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The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use For republication of all the local news printed In this newspaper, as well as all A. P. news dispatches. A—« * MONDAY, October 31, 1*49 — -.— 1 * " = Facts Should Rule, Not Emotions One is moved to sympathize with the Public Utilities Commission at a time like this—transit radio hearing time, that is. Seldom, if ever, in the history of PUC hearings has the District Building been the scene of so much sound and fury over a public utility issue. Customer interest in fare raises or service deficiencies is to be expected at transit hearings, but this was not a matter that touched the pocket book. It was a controversy that involved such intangibles as musical tastes and the right to be free from distracting influences while riding a bus or a streetcar. The difficult task of the PUC is to feel its way through the emotional fog of the initial hearing toward a calm considera tion of facts and figures and an eventual decision that will be in the interest of the majority of transit riders. Chairman Flanagan of the commission wisely let the impassioned objectors have‘their say with all stops out. What they said boiled down to the argument that the opponents do not like the idea of being “forced” to listen to a radio program, no matter how good it may be. There is considerable merit to this contention. The question arises as to how prevalent this view may be among those who use Capital Transit buses and streetcars. If the shouts of the critics in the hearing room at the tumultuous opening session were a reliable criterion, there would be no doubt as to preponderance of the oppo sition. But, once the more vociferous of the critics had been heard during the first day of the hearings, the proceedings be came less emotional and more factual. And “scientific” poll evidence presented a far different picture of the desires of transit riders. The poll showed that 83.4 per cent of the persons sampled had no objection to “music as you ride.” Only 3 per cent were listed as “actively opposed.” Of course, sampling polls did not fare so well in the past presidential election. It Is hard to see, however, how they could be as far off the beam as the clamor of the opposition -at the PUC hearing indicates. Polls and referenda in other cities where transit radios are used have shown results significantly similar to those of the local poll. On the credit side of the innovation is the very practical fact that the radios are providing the hard-pressed company with an additional source of revenue—revenue which, company officials testified, may help to prevent or postpone further fare increases in the near future. It is true that the income from the concession is relatively small, considering the over-all operating revenues of $27,000,000 recorded by the company in 1948. But even the $100,000 a year which the radios will pro duce when broadly installed is not to be laughed off at a time when Capital Tran sit is fighting deficits. Hoffman's Mission to Europe ECA Administrator Paul G. Hoffman has gone to Europe on a mission as delicate as it is important. His purpose is to speed up the process of economic and monetary unification in Western Europe to the point where this region will become mutually self-sustaining. Once that point is reached, it will acquire the degree of stability and prosperity which should enable it to rise above the lures of Com munist propaganda and to end its de pendence on Marshall-Plan aid from the United States. In an address in Montreal, Canada, just before his departure for Europe, Mr. Hoffman undoubtedly foreshadowed the thesis he is expected to present in Paris at the current meeting of representatives of the Marshall-Plan nations. Addressing the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Hoffman said: “Europe In its own interest must achieve without undue delay an economic unification which will create a single market for 275,000,000 consumers for whom European industry and agriculture can produce’ economically, and to whom European manufacturers and farmers can sell freely.” In other words, Mr. Hoffman envisages the creation of an economic area analogous to our own United States, within which there will be virtual freedom of trade and currency convertibility. The difficulty in thus Integrating a region divided Into many sovereignties, each with its own foreign policies, tariffs and money, is obvious. The limited Bene lux experiment has already disclosed how hard it is to co-ordinate even kindred economies and overcome the resistance of vested interests. Yet the necessity for Western Europe’s economic integration is as pressing as it is vital. This group of nations must get on with the job if con tinued American aid Is to be assured. That was the implied return for our assist ance under the Marshall Plan, and the American taxpayer will not reconcile him self to seeing the Plan become a virtual dole to Western Europe for an indefinite luture. On the other hand, even a notable diminution of such aid would mean the quick collapse of European revival and a revival of the Communist menace. For the success of his mission, Mr. Hoff man will need to exercise a combination ef firmness, tact and understanding capable of getting constructive action irithtot arousing national susceptibilities or popular prejudices. The European peoples today suffer from