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WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by Thg Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Ave. - Delivered by Carrier Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Dally Only Sunday Only Monthly .1.20* Monthly ... 90c 10c per copy Weekly 30c Weekly 20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional tor Night Final Edition in those sections where delivery is made. Bales by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States. Cvenlng and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 month ... 1.30 1 month ... 90c 1 month 60c 6 months .. 7.50 6 months — 5.00 6 months 3.00 1 year'....13.00 1 year _10.00 1 year — 6.00 Telephone STerling 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C„ as second-class mall matter. Member ef the Associated Press. Urn Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use (or republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper, os well as otl A. P. news dispatches._ A—12 MONDAY, November 14, 1949 Virginia Copes With Strikes A timely editorial in the Arlington Sun reminds Virginians generally and critics of the so-called “Byrd machine” in par ticular that there is a reason why trans portation and coal strikes—actual or threatened—are not bothering them. The reason is the unique State law by which Governor Tuck has prevented public serv ice Interruptions caused by labor troubles. The editorial is timely because it sug gests that this union-denounced legisla tive product of Governor Tuck and his advisers was a factor in the recent State wide victory of Byrd-organization nom inees for State offices. It is impossible to measure accurately, of course, the law s influence on the election results, but there can be no doubt that most Virginians ap prove this legislation which saves them from the inconveniences and possible chaos of public service shutdowns. The Tuck-sponsored law authorizes State seizure and operation of any public utility during a strike or lockout. National interest in the plan was first aroused in 1947, when it was invoked to prevent interruption of telephone service in Vir ginia during a Nation-wide strike. Before that it had averted a State-wide power blackout. Of special local interest, more recently, has been its application to threat ened bus strikes in nearby Virginia, pend ing efforts to settle labor-management disputes on two lines. The law has oper ated so smoothly, as a matter of fact, that bus riders of Alexandria, Arlington and Fairfax are inclined to take for granted the continued operation of the Washington, Virginia & Maryland Coach Company and of the Alexandria lines. Both of these main transportation systems be tween Washington and adjacent Virginia communities undoubtedly would have been shut down but for State operation under the Tuck law. And several weeks'ago the law enabled the State to supply hospitals, public utilities and-other essential con sumers with soft coal from John L. Lewis struck mines. The record shows that tne much-lam basted Virginia law really works. Small wonder that other States are taking notice and that newspaper and magazine writers are coming into the State to tell the story far and wide. The Richmond Times Dispatch recently commented that this in flux of correspondents is a tribute, in ef fect, to success of the law in action and to Governor Tuck’s foresight and courage in enforcing a plan which union spokes men have denounced violently as “anti labor.” The paper said the law can be “more accurately described as propublic." That description is merited on the basis of what the law has accomplished for the public welfare in the few years that it has been on the books. Costa Rica Returns to Normal With the inauguration of President Otilio Ulate, backed by a friendly congress and under the provisions of a new consti tution, the people of Costa Rica are looking forward to four years of peace and progress after nearly two years of political turmoil, Including civil war and foreign inter vention. Such disturbances are only too common in some of Costa Rica’s neighbors, bpt in Costa Rica itself they were an unfortunate exception to a normal existence of peace and order under truly democratic insti tutions. Throughout most of its history, this small country in Central America has been a model of “liberty under law,” priding itself on its generalized well-being, high level of education, and regard for individual rights. With a fertile soil, a healthful climate, and a homogeneous population mostly of Spanish colonial stock, Costa Rica has traditionally led a tranquil national life. The “late unpleasantness” began early in 1948, when the opposition party won an election but was virtually counted out by the administration and its “lame-duck” congress. Infuriated by this barefaced “steal,” the opposition took up arms and# defeated the government forces, the ad ministration leaders fleeing the country. Unfortunately the situation was compli cated by the intrigues of a small but mili tant Communist faction, which had sup ported the government for its own ends. Also, the exiled leaders had the support of the neighboring government of Nica ragua, which helped them to stage an invasion. This incursion was checked by the provisional government set 'up after the revolution, which likewise appealed to the Council of the Organization of Ameri can States, invoking the Rio de Janeiro Treaty of Hemispheric Defense, under the