “I hope we can proceed with expedition.” He added: “We must remember 'See McCLOY, Page A-6.> Yugoslav Ambassador Barred by Russians On Espionage Charge Soviet Note to Belgrade Says Rajk Trial Bared Subversive Activity ACHESON SAYS CZECHS ’Trumped Up’ Spy Charges Against Aides. Page A-2. By the Associated Press MOSCOW, Oct. 26.—Russia has charged Marshal Tito's Ambas sador to Moscow with anti-Soviet spying and declared he can no longer serve as the Yugoslav en voy here. A Soviet note delivered yester day to the Yugoslav Embassy said the Budapest treason trial of Hungary’s former Foreign Min ister Laszlo Rajk had revealed that Yugoslav Ambassador Karlo Mrazovic “had for a long time en gaged in spying and subversive ac tivities against the Soviet Union.” Mrazovic left Moscow for Yugo slavia in August and has not re turned since, though technically he remains Ambassador to the Soviet Union. It had been pre sumed he would return to the Russian capital eventually. ‘Slanderous Fabrication* Charged. The Kremlin's note said also that Mrazovic “while being Yugo slav Ambassador in the U. S. S. R., had come out in the Yugoslav press with slanderous fabrications against the Soviet Union.” Russia, the note concluded, con sides it “impossible” for Mrazovic to continue to represent the Tito regime in the Soviet Union. Mrazovic came to Moscow last December 16 after serving as (See YUGOSLAV, Page A-6.) Season Low Temperature Predicted Here Tonight A new temperature low for the season is predicted by the Weather Bureau for tonight. The forecaster predicted tem peratures of 44 degrees in the city and 38 in the suburban areas, with tomorrow expected to be sunny and cool. The previous low for the season was 40 degrees. A Weather Bureau spokesman said .66 inches of rain fell since Monday night. The rain was gen eral along the East coast, he said, and relieved a critical water short age in New York State. Middle Class Parties Mutiny Against Reds' Rule in East Germany Christian Democratic and Libera’I Democratic Heads Are Reported Arrested By the Associated Press BERLIN, Oct. 26.—A mutiny of two middle-class parties against Communist dictation in the East German republic flared up today despite scattered reprisals by the people’s police. Arrests of disgruntled Chris tian Democratic and Liberal Dem ocratic officials were reported in two of the republic's five states. Neqe Zeit, Soviet-licensed organ of the East C. D. U„ bitterly pro tested today that Christian Dem ocrats and Liberal Democrats were being treated to “half portions”; by the Communists. Parity With Reds Demanded. It demanded parity with the Communists in all government appointments and added: •The membership card of the C. D. U. should expose no one to discrimination.-’ The C. D. U. newspaper warned the republic’s provisional govern ment against “cutting off the east zone by building a so-called peo ple’s democratic state.” It asserted the one way Eastern Germany could w'in the confidence of the Western zones—and pro mote German unification—was by strictly observing the “democratic constitutional rights” of its cit | izens. | The CDU rank and file had been ripped by dissension since top leaders announced earlier this month they would support the Communists in creating a republic without an election. Heavy-handed wire-pulling by Communists is known to have dis mayed CDU and LDP represent (See GERMANY. Page A-7.) Quantico Marine Killed When Struck by Truck Pfc. Sterlin Shell, 21, stationed at the Quantico Marine Base, was killed last night when struck by a truck on Route 1 about 4 miles south of the base. State police at Culpeper had no details of the accident. Quantico officials said Pfc. Shell came from Bledsoe, Ky., and en listed in the Marine Corps in January, 1948. Soviet Charges Ex-Star of Met Spies for U. S. in Yugoslavia Zinka Milanov Seen In Tito's Company, Moscow Paper Says By the Associated Press MOSCOW, Oct. 26-c—The Soviet Literary Gazette declared today that Yugoslav Marshal Tito is often seen in Belgrade “in the company of an American spy, Singer Zinka Kune.” The article, carrying a Belgrade dateline, said the singer was mar ried to a Yugoslav general and had become “a dictator of fash ions for wives of ministers and generals” in Belgrade. “This woman married Yugoslav Trotskyite Gen. Hich in New York and thus got into Yugoslavia,” the article declared. “Expensive dia monds are given her by Tito.” The writer, whose name was given as V. Stoyanovich, accused Tito of “depositing his stolen wealth” in Swiss banks because “sooner or later he will have to flee the wrath of the people.” Tito the article said, seeks to imitate Winston Churchill by try ing to be a hunter, writer and chessmaster. In New "£ork, a representative for a singer who was born Zinka ZINKA MILANOV. Kune, said it was ‘‘ridiculous’ that the woman—who became famed as Metropolitan Opera So prano Zinka Milanov—could be ar American spy. The representative, Jack Adams said, “she’s only interested in hei music and her clothes.” Mr. Adams said Zinka Milanov 43, now married to Gen. Hich, hac (See SINGER, Page A-7.) President Signs Bill Fixing 75c Minimum Pay 1,500,000 Workers Due to Get Raises Of 5 to 15 Cents By Joseph A. Fox President Truman today signed legislation giving approximately 22,600,000 