a collective in feriority complex toward the United States which renders them acutely sensitive to anything savoring of compulsion from our side. And Communist propaganda is only too ready to inflame resentment at what is termed American “dictation” and “im perialistic exploitation.” The fact that such charges are unfounded is not neces sarily convincing to people in a more or less abnormal state of mind. It is to be hoped that Mr. Hoffman will strike the “golden mean” in his efforts. Time presses and the hour is grave. The vital interests of Europe and America are alike involved in the outcome. Unification's Credit Side The cross fire of controversy over defense policies is apt to obscure the important fact that unification of the armed services is working in some sectors, at least. In the field of administrative efficiency and economy, for example, some of the major objectives of the National Security Act of 1947 are being quietly achieved despite the furor regarding strategy, weapons and personalities. Dr. Arthur S. Flemming, president of Ohio Wesleyan University and a member of the former Hoover Commission, has done well to call the public’s attention to the credit side of the unification ledger. Addressing the New York Herald Tribune Forum in New York last week, Dr. Flem ming, favorably remembered in Washing ton for hi’s constructive work as civil service commissioner, reminded his listen ers that the reorganized defense system is functioning on more business-like lines than ever before. Overlapping and other wasteful activities are being eliminated, non-essential offices and personnel dis pensed with and savings of many other kinds effected throughout the military establishment. Dr. Flemming pointed out that a “task force” headed by Ferdinand Eberstadt had found the old military departments in a “chaotic” condition, administratively. What particularly impressed the Eberstadt group was the apparent lack of “cost-conscious ness” within the armed services—an in difference to the effect on the national economy of rising defense expenditures. Procurement was not properly co ordinated, services were being duplicated in wasteful ways and nobody seemed to care much what the other fellow was doing. Now the picture has changed for the better to an encouraging degree, Dr. Flem ming declared. He had reference to such money-saving reforms as merger of air transport systems of the three depart ments, consolidation of much of the buying, standardization of materials used by the services and adoption of budgetary and other record-keeping improvements. And, not to be lost sight of in the unifica tion battle, is the commendable efforts of Defense Secretary Johnson to reduce the size of the civilian force by some 125,000 employes, coincident with the consolida tion of various departmental functions. The reduction in personnel promises sav ings totaling about $300,000,000 during the current fiscal year, according to Dr. Flem ming. The "Hoover Commission has pre dicted that up to one billion could be saved each year through more efficient methods and machinery at the Pentagon. Dr. Flemming is right in urging the public to give Its wholehearted support to Secretary Johnson and his subordinates in continuing the drive to rid the military establishment of extravagances and waste wherever they are found to exist. This type of reorganization strengthens national security, while giving the taxpayers as surance that their defense dollars are being wisely spent. Unification cannot truthfully be said to be a failure when such a record of economies as that re viewed by Dr. Flemming is being made behind the smoke of the current inter service squabble. France Has a Cabinet After more than three weeks of hectic political confusion France again has a cabinet. That, in itself, is noteworthy. It ends a parliamentary lapse which was becoming intolerable, raising the prospect of dissolution of the present Assembly and new elections as the sole alternative to a governmental vacuum. Realization of that alternative presum ably is a major reason why the contending parties composed their differences suffici ently to enable a cabinet to be formed. None of the three middle-of-the-road parties which collectively control the present Assembly want elections in which they would all presumably be the losers. Those three are the Socialists, similar to the British Labor Party; the Radicals, who are really laissez-faire lib erals, and the Popular Republicans, left wing clericals whose program lies midway between the other two groups on domestic issues. It should be remembered that the Popular Republicans are a new party that has arisen since the war, whereas the Socialists and Radicals are old-timers on the French political scene. The Popular Republicans are less doctrinaire in their ideology and more flexible in their tactics than the others, and with a wider popular base, their adherents stretching from the conservative wing of labor to middle-class and even upper-class elements. It is sig nificant that their leader, Georges Bldault, is not a veteran politician but a former head of the resistance movement against the German occupation. The courage and ability he then displayed not only made him an outstanding figure in the Popular Republican Party but also earned him the respect and goodwill of other sections of public opinion. All this accounts in large part for the fact that Georges Bidault and