terms of which all'the signatories are obligated to aid any one of them who is the victim of external aggression. These successes strengthened the standing of the provisional government and confirmed it in the adherence of the bulk of public opinion. The losses and rancors of the civil war, however, led to the conviction that a thorough political housefileaning was needed before a full return to normal. Therefore, although Otilio Ulate was al ready the legal President-elect, his formal inauguration ^was postponed with his con sent until ai new constitution had been drawn up and ratified. His formal assump tion of the presidency indicates that all is now considered in order. Costa Rica thus emerges successfully from the longest and most costly ordeal in its history. The proverbial intelligence and law-abiding character of the Costa Rican people is the best guarantee that their peaceful and orderly progress will be resumed. The Philippine Election Although returns from remote districts are not yet fully tabulated, it appears cer tain that President Elpidio Quirino has been elected by a substantial majority. This assures the continuance of his Liberal Party administration and its policy of close and friendly cooperation with the United States, together with a strong stand against Communist pressure in the Far East. The election itself and the campaign which preceded it were, however, not with out disquieting features. It was a three cornered affair, the other candidates being Jose P. Laurel, puppet President under the Japanese occupation, and Jose Avelino, who headed a dissident fragment of the Liberal Party as the outcome of a bitter quarrel between himself and Quirino. This split had no significance beyond personal and factional differences, although the minor Avelino vote cut down Quirino’s lead. The Laurel candidacy, by contrast, repre sented a genuine clash of ideas and policies. Laurel’s political comeback since the war is, in itself, a surprising phenomenon, only in part explicable by his undoubted bril liance and oratorical appeal. His “Nacion alista” party is a compound of various mal contents, ranging from critics of the Gov ernment’s actions to opponents of close relations with the United States and even agitators of radical unrest. Laurel himself, while neither pro-Communist nor specif ically anti-American, believes in the “Asiatic destiny” of the Philippines and wants to avoid too intimate commitments with either America or the West in gen eral. He therefore emphasizes a national ism which, under certain circumstances, could lessen effective cooperation with us and weaken resistance to Communist pressure. The fact that he could run so strongly despite his ideology and the handicap of his wartime record is not re assuring for the future. Other disquieting factors in the election were the partisan bitterness displayed in the campaign, and the violence and irregularities accompany ing the election itself. It is to be hoped that Laurel and his followers will accept the verdict of the polls in a truly demo cratic spirit, although this is not yet to be taken for granted. The most satisfactory outcome of the election is what appears to be the decisive control gained by the administration over the next Congress. It should be understood that, as with us, this electoral contest was not only for the Presidency, but also for one-third of the Senate and the entire House. Some doubts had been felt that, out of this three-way content, the admin istration could obtain command of the legislature. However, the Liberal congres sional candidates seem to have run more strongly than the head of the ticket, and a Liberal legislative majority is clearly in dicated, This means legislative backing for the Administration in Its domestic program, and foreign policy. f——^mmim Labor and the Church Judging from what has been published in this country, there is little if any excuse for the reaction of Labor Party politicians in Britain to comments by Church of England leaders. Dr. Cyril F. Garbett, Archbishop of York, recently warned that “ruin is un avoidable” unless British industry can pro duce more and cheaper goods to sell over seas. He called on the government to make the facts of the economic' crisis known to all, and suggested that leaders of all political parties should join in a statement on the "extreme gravity” of Britain’s position. Several other church leaders have expressed similar sentiments. The reaction of Labor political leaders has been quick, and, from this distance, rather astonishing. War Minister Shinwell accuses Dr. Garbett of political bias. Re ferring to the “ruin-ls-unavoidable” state ment as “a most deplorable example,” Mr. Shinwell said that he has great respect , for Dr. Garbett as a hifeh church dignitary, but added that “I decline to follow that gentleman, however exalted, when he em barks on a disquisition relating either to economic or political policy.” This is an admonition to churchmen to remain silent in the face of the contin uing crisis in Britain. It certanly is true, and Mr. Shinwell does not deny, that ’eco nomic ruin awaits Britain unless British industry can produce more and cheaper goods to sell for dollars. Yet he does not want church spokesmen to state what is a self-evident fact, presumably because It carries with it an implied criticism of the Labor regime. This may be under standable as a human reaction. But it is not an attitude that is calculated to help extricate Britain from