workers a guaranteed minimum wage of 75 cents an hour and hailed it as ‘‘a major victory in our fight to promote the general welfare of the people of the United States.” The measure the President ap proved amends the 11-year-old wage-hour law applicable to work ers in interstate commerce whose statutory basic wage hitherto has been 40 cents an hour. Actually, Congress members es timate that the 35-cent increase will raise the pay of about 1,500, 000 workers getting less than 75 cents an hour and increase the wage bill of employers about $300, 000,000 annually. Mr. Truman estimated the 1,500,000 workers will get wage boosts of 5 to 15 cents an hour. While praising the amended law as providing “constructive steps of great importance in developing a Federal Fair Labors Standards Act" the President expressed re gret that the new legislation "exempts from its provisions some workers who have been covered heretofore and that it fails to ex tend coverage to many other groups of workers who need its protection.” He added, however, that the "improvements made by the new act will go far toward achieving our basic purpose of assuring minimum labor standards neces sary for health, efficiency and general well-being of workers.” Long Battle Waged. The administration long has urged an increase in the minimum wage and extension of its cover age. The issue was one of the principal points on which Presi dent Truman campaigned a year ago. In drafting the law. some new groups were brought in, but others were cut out, the House voting to exclude about 1.005,000 and the Senate about 200,000. An adjustment was made m conference, but the office of Wage Hour Administrator William R. McComb said a court test will be required to determine what the net loss in coverage will be. An off-hand figure puts it at about 200,000. The reason for the uncertainty is the changed wording of the law which hitherto has applied to em ployes “necessary” to production. The new law affects those “di rectly essential” to production. In his statement signing the measure, Mr. Truman pointed out its salient features and said new restrictions on child labor “should result in the virtual elimination of the evil.” He also said it would “encour age the development of plans for employment on an annual basis through collective bargaining by providing greater flexibility in the overtime provisions.” He added. “These plans assure stability of income for wage earners and sta bility of operations for employers.” President Hails Additions. The President also hailed new restrictions on industrial home work and said the law takes a step in the right direction in bringing within its scope em ployes of airlines and those of fish and seafood canneries. Secretary of Labor Tobin and representatives of various labor TSee MINIMUM WAGETPgTX^T) Amtorg Will Register Under Agents Act By the Associated Press NEW YORK, Oct. 26.—Russia’s Amtorg Trading Corp. announced today that it will obey the law requiring it to register under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. The corporation and six officials were indicted last Friday on charges of failure to register. Announcement that the Soviet purchasing agency will comply with the law was made at a hear ing before United States Commis sioner Edward W. McDonald on the question of removing five of the officials from New York to Washington, where the indict ment was handed down in Fed eral District Court. The five are free in $15,000 cash bail each. They were arrested in New York a few hours after the Washington grand jury indicted them. A sixth official is believed to have returned to Russia. The five officials now out on bail are Aleksi Vasilievich Zhak arov, president of Amtorg, and these others: Vassili Petrovich Rebrov, Sergei Andreevich Shev chenko, Aleksander Aleksandro vich Istchenko and Gennadi Nik olaevich Ogloblin. Mr. McDonald granted a week’s adjournment of the removal hear ing. Their attorney said the cor poration’s intention to register was made known in a letter yes terday to Attorney General Mc Grath's office through William E. Foley, chief of the Foreign Agents Registration Section. rWHY^DOTHOSE f DEADEND KIDS 1. ALWAYS LAND fc"MyuPU To 7f/e P/lES/nFkrr Dr. Hurban, Ex-Czech Minister To United States, Dies in Prague Refused to surrender Legation After Nazis Took Over Country Dr. Vladimir Hurban, former Czechoslovakian Minister to the United States who won the ad miration of freedom lovers throughout the world by his de fiant refusal to surrender his Legation to the Germans in 1939, died early today in Prague, ac cording to word received here. Death was due to a heart ail ment. Word of his death was confirmed in an Associated Press dispatch from Prague. Dr. Hurban returned to his home land in 1946 after the victorious Allied armies had raised in Prague the flag of Czechoslovakia which he had kept flying above the Le gation at 2349 Massachusetts avenue N.W. throughout the war. Dr. Hurban was suffering a heart ailment when he left the United States and, according to friends here, was confined to his apartment when the Communists DR. VLADIMIR HURBAN. —Harris 4 Ewing Photo. made his country a Russian satellite. Dr. Hurban presented his cre dentials as Czechoslovakian Min ister to President Roosevelt in (See HURBAN, Page