his party succeeded where the Socialists and Rad icals failed. It should, of course, be understood that the new cabinet is a clever reshuffle of political personalities based on an equally clever series of compromises, rather than a novel departure. Most of the familiar figures in previous cabinets will be in this one, and at their old posts. Robert Schuman, a Popular Republican, will continue to head the Foreign Office, while Jules Moch, a Socialist, will continue his effective handling of the Interior Min istry, which includes control of the police and other agencies designed to preserve public order and combat seditious or revo lutionary maneuvers. Two factors favor the prospects of the Bklault government, m the first.place, Bidault got the Assembly to approve him as Premier by the very substantial vote of 367 to 183—57 more votes than a bare majority. Secondly, he had a virtually complete cabinet slate made up, whereas his unsuccessful predecessors in cabinet building had had only themselves to offer as Premiers, with the slate-making job still to be done. The Bidault cabinet thus starts off under favorable auspices. But, of course, the basic fragility of all such coalition govern ments should be understood. Its best chance for life is the general realization that France must have a government to handle the pressing domestic and foreign problems with which it is faced. If the present Assembly cannot supply the need, it will have to give way to another As sembly chosen by popular mandate. And that, as already remarked, is a prospect from which the ruling coalition shrinks. Reasonable Conditions The two conditions under which the National Capital Park and Planning Com mission approved the East Capitol street site for the Sesquicentennial buildings are quite important. It is only reasonable to require that adequate recreational facili ties be provided elsewhere as a substitute for those to be destroyed by the fair project. And it is even more essential that the grounds be restored to their original condition when the celebration ends. If the grounds are to be restored, it is self-evident that the fair construction work should be of temporary nature. This should rule out talk of steel-and-concrete structures. Such buildings are- not readily and cheaply removed, once they are erected—as the “temporary” World War I Navy and Munitions Buildings on Consti tution avenue attest. The Sesquicenten nial buildings should be temporary in fact as well as name. Whether the East Capitol street area later is to become an approach for a new bridge across the Anacostia River is a sepa rate question which is not easily solved. District Highway Department engineers, who favor the East Capitol street site for the bridge, believe the approach can be built in such a way as to cause a minimum of interference with plans for development of that section. The National Capital Park and Planning Commission favors Massachusetts avenue as the axis of a new bridge. The commission is justified in maintain ing an alert attitude against construction work which might imperil the long-view program for develops 1 0f East Capitol street as a vista of- Federal works. This does'not mean, of rse, that plans made some years ago ' not be modi fied, if changing cond: ;0 warrant. Per haps the East Capitol street bridge can be made to fit into the permanent develop ment program, even if the Sesquicenten nial buildings cannot. This and That By Charles E. Tracewell It was a thrush, undoubtedly, but not a wood thrush. It was fatter, with very little white on its chest, and not so many spots. Those it had were clustered just below the chin as a sort of natural pendant. Though somehow lacking the ultra-clean look of our common thrush, this bird was very neat, and very happy looking. It accentuated this happy look by its actions. Every now and then, as it went around the yard, it would come to some overhang ing leaves of shrubbery. Then it would leap into the air, as if grabbing at an insect, or better, leaping up just for the fun of it. Sometimes these leaps were as much as 8 inches from the ground. Then the bird would go back to his more sober pursuit of minutely scrutinizing the grass. * * * * It was probably an olive-backed thrush. Evidently just going through. We had seen it the day before in the pokeberry plantation at the front of the house. Such a plantation cannot be recom mended, but it does attract birds. Almost all the migrating birds, of which this was one, like the pokeberries. Such birds rustle through the brittle stalks after the black-purple berries. The olive-backed, like most thrushes, gets most of its animal food from the ground. It picks through vegetation, leaves, grasses, for beetles, ants, worms, small snails, etc. Perhaps its leaps into the air to hanging leaves were made after the smallest insects, still alive through lack of frost at the time. A scientist examined the stomach con tents of two of the olive-backed thrushes in May, and at that time found them to contain ants, wasps, ground beetles, darkling beetles, and spiders. <ir a. a. The wood thrush stands out, among the thrushes, because of its immaculate clean ness of appearance, secured because of its fine white-gray chest and its neat black spots. All the thrushes look somewhat alike, many think. It is not too easy for the average bird friend to tell an olive-backed from a gray cheeked thrush; and when a veery gets into the picture, we are likely to throw up our hands, Just as we may do over some of the lesser known sparrows; and when it comes to the warblers, heaven help us! The olive-backed thrush is sometimes called Alma’s thrush, just as the gray cheeked one is also called Alice’s thrush. The olive-backed is something over 7 inches long, with a nice arching chest. He has a conspicuous eye ring. One observer says the song — which we will not hear around here — goes “gurgle, gurgle ting, chee chee chee,” the usual odd ■ way of putting down a bird’s song, so that it means little if anything except to the person who has heard it. This same observer clocked one olive backed thrush at its singing, and swore that it sang 4360 times a day. He did not sing continuously. Singing began early, at about 3 am.