her economic wilderness. An Essential Trusteeship Last Monday, in a decision that attracted little attention in these parts, the Supreme Court struck a good and significant blow for the conservation of the country’s natural resources. A mere two-line order, the decision in effect upheld a ruling handed down by the Supreme Court of the State of Wash ington against the owner of 320 acres of tlmberland. The substance of the ruling was that people engaged in commercial logging operations could be compelled by government authority to re-seed or re stock their cut-over areas in order to main tain sufficient forest reserves. The owner had contended that he could use his prop erty as he saw fit and that a law to the contrary was unconstitutional. In answer to this, the Washington court declared: “We do not think «a State is required under the Constitution of the United States to stand idly by while its natural Resources are depleted ... Edmund Burke Once said that a greet unwritten compact exists between the * dead, the living and the unborn ... We leave to the unborn a colossal financial debt, per haps inescapable, but incurred, nonethe less, in our time and for our hhHMdtirt* benefit. Such an inviolate compact re quires that wa leave to the unbflu some thing more than debts and depleted natural resources ... It must be realized that private enterprise must utilize its property In ways that are not inconsistent with public welfare.” The fact that*this opinion has been backed up by our highest court has Nation wide significance as a long step forward in the fight against the wasteful exploita tion not merely of timber but of other types of renewable wealth in our soil. As interpreted by Fairfield Osborn, president of the New York Zoological Society and one of our foremost conservationists, it adds up to a “totally new concept” for most Americans—“the concept of trustee ship for the general good on the part of owners, whether large or small, of natural resources.” It is difficult to see how such a concept can be regarded as anything but common sense. The Muddy Monocacy The Interstate Commission on the Po tomac River Basin has estimated that more than 1,700,000 tons of silt are carried past Washington by the Potomac every year. This silt complicates the problem of purifying Washington’s water supply, changes channels and interferes with use of the river for swimming in otherwise non-polluted stretches. And the presence of this mud in the Potomac means that valuable farmland farther up the valley of the river and its tributaries is being destroyed by erosion. Muddiest of the Potomac’s tributaries is the Monocacy River, which .drains por tions of Frederick, Carroll and Montgomery Counties in Maryland, and Adams and Franklin Counties in Pennsylvania. Be cause the Monocacy is the worst offender in the basin, the Interstate Commission logically has selected it for a demonstra tion of soil conservation on a broad scale. Significantly,' a Carroll County farmer, Solomon L. Hoke, has been chosen to head the newly organized Monocacy River Watershed Council. This council, composed of repre sentative farming, forestry, conservation and civic groups in the Monocacy Valley, has a wonderful opportunity to show what organized warfare against soil erosion can do, both for agriculture and for river purification. If the plans of the new council bear fruit, the cargo qf soil an nually carried down the Potomac should be sharply reduced and the destruction of productive farmland in the once-rich garden of the Monocacy Basin will be arrested. The Monocacy experiment will be watched with interest by farmers and conservationists throughout the Potomac region, where soil erosion continues to be a major problem in the broad efforts to clean up the whole watershed. This and That By Charles E. Trace well Resident of Palls Church, Va., route 2, wants to know if it is usual for mocking birds to sing so late, as they were, doing on November 1. Though several hundred of these fine birds remain in and around the Washington area all winter, they do not sing, as a rule. It was the unusually warm fall which made them loosen up their vocal chords, called syrinx. It is the possession of these chords that earns them the title of singing birds. Even crows, with their harsh caw, qualify as sing ing birds. _ Mockers are more interested in food in the North during the cold months. Those that stay with us—and fine fellows they are—look eagerly for berried-shrubs.. They take a peculiar delight in raisins, both the seeded and unseeded varieties, so that those with an especial affection for these bird? can do no better than put out these fruits. * * * * It is a great deal of fun to lure a mock ingbird by putting raisins on a window sill, or porch rail. The bird soon knows where to look, and will flutter in front of the window pane, if the raisins are not forthcoming when he thinks they should be. If no better place can be found, the lawn will do very nicely. Just stand on the porch, and give a hand ful a toss. Let them fall where they will, the mocker will find them all. So, too, will the sparrow, the starling, the nuthatch, and every other species, in cluding the jay, which remains here all winter. * * * * Another good food to lure the mocking bird—and no one can blame him—is the doughnut. How bland they used to seem, and how terrible when one gets older! The gall bladder, for instance, cannot stand the fat. It is the fat which gives the doughnut its “filling” powers, also much of its melting taste. A compelling taste, surely. Many a human who has been forbidden to eat doughnuts goes around the block to avoid passing one of the doughnut shops. The powerful aroma they send out, sweet and tasty, often overcomes the will. * * * * What has become of power of will? One no longer hears anything about it, but in the old days books were written about it, and many an earnest person believed that all problems, personal, national and international, were to be solved through will power alone. And maybe they had something there, after all. Perhaps what we need today, in the midst of our many pressing problems, is more will power. Certainly one often runs into a situation where just plain old fashioned determina tion seems to be the needed factor for bet terment. And it is just as hard to exert one’s will power today as it was then, perhaps more so, since often there has been no childhood exercise of this sterling faculty. * * * * The mockingbird does not need to deny himself doughnuts. He never heard* of gall bladder troubles. The necessity for denying one’s self any thing that tastes good is utterly unknown in the animal kingdom. The creatures of the strict wild, feathered and furred, so live that they can “handle” almost anything in the food lines which instinct tells them to sample. An apple cut in half sometimes appeals to a mockingbird Best of all they like such berries as those of the pokeweed. If you have a "volunteer” plant of this leggy weed, do not be in too big a hurry to cut it down.' Many birds, and especially the mocker, will like the berries, as will other wild things, including field mice. The way a field mouse can carry a pokeberry, full of red juice, for long distances wAout spilling a drop is one of the wooden ■ .nature. Letters to The Star Says Unconstitutionality of Ober Law Shows Need of Substantial Enactment To the Editor of The Star: The Star of November 9 quoted the rather Ironical statement of Frank B. Ober on the forthright ruling by Judge Sherbow of Balti more, decreeing the so-called “Ober Law" unconstitutional. Mr. Ober is quoted as say ing that the decision is “so sweeping that it would invalidate substantially all” sedition and loyalty legislation of the States and the Federal Government. Thus, we now find that there is at last something considered to be substantial about the “Ober Law”—the judicial decision declaring it to be unconsti tutional. Otherwise, in my opinion, there is nothing to be found in the entire law ap proved by Governor Lane in any way sub stantial. . To those who may not have had an oppor tunity to look over the Governor Lane approved feature of anti-subversive legisla tion it may be interesting to note that nowhere in the entire act is there provided any way to determine if any of the numerous Congressionally cited subversive organiza tions would be so considered in Maryland. Such decision and determination is placed at the mercy of the political integrity of the Attorney General of Maryland, and is subject to his mood of the moment. Therefore, when Judge Sherbow decided that the “Ober Law” is too vague for a workable criminal statute, it would certainly appear that he was on solid ground. Since the pending determination on this “Ober Law” will soon be decided by the Maryland Court of Appeals, it is hoped that it also will deem such a farce of legislation to be unconstitutional—and thus, in effect, put Maryland lawmakers on notice that propdr and substantial laws should be promptly enacted to effectively preserve and protect American principles in the State of Maryland. FRANKLIN T. MILES. Agrees With Letter On Need for All-Out Employment To the Editor of The Star: I want to commend Earl R. Jones on his letter, “Program of All-Out Employment Urged to Reduce Debt and Taxes,” which appeared in The Star of November 9. If the leaders of the administration would only allow themselves to be aware of the vast number of unemployed in this city alone, due to conditions described in this communication and take some constructive action for the common good, much hardship could be prevented. ONE OF THE UNEMPLOYED. Anglo-American Debating Society Proposed As Aid to Friendship Ta the Editor ol The Star: I recently attended a debate between the Oxford University team and a similar team from George Washington University. The motion before the house was: “That Public Ownership of Basic Industries Is in the Best Interests of Democracy.” As an Englishman I was extremely inter ested in the proceedings and noted with much pleasure the impartial attitude of the audience. I also was convinced that such a method of discussing subjects of common and vital interest to British' and American people should be put on a permanent footing. There are many English people in Wash ington and many more Americans who are interested in current world affairs and I propose, Mr. Editor, that there should be established, as soon as possible, an Anglo-' American Debating Society. I am sure that there would be no difficulty in obtaining enough members and that such a society would not only be “in the best interests of democracy,” but would do a great service to the cause of Anglo-American friendship and understanding. R, G. K. ANSON. Says Airlines Should Finance Themselves Just as Their Competitors Do To the Editor of The Star: I refer to your editorial, “Second Airport Needed.” appearing.in The Star. November 9. • In advocating a supplementary national air terminal