A-6.) Speculation Continues That Admiral Denfeld Will Be Forced Out Capt. Crommelin Sees Objective in Sparking Service Row Achieved By John A. Giles Speculation continued at the Pentagon today on whether Ad miral Denfeld would be removed from his command of the Navy as Capt. John G. Crommelin commented that he felt that his “objectives” in sparking the House unification inquiry had been achieved. Capt. Crommelin was busy pre paring a reply to Admiral Den feld’s statement that in releasing confidential documents he had violated military law.” The re lease of the documents, which I commented on Navy morale and 'quarrels over unification, figured in the investigation of inter ! service bickering by the House Armed Services Committee. ! Capt. Crommelin said that he himself would not make public his reply to Admiral Denfeld, which he expects to have ready by tomorrow. “It seems to me that my ob (See SERVICE FIGHT, Pg. A-6J -- Gale Batters Resorts And Ships in Britain By th« Associated Pr«ss LONDON, Oct. 26.—The heavi est October gale in 25 years bat tered Britain today. The winds drove small ships aground, smashed Ashing craft and swept two Ashermen to death. An English Channel steamer with 200 aboard was unable to go on to Dover or return to Dunkerque. The storm prevented its docking. Seaside resorts on England’s Channel coast estimated their property damage at £200,000 ($560,000). Airplanes were grounded, trains were delayed and torrential rains Aooded highways. On the south east coast the 23,000-ton aircraft carrier Illustrious stood by to aid a disabled coaster. Ten seamen were rescued by lifeboat and rocket line from the wrecked ship, the MayAower, off Holyhead. Two inches of rain fell in 18 hours in Belfast, Northern Ireland. In Peebles, Scotland, 20 persons were evacuated from Aooded homes. The Queen Elizabeth, due at Cherbourg early today, radioed that because of heavy seas at the approaches to the English Chan nel, she would not dock until to morrow. Jap Cabinet Reported Planning Visit to U. S. By the Associated Press PARKERSBURG, W. Va„ Oct. 26.—The Japanese cabinet will visit the United States next Feb ruary, Representative Burnside, Democrat of West Virginia, re ported here. Mr. Burnside, who came to Parkersburg for a series of con ferences, said the cabinet will study democratic government pol icies, legislative structure and pro cedure and economic conditions. Their findings, he added, will help them to model their own govern ment along similar lines. Mr. Burnside returned early this month from an extended tour of the Far East, Including Japan. Top Cattle Prices Rise To New Peak for 1949 By the Associated Press CHICAGO, Oct. 26. — Cattle prices soared to a top of $41.50 a hundred pounds today, a new 1949 peak and only 10 cents under the all-time record made last year. The price jumped $1.50 above yes terday’s peak. A scramble for limited supplies of choice to prime cattle has caused a spectacular price up surge in these offerings in the last 10 days, livestock traders said. Today’s top was up $3.50 from last week’s and $5.25 from the peak of the week ended Octo ber 15. ElectricWorkers'Chief Calls for Peace Talk Before CIO Convenes Urges Murray to Patch Up Differences So Convention Can Focus on Unionism By the Associated Press CLEVELAND, Oct. 26. — The leftist CIO - United Electrical Workers union today asked CIO President Philip Murray to meet with its representa tives in an effort to patch up bitter differences between the two. In a telegram from New York, Julius Emspak, secretary-treasurer of the UE, suggested that the in ternal squabble be settled in order that the CIO convention next week can concentrate on other matters. A violent battle has been ex pected to develop at the sessions 1 between the parent CIO and its leftist-dominated unions. One of the big fights would involve the UE. I Murray Is Silent. Mr. Murray said he had not re ceived Mr. Emspak’s telegram and would have no comment when it does arrive. He indicated to a news conference yesterday, how ever, that the leftist matter would have to be settled at the conven tion opening here Monday. Mr. Emspak said Mr. Murray earlier this month expressed un willingness to confer with UE of ficers before the convention to “resolve the problems created by CIO raiding and interference in the internal affairs of the UE.” His wire added, however, that a UE committee had been ap pointed to attempt to settle the dispute this week in order that the convention’s attention could be focused on jobs, security and a better standard of living for CIO members. Issued Ultimatum. At its convention here last month, the UE issued an “ultima tum” to Mr. Murray. It said the union would hold back its per capita tax to the CIO unless Mr, Murray calls a halt to CIO raid ing of UE ranks and ousts the worst critics of the union's left wing leadership. At the UE’s New York head quarters a spokesman said eight top union officials were “ready tc leave immediately for the Cleve land conference.” Besides Mr. Emspak, the union delegation would include Albert Fitzgerald, international presi dent; James J. Matles, director of (See CIO, Page A-7.) Son of Admiral Beatty, Facing Blindness, Dies in Hotel Plunge Marshall Field, Sr.'s, Grandson Falls From London Ritz Window By the Associated Press LONDON, Oct. 26.