— this was in the North woods—and ended about 9 o’clock in the morning. The next singing period was from noon until 4:30 in the afternoon, when the songs increased and kept up until 7:30 o’clock in tiie evening. Thrushes are world wide in distribution, and among their numbers is the famed European nightingale. Our robin is really not a robin, as the English think of robins, but is actually a thrush, as the young robins show by the spotted chest. Thrushes molt once a year, in the autumn. Old points of feathers are cast off in the spring, and badly worn feathers replaced, but there is no complete spring molt. It is interesting to know that young thrushes, although they may just have re ceived their first feathers a month or so earlier, have their first molt in their first t autumn. i 'Don’t Give Up the Ship’ Navy Admirers Back Admiral Denfeld in Spirit of a Noble Tradition To the Editor of The Star: More than 100 years ago James Lawrence established one of the glorious traditions of the United States Navy. He was struck dawn when his ship, the Chesapeake, hope lessly outclassed, was engaged in a gallant but losing battle. His dying words were, "Don’t give up the ship.” On Navy Day, Louis Denfeld lived up to that tradition when he accepted degradation rather than compromise. INDIGNANT. Would Oust Secretary Johnson. To the Editor of The Star: Why doesn’t someone get the bright idea of settling the Pentagon dispute by firing Mr. Johnson? Seems as if he has handled things in a very high-handed and single minded manner almost from the moment his oath of office was uttered. Men who had previously proved their worth have either resigned in a dither or their services have been dispensed with. Ill-feeling of gigantic proportions and far reaching disaster has been caused among the "heads" of the respective branches of the service. Unification of the services is not, never has been and never can be a smooth-running af fair. Each arm should be an entity unto itself. Each in its lifetime has performed individual duties for the good of all. Yes, the one small feat of ousting Mr. Johnson, and dispensing with his entire office, might tend to solve a great many problems. H. L. H. Navy Wife Would Protect Husband. To the Editor of The Star: In the event that my husband, Ensign W. T. Door, is offered the position of Chief of Naval Operations, it is my intention to per suade him to decline the offer as it might jeopardize his naval career. CAREER WIPE. Deplores Attacks on Admiral Denfeld. To the Editor of The St»r: The action of the President in summarily dismissing Admiral Denfeld without the ob servance of the usual courtesies makes one wonder whether we are living under a de mocracy or a stratocracy—a term which the dictionary defines as "a military despotism.” Since the branch of the defense services which autocratically has assumed absolute control of the stratosphere momentarily has won its fight to destroy the air services of the Navy and the Marines, “stratocracy” seems to define our unhappy state. Amid all the words of condemnation that are flying around, I have not yet heard one syllable of criticism by the powers-that-be regarding the discourteous attacks on the conduct and service record of the Chief of Naval Operations. Gen. Bradley did have the bravery to re tract his erroneous charge that Admiral Denfeld had not told the truth about his (Bradley’s) reversal of his stand regarding the construction of the giant carrier, but the Chief of the Air Force, Gen. Vandenberg, has not yet seen fit to make public admission of his mistake in accusing Admiral Denfeld of misrepresentation. The country may well be proud of the men of the Navy who were willing to jeop ardize their careers in the interest of our national safety. A NAVY MOTHER. Four Points in the Navy’s Behalf. To the Editor of The Star: Although I fortunately have no part in the “Battle of the Pentagon,” may I presume on 46 years of active naval service to comment (not without partisanship) on some minor aspects of this controversy? First, there seems little Justice in the com mon assumption that the Navy’s original opposition to unification was improper, and hence discredits any subsequent objections to the way it has worked out. A Department of National Defense is not ipso facto a sacro sanct conception. It is right only as it proves itself to be. If opposition to its adoption were in any degree discreditable, then it is discreditable whenever any mi nority unsuccessfully opposes the adoption of some measure in which it honestly dis believes. Second, 'dissatisfaction with an plan or organization does not imply either an attempt to