for the Washington area, I trust you also will insist that the cost of such an installation be borne by those who stand to benefit most by it—namely, the airlines themselves. It is time the American taxpayer gave a little thought to what subsidized trans portation does to his pocketbook and the implications it holds for our future form of government. It is the responsibility of the newspapers to place the facts before the public, since we can depend upon it that the CAA will do ^erything in its power to justify activities which become more ques tionable with each passing year. The airlines are in business to make money, and the 1949 revenue figures show that so. far this year most of them are doing that. In fact they are very optimistic about ■ their earnings for the year. as a whole. This is encouraging, and I am glad to see them getting on their feet financially. We must not lose sight of the fact, though, that the airlines are but one segment of our great transportation system and it is not fair for the Government to help one portion at the expense of another. Unless our transpor tation systems remain free to compete with each other in the same manner as any other businesses, transportation will become a nationalized industry, which is the first step i to socialism. One way to keep our transportation sys tem free is to insist that the airlines build and maintain their own terminals. The Washington Terminal Company recently announced a large modernization and im provement program, the money for which no doubt will come from the users of rail road facilities. It, therefore, is not unrea sonable to insist that the airlines use their own money to improve their competitive position in the transportation field. Comparisons With St. Louis. I do not have figures available for Wash ington, but it is interesting to note that in 1948 the St. Louis Terminal Railroad Asso ciation paid a little over $183,000 in taxes on Union Station facilities. The Lambert Field airport (St. Louis) is city-owned and tax free. Recent modernization of Lambert Field cost the city, State and Federal Gov ernments a little over a million dollars, to be paid through taxation of the public gen erally. The million-dollar-expendlture, to modernize- the St. Louis Union Station 'will be paid for by the railroad? out of the income they receive'from railroad patrons. The above figures point to the fact that a continued policy of the use of public tax monies to support the airlines, to the detriment of other forms of transportation, inevitably will result in diminishing tax re turns on the one hand and increased ex penditures on the other. For with the growth of air transportation the airlines and the CAA are going to insist on more Government funds for operating purposes. In a letter appearing in your paper No vember'9, Allen L. Thompson demands that either the CAA be abolished and its duties tinned over to the armed forces, or a new agency be designated to handle air traffic control. I believe this and other dperational duties of CAA should be put where they logically belong—In the hands of the airlines themselves. I cannot understand why Gov ernment employes should be handling traf fic problems for commercial airlines. This is but one function of CAA that should be turned over to the airlines, for this branch of the Government has become a propa ganda agency for the airlines and aafjuch 1 puts the Government In the position at ___ Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be briefi -- deliberately working to the disadvantage of the railroads. If anyone doubts this let him be advised that the Civil Aeronautics Ad ministration in October announced an ap pointment to head a new Aviation Extension Division of the Office of Aviation Develop ment. Among the duties of the new di vision is that of encouraging personal and industrial flying! It is time the Government got out of the transportation business, except to make and enforce safety rules and regulations which would protect the health and safety of the public. Our lack of a fair national trans portation policy rapidly is bringing us to the point where Government operation of x our railroads shortly will become a tragic reality. When this happens a complete Socialistic form of Government will not be far behind. The American people now are face to face with the issue, and the answer cannot be long delayed. W. T. SHEAFFER. Believes Scouts and Like Organizations Should be Self-Supporting To the Editor of The Star: May I join the controversy regarding membership of the Boy Scouts in the Com munity Chest? As a Scout when a boy, an interested bystander for considerable years afterward, and for the past six or seven years most active in Scout work, it has been my observation that a Boy Scout never has to rely on either the Local Council or Community Chest for the expense of his participation in scouting, nor are the train ing of leaders and the cost of establishing new Cub Packs and Scout Units of consid erable expense to the Local Council. Generally, when a boy who wants to become a Scout can’t afford the nominal membership fee and dues or the cost of his outfit and handbook, word gets to the “right person”—often one of the volunteer leaders— and someone “digs” (without thought of a “red feather”) or makes other arrangements and the matter is taken care of without publicity. I have yet to know of -an instance where either the I/xsal Council or Community Chest has furnished membership or es