—The Hon orable Peter Beatty, son of a famed admiral and grandson of Marshall Field, sr., Chicago mer chant prince, plunged to his death today from a sixth floor window in the fashionable Ritz Hotel. He had just been told he was going totally blind. The 39-year-old race horse owner fell to the ground at the rear of the Ritz, which is in Piccadilly, in the center of London. Mr. Beatty, a handsome, wealthy aristocrat and friend of Aly Khan and Rita Hayworth, was born with a serious eye affliction. He spent thousands of dollars for operations both here and in Amer ica. Recently a specialist told him his dim sight was failing and he must face the fact, it soon would be gone entirely. “I am going up to the sixth floor to see a friend,” he was quoted as telling his valet In his THE HON. PETER BEATTY. —AP Wirephoto. suite on the second floor of the Ritz this morning. Clad in blue pajamas and a red dressing gown, he walked to the sixth floor. Tall and dark, Mr. Beatty had been described as one of Eng land’s most eligible bachelors. He (See BEATTY, Page A-7.) U.S. May Apply TaffActfoMines, Avoid If on Steel Coal Strike Is Viewed As Greatest Threat; Injunction Considered SOFT COAL STOCKS Here Suffi cient for 30 to 55 Days, Survey Indicates. Page A-7. By James Y. Newton Federal officials indicated today that a Taft-Hartley Act injunc tion may be used to halt the long soft coal strike, but they said there was no sentiment to employ the courts to end the steel indus try shutdown. Government strike strategy was plotted at a White House meeting yesterday with John R. Steelman, presidential assistant. The opin ion of the officials was that tha 38-day mine stoppage posed the graver threat to the Nation’s econ» omy, and would be much more difficult of final solution than the 26-day steel strike. A decision was made to con centrate settlement efforts on steel and use the big Taft-Hartley club on John L. Lewis' United Mine Workers if the strike con tinues much longer. Charles G. Ross, White House press secretary, said: “I do not anticipate any action today" when reporters asked about possible presidential intervention in either of the big strikes. ivo comments on riea. “How about tomorrow” Mr. Ross was asked. He replied he could only speak for today and would have to wait until tomorrow for whatever may be in sight a4 that time. He had no comment on a request by the American Retail Coal Association for the President “to take immediate steps to end the coal strike.” A ray of hope for peace en tered the steel picture with the suggestion of an industry official that a strike compromise is pos sible. The hopeful remark wae made by Chairman Irving S. Olds of the United States Steel Corp. ; after a board meeting in New York yesterday. Mr. Olds pointed out that nei ther his corporation nor the strife, ing CIO United Steelworkers has made a move to resume negotia* tions since the strike for free pensions and insurance began Oc tober 1. “It seems to me,” he said, “the sensible thing would be to sit down and see how far we could get | toward agreeing on a pension pro | gram. We might even reach some j common ground on contributory and non-contributory features.” Ford Formula Considered. He indicated the amount of ; monthly pension payments and | the insurance benefits might pro vide a basis for bargaining. That approach has never been made, ihe said, because of disagreement over another matter. ; The Ford Motor Co. used that formula in reaching agreement re cently on pensions with the CIO United Auto Workers. Ford agreed to supplement Federal old age benefits so that retiring workers would receive $100 month ly. In that way some of the fear of employers that pension pay ments would be raised in future negotiations is relieved. United States Steel has agreed to initiate pension and insurance payments up to 10 cents a worker per hour, but insists that workers must contribute also. Philip Mur ray, head of the CIO and the Steel Workers, is adamant that the companies must bear the whole cost of the benefits. Ching to Open Parleys. Mr. Olds said it was that ques tion which has blocked consider ation of actual size of the benefits. At least partially because of Mr. Olds’ hopeful statement, Cy rus S. Ching, Federal mediation chief, left at noon to resume settlement conferences with United States Steel in New York. Mr. Ching had met with “Big Steel” for several days, the talks ending Monday. He conferred for five hours here yesterday with the Bethlehem Steel Co., but said at the end “no progress” was made. United States Steel directors (See LABOR, Page A-7.) Five Killed in Crash Of Argentine Plane By the Associated Press BUENOS AIRES, Oct. 26.—An Argentine military transport plane crashed north of Xucuman last night, killing five persons and in juring three others. The crash occurred two minutes after the plane took off from Buenos Aires for Salta. Among the dead was Dr. Pedro Aguirre, public health officer of Salta Province. Help Pay for Your Home by Renting That Spare Room Turn a liability into an asset by renting that spare room through a Star classified ad. Prospects know they will find more complete listings in Washington’s leading classified medium. 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