sabotage it or a peril to its ultimate success. The Navy opposed the original unification measure because it feared the very things which it now asserts are coming to pass. Yet there are m*ny naval officers who long have believed that a Department of National Defense is logical even if in some ways unpalatable, and all of them know that there now is not the faintest chance of reverting to the old system of two or three wholly independent armed services. Is it then really sabotage for one service to point out and seek correc tion of what it considers faults in the exist ing mechanism; or should it ignore ominous knocks and rattles and proclaim that every thing is lovely and without need of adjust ment or change? Third, why should the Navy’s doubts over the potentialities of the B-36 be considered an unwarranted attack on a sister service? Did not both the Army and the Air Force gang up against the Navy’s proposed big carrier? Regardless of who was right or wrong technically, a rule of etiquette that applies to one service should apply to all. Fourth (though a, minor matter), why should so many commentators and editorial writers refer hissingly to "The Admirals,” as if the Navy’s officers of flag rank consti tuted a sort of sinister camarilla instead of the legitimate leadership of a great organ ization? If there be such an entity as “The Admirals,” then why not "The Generals” also? Any belief that the former are less representative of their whole service than the latter is wholly wrong. You could poll Navy opinion from top to bottom, you could find disapproval of some of the ways in which the Navy’s case has been presented, but you also would discover that if the Navy men who have spoken the truth as they saw it are •’Fancy Dans” (whatever that is), so were toe Navy men who died all the way from rbor °kln*wa, and so would 99 9-10 per cent of the Navy’s present per sonnel wish to be. RALPH C. PARKER, Captain, U. S. Navy (Ret.). Hard Words for Defense Heads. To the Editor of The SUr: So Admiral Denfeld has been purged on Navy Dayl Is this the manner in which we show the 8oviet Union how democracy works? Shame on Bull Johnson and Row boat Matthews! And beware, Columbia, of small men in high places! FRANK ADAMS. Retaliation “Too Terrifying.” To the Editor of The Star: Admiral Denfeld has been removed after Congress was given assurance from Secre tary Matthews that there would be no retaliations. It is difficult to realize that such a thing actually could happen in our Land of the Free. * The real Issue of all the controversy never has been the B-26a; unification, etc., but simply the old prerogative of free speech. Some of the red blooded men of the Navy seemed to feel it was their privilege to present to their publjfc their honest hopes and fears regarding ¥ttal facts concerning the safeguarding of our Nation. The ac ceptance or rejection of their statements was the public’s privilege—but reprisals are too terrifying in their implication to be tolerated by American citizens. A recent issue of a well known magazine has an article on: “How They Broke Car dinal Mindszenty.” After reading it. the thought occurred to me: “This didn’t hap pen all at once. The groundwork for such a complete tragedy required stealth and persistency over a period of time.’’ The danger signals in America are out. What are we going to do about them? Each day is a little later. MARGUERITE M. HAMILTON. Sees No Face Saving for Navy. To the Editor of The Star: Reading the quotations from Col. Griffith’s speech October 26, I find it increasingly hard to identify the statements of the Army and Defense Departments with the meas ured, intelligent, heartfelt convictions spoken by the Navy Admirals. To a reader trying to see both sides, the Army statements introduce a note of smallness quite unworthy of the actual depth of this situation. If the Navy is doomed to lose out. not one face saving door has been left open to it. All of us are more dependent than ever before on the prevailing decisions about our future security being the correct ones. These decisions necessarily must be based on the opinions and theories of experienced men. The Army and Defense officials have shown little respect for the value of the opposition’s stand. Should the Navy Admirals be right and go unheeded there may not be anyone here to investigate why the Navy was de emphasized back in 1949. MRS. V. F. B. Wrong Date for Humiliation. To the Editor of The Star: Well—it looks more and more like a spite game, with President Truman and Secre taries Johnson and Matthews teamed up against the Navy. Picking Navy Day to further humiliate the Navy smacks of Hit lerian tactics. PRIVATE CITIZEN, ?0e?h\V£Y,ehln.