sential supplies free of charge. In this Council the training of volunteer leaders is done by other volunteer workers . and the cost is borne by the trainee—books, pamphlets and such at catalogue prices plus a dollar for one’s own membership. Organization of Cub Packs and Scout Units also is done by a committee composed of volunteer leaders. Often a paid representa tive from the Council office will make a visit after the committee of volunteer workers have the project' well under way. For the past two or three years the amount furnished by the Chest has ap parently been insufficient for the Council since the Scouts have conducted their own campaign among “friends of scouting” for funds to supplement that amount. With the 4,000 volunteer leaders and 10 paid repre sentatives mentioned by Council President Shands in his letter, the scouting organiza tion seemingly should be self-supporting to the extent that it would not have to become a “charity organization” and these thoughts could well apply to the Girl Scouts, the Camp Fire Girls, the YMCA and other like organizations. A CUB SCOUT LEADER. Calls For Unity Of Forces Working for Peace To tbe Bdltor of Hie Star: Since we are so determined to have a merger of the armed forces in this country, how about a merger of the peace forces? Is not our difficulty that we have too many prima donnas of peace? And too few leaders and organizations with a "passion for anony mity?” So many Individuals and groups are working for the same goal, but often at cross-purposes, that they tend to dissipate their strength. We do not lack brilliant minds. Think of the statesmen, educators, religious leaders, philosophers, economists, colurpnists, com mentators, and especially—since the atomic bomb—scientists, who are devoting hours of study to the problems of peace. With re spect to the United Nations, world govern ment, control of atomic energy, disarmament, and our Russian relations, ideas afe popping like corn in a popper. That’s one of the difficulties—these ideas and minds are not being brought together into a co-ordinated, purposeful plan. We do not lack peace organizations. There are at least 100 po§t-war peace societies, according to John Thacher in “The Reader’s Digest,” all “brandishing fists over the choice of roads to perpetual enmity and brotherly love.” Could we form a clearing house for peace plans and efforts? Could a non-partisan, non-sectarian, non-self-glorifying group be set up by the President, to develop a positive, dynamic plan to promote total peace? The atomic bomb has put an exclamation point after the phrase, "Outlaw all war!” We all say, "It is peace or suicide this time.” We all say, "Something must be done—and done now.” Yet we add, in the next breath, "It seems as if we we drifting toward another war.” Several leaders of the armed forces, in recent testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, stressed their determin ation to prevent another war, if possible. There is no doubt about their sincerity. If they, and the non-military leaders, could join their efforts in a gigantic merger of forces, the chances of a third World War would be lessened, GENEVIEVE G. HUBBARD. Insists Fair Deal Resembles Statism in European Countries To, tha Editor of Tha Star: No one argues against contributing to the general welfare of the people. The appear ance of that phrase in the Constitution has no bearing on today’s issue, which revolves around the question of whether we keep our liberties or accept dictatorship. The term “welfare state," as it erroneously has been called, is an understatement. It should have been properly labelled “state socialism.” In Europe the “state” is the national government; thus “state socialism” and “national socialism” are Identical. They had national socialism in Germany and Italy, remember? And the present Labor Government in Britain is patterned after the same system. As evidence that the so-called Fair Deal program runs along parallel lines, I present this definition from Webster’s dictionary of 1946: “State socialism: A form.of socialism prevalent in Germany and Great Britain which advocates utilizing the power of the state to equalize income and opportunity by measures such as progressive Income and inheritance taxes and compulsory insurance against old age, unemployment, sickness and accident, and by statf administration of industries, public utilities, common carriers, banking, housing and the like.” Are we for or against free enterprise? Under the free enterprise system this Na tion has prospered far beyond the compre hension of European minds, Tet there are forces which are working toward the de struction of the American system. Why should we gamble on^a government that bestows its bounties fc its own terms? \ FRED YARDLEY. Cobalt More Radioactive Than Radium Produced New Exploding Form Developed At AEC Uranium Piles By Thomas R. Henry Radioactive cobalt 100 times more potent per gram than it was possible to produce in the past is being prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission. A gram of the material now being sup plied is three times as powerful as a gram of radium, for which it is proposed as a substitute. This greatly increased activity is due to new methods of preparation adopted in the commission’s uranium piles at Oak Ridge and Chicago. The exploding form of cobalt is one of the important new isotopes in the field of medi cine. It behaves much like radium, is less poisonous and is vastly cheaper. Promising results in treatment of cancers have been reported but more investigation is consid ered necessary. The material can be pro duced in almost limitless quantities by ths new method. The old form, according to a commission report, had an activity of 30 millicuries—a millicurie is the amount which will have 30,000 atomic explosions a second—to as much as 3,000 millicuries. The potency per gram of some other iso tope preparations which have no immediate medical application has been increased in the same ratio. At the same time there has been an enor mous increase m the production, although not in the potency, of radioactive iodine, which has much promise in the treatment of various thyroid disorders. Prepared by a different method which involves transmuta tion of the element tellurium, the new iodine samples are much purer than the old. # • * * Producing fully matured tomatoes in test tubes from blossoms plucked from vines has just been reported to the American Associa tion for the Advancement of Science. This was accomplished in a nutrient solu tion containing various mineral salts, sugar, the vitamin thiamine, and one of the amino acids, together with juice from either green or ripe tomatoes, according to a report of Dr. J. P. Nitsch of the California Institute of Technology. Growing of other plant tissues, such as roots, leaves and stems, in nutrient solutions has been a common practice in biological laboratories for some years but it hitherto has been impossible to grow fruits. Dr. Nitsch’s efforts failed until the tomato Juice was added. The test-tube tomatoes tasted like ordi nary tomatoes, Dr. Nitsch reports, but they were seedless. They were small, but he "be lieves this was due to the limited quantity of nutrients used. Experiments now are in pro gress to obtain full-sized fruits and to cul tivate other species by the same technique. Questions and Answers A reader can get the answer to any question ef fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 31(1 Eye at n.e.. Washlngton-2. D. C. Please Inclose three (3) cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. Will a veteran be required to pay Federal income tax on his National Service Life Insurance dividend?—A. S. R. A. The dividend that is to be paid on the National Service Life Insurance will not be taxable income under the Federal income tax laws. Q. What per cent of school teacher* are college graduates?—W. A. A. According to a compilation of the Council of State Governments, 44.7 per cent of high school and elementary school teach ers have a bachelor’s degree and an addi tional 14.4 per cent have master’s degree. Q. How many horses were shot from un der Gen. Sherman during the battle of Shi loh?—H. C. M. A. Four horses were shot from under Gen. Sherman during this battle, whiph took place on April 6-7, 1862. It was his gallant conduct at Shiloh that gained him promo tion from brigadier general to major general. Q. Does the feeding of animals whose skin is to be tanned have any effect on the quality of the leather—D. L K. A. Well-fed animals have skins which produce higher grade leather. It has better tear resistance, more tensile strength and more stretch. Q. What nations are included in the sterling area?—L. D. Y. A. The sterling area includes a group of countries of which the currencies are linked to sterling and which, for the most part, maintain their exchange reserves in the form of sterling deposits or British Govern ment obligations. Members include the United Kingdom with certain colonies or de pendencies, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Union of Sputh Africa, India, Pakistan, Ceylcn, Burma, Iraq and Iceland. , Q. What is the purpose of the Chris tophers? Who is the head of this organiza tion?—W. A. K. A. The purpose of the Christophers is to encourage millions of Americans to restore the spiritual principles upon which the country is founded. It is the purpose of the members of this group to “bring Christ into the market place.” One need not Join any additional organization. Each person works as an individual. There are no meet ings and there are nb dues. The director is Father James Keller, M.M. Q. Where was the first railroad rail cast in this country?—C. M. W. A. According to the Association of American Railroads, the first iron railroad rails of American design were rolled in the United States in 1844. The first Bessemer steel rails manufactured in the United States were rolled at the North Chicago Rolling Mills May 25, 186S. The Orchard Boat He built the boat beyond his door, Ten strides from, breakfast; blossoms fell Upon his hands, dried leaves, as well, Frost-loosened from the bough, before He’d finished; apples thumped along The cabin-deck and dowelled beams, And while he caulked the tight-lipped seams, The school boys listened to the song Of wooden mallet hammering The coiling snakes of cotton strips; By autumn, men with shouts and whips, Teamed twenty oxen in a string, To haul the land-built orchard boat Along the rutted, country road— Awkward and lurching, alien load, Down to the Cove, where she would float After slow passage over stones— Her bow reared high above the backs Of Straining cattle; pistol-cracks Of rawhide split the air .. . and cones Were shaken from a low-branched spruce To cabin-deck, never again To taste earth’s blessing . . . only rain, And all the ocean’s salt abuse; But boats .must come alive at sea, And so d&she . . - and so, did she! * MARTHA BANNING THOMAS, r