£re,erred to c»Pt- Crommelin. To the Editor oi The Star: The letter appearing in the October 25 issue signed “Disgusted” is about as stupid a piece of reasoning as one could find. In it the writer seeks to defend Captain Crom melin by demanding a court-martial for General Vaughan. May I point out a few flaws in this logic? (A) Captain Crommelin has been in direct disobedience to an order, General Vaughan has not. (B) General Vaughan’s remark was direc ted toward sundry smear artists in the pub lic press and Congress who have expended both time and money and failed to prove anything except,, that politics is a dirty business. (C) As presidential aide, the major por tion of the general’s duties are as Veterans’ Co-ordinator, a job over which the Joint Chiefs of Staff have no jurisdiction; or as administrative assistant at the White House, in which he certainly is accountable to the President only. If no better case can be offered for Cap tain Crommelin that this, he indeed is in a bad way. I personally feel he is a brave and sincere, but a mistaken man, and would prefer that our defense setup be determined by men with the wisdom and vision of Fleet Admiral Leahy. BATES E. POLLARD. -- , ft ■ •' • Blame or Credit by Association. To th« Editor of The Star: Guilt by association is a matter the pros and cons of which we often hear debated. It must be true, however, that the stigma of guilt would hardly be “an end sought,” (one never hears of the Army and Air Force trying to associate themselves with "Navy guilt” for Pearl Harbor) but would, rather, be “a hazard accepted,” by those whose con victions would lead them to risk that stigma. On the other hand, the pursuit of merit through association, while rarely a matter of debate is, nevertheless, one of the most commonly sought “achievements” of man— an “achievement” sought most assiduously, of course, by those possessed of the lowest order of natural qualifications. It is through understanding this "thirst for merit” that we will be better enabled to understand the eagerness of “the other services” to merge with the Navy and Marine Corps. Naturally, an air force which failed to splash water on a single ship at Midway, but which claimed, nevertheless, to have sunk the enemy fleet, would be most anxious to associate itself with the organization that actually did sink the fleet. And it is also understandable that an Army which required weeks and months to accomplish what the Marines did In days, would seek to improve its standards by affiliation. ARMY AND AIR FORCE ADMIRER. Letters to The Star Demonstrators at PUC Hearing Taken To Task To th« editor of The Star: How can we expect children to have any respect for authority or their neighbors when their elders do not? Unless one actually were present at the PUC’s hearing on radios In public convey ances, one never could believe that adults, especially the older folk for whom we are supposed to have respect, could exhibit such rudeness, such defiance of authority, such complete lack of consideration for others whose views did not happen to coincide with theirs. Those of the opinion that radios consti tute a “violation of one’s personal rights” openly defied the Commission’s repeated re quests that they refrain from demonstrations that prevented witnesses being heard and only prolonged the hearings to the incon venience of those still waiting for a chance to speak. Believe it or not, these people—many of them obviously past 70 — booed, coughed, shouted, scraped their feet and otherwise interfered with the personal rights of those who happened to disagree with them. For there were about as many present who fa vored radios, although the record will not show It because, after seeing the treatment to which ethers were subjected, they'chose not to enter their opinions in the record rather than submit to browbeating. The individuals In the opposition criticized civic groups that dared to disagree, one man even going so far as to say that association members who opposed radios had stayed at home rather than vote, implying that ad vance notice was given that a vote would be taken although such was not the case. Ladies and gentlemen deserve considera tion, but not these people, many of whom later prated on the stand about their own superior Intelligence and took up endless time discussing their intimate personal back grounds while, others were waiting to be heard. As on* witness remarked, it was amazing how pettiness could bring out so many while often not more than two or* three citizens at a time attend hearings on fare increases and changes in gas and elec tric rates. But, tot the sake of the patient Commissioners, maybe this is just as well! • > SPECTATOR. 1 Electronic Store Clerks Held a Possibility Soon Devices May Replace 8 Million Keeping Track of Sales By Thomas R. Henry Electronic department store clerks art a possibility in the next few years. They may largely replace 8,000,000 now employed principally in keeping track of sales activities. Authority for this statement is the In dustrial Bulletin of the Arthur D. Little Co. of Cambridge, which claims that the ma chinery already is in blue print stage, al though not commercially available. Says the bulletin: “If all the repetitive clerical work involv ing customers' accounts, inventories, pay rolls, tax deductions and statistics could be done by machines, the result would be com parable to the advantage of machine tools over hand labor in production. The tech niques of electronic computers grafted onto those now employed in such machines as cash registers and automatic accounting ma chines, and onto devices now under devel opment, such as printers to produce one or two thousand lines per minute, can be used to effect a virtual clerical revolution. “A large retail store, for example, may spend half a million dollars a year on wages to clerks who make out customers’ bills from illegible hand-written sales slips, keep inventories up to date, and provide statis tical information to the store’s buyers by laboriously sorting the stubs of merchan dise tags. It is now possible to build ma chines to transmit this information directly from the cash registers to a central compu ter. The main information fed in would be the identity of the customer, the salesman and the merchandise. “If this information were on a punched card to be ‘read’ by the sales register, it could be done in far less time than a sales man now takes to write a sales slip. With this and other information in the machine’s vast ‘memory’ it could print monthly bills and current merchandising information for the buyers, and could figure the salespersons’ commission.” Useful for Census Studies. These possibilities, it is explained, lie in the future, but a good start lias been made and at least one large insurance company now has a computer on order. It is expected that electronic computers will analyze the mass of data obtained in the 1950 census and extract a wealth of information on the economic life of the Nation. Electronic com puters for payrolls and other accounting functions now are being produced. They will take data on pay rates, deductions, etc., from punched cards and compute the payment 10 times faster than the punched card ma chine itself can do it. A computer now being developed may be the heart of the electronic all-weather con trol system for commercial planes now planned by the Federal Government. This control system is to be installed by 1963 at a cost of $1,113,000,000. A plane on take-off will file a landing reservation with the com puter at its destination and will receive a provisional landing plan, which takes ac count of weather and other aerial traffic, within three minutes. In flight the plane’s position is continuously reported by radar to the computer, which instructs the plane to correct any deviation from flight plan. The system will permit landing planes at two minute intervals, instead of 10 minutes now needed in bad weather. Without the com puter, the calculations involved would be hopeless. Seven vitamins still are unisolated. The high probability of their existence is shown by animal experiments but their .jplaee in human diet is quite problematical. The unknown factors are listed for the Nutrition Foundation by Dr. B. S. Schweig ert of the University of Chicago. One, it has become demonstrated, is essential for the full growth of chicks. It is found in cow and hen manure, in liver extracts and fish, and in distillery wastes. Still another is re quired by turkeys. It exists in fish meal. A third is required for laying hatchable eggs. It is contained in cow manure, meat scraps, fish meal and skim milk. In fresh liver, liver extracts and milk is a factor es sential for the growth of dogs, monkeys, foxes and minks. It apparently is quite dif ferent from the extremely potent growth and anti-anemia factor recently isolated. Essential for the growth of rats is a so called “nutrient X” found in liver extracts, beef and skim milk For growth and repro duction of the rabbit, cotton rat and mouse a quite different substance also found in liver extracts and beef is essential. It is quite probable. Dr. Schweigert points out. that there may be some duplication in this list. A single substance in different forms may turn out later to be responsible for several of the effects noted. While the effects of these factors on hu mans is unknown, their existence stresses the desirability of a wide variety of foods, including meat products, in the diet. Questions and Answers A reader can get the answer to any question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 316 Eye at. n.e., Washington 2, D. C. Please inclose three (3) cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. , Q- In what parts of the country are the largest surpluses of unmarried women?— E. A. C. A. The top 10 States which have a sur plus of unmarried women are Massachu setts, Rhode Island, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee, New York, North Carolina and Mississippi. It is worth noting that all but one of these States are east of the Mississippi River. Q. What was the “bloodiest day in Amer ican history”?—G. C. M. A. The second day of the battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862, has been pro nounced th# bloodiest day in American history. Q. May shellac or varnish or stain be put on plastic ohair seats and backs, without injuring the plastic cane?—J. 8. A. A. Shellac or varnish applied to plastic chair backs and seats should not damage the plastic. However, there may be some diffi culty in removing the varnish later, if so desired, as the paint and varnish remover may attack the plastic. Q. What is meant by shell shock?—S. R. E. A. The term was widely used in the First World War to describe emotional states oc curring during combat conditions. It sup posed that the sound of the exploding shell “shocked” the nervous system in such a way to produce a neurosis. Modern psychiatry no longer recognizes the term. Shell shock, according to present-day authorities, is not only a misndmer but cases described under that heading fall into every one of the dif ference psychiatric categories. Displaced Person Goodbye, four birches in a row. Goodbye, sweet lilac by the gate. Tomorrow morning I must go, A miserable expatriate. And how shall I, afraid of change, Long used to byways, dusty brown, Learn to walk, alone and strange, The named and numbered streets of town? How lift these life-long roots of mine, That made and held my vision tall, And train a country-dinging vine To grow against a city wall? . BLANCHE DeGRAPT.