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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by Tho Ironing Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. S. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICEi Ilth St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE! 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE! 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Area. Daily and Sunday Dally Only Sunday Only Monthly -150* Monthly -»0c l<b per copy Weekly 30c Weekly ... 20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sundays are in a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition in those sections where delivery Is made. Rotes by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States. Hvenlng and Sunday Evening *u"do'' - 1 month— 1 JO 1 month — Wc I month 6tk t months .. 7 JO 6 months —8.00 6 months 3.00 7year_15.00 I year _10.00 1 year —5.00 Telephone STerling 9000. Intend at the Post Office, Washington, D. C, as second-class mail matter. Member af the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the me for republication of all the local news printed In this Htwipoptfi os will a$ oil A. P. iwwi dupotchti. \_4 SATURDAY, November 19, 1949 Mr. Fay Goes Too Far Over many years newspaper reporters assigned to District Court and the United States Attorneys for the District of Co lumbia had perfected between them an informal system of co-operation in report ing certain types of news. It worked very well. * Reporters were given in advance, but in confidence, the names of those against whom indictments had been voted or rejected by the grand jury. They were permitted unrestricted access to files con taining the background of the cases. This system had the advantage of giving the reporters more time In preparing their stories. It helped to avoid error. It gave them a better understanding of the cases with which they were dealing, without affecting in any manner the rights of the accused. Shortly after George Morris Fay became United States Attorney he decided to change all this. He denied reporters access to advance information on indictments. He substituted a system of handouts pre pared by members of his staff, which the reporters consider inadequate. He pre vented examination by the reporters of the case files, making them dependent en tirely on information relayed to them by himself or his assistants. He took control, in other words, of the sources of the news on which the reporters previously depended for factual background. More recently, he has extended this sys tem to Municipal Court. He has said that the reporters may no longer examine the file Jackets containing police statements of fact. The information contained in the flies will hereafter be passed out only by an Assistant United States Attorney, if he has the time and the inclination. What is this information? It usually covers such details as the names of the policeman and the defendant, his address, age, and the arresting officer’s version of what took place. The identical information is avail able in police records. But getting it from police records requires additional time and offers more opportunity for error. Mr. Fay eon tends that his larger staff of assistants will now have the time to preside over the file Jackets. He not only makes a moun tain out of a mole hill, but incidentally, makes more work for more assistants. These various “reforms” by Mr. Fay amount to a petty method of obstructing and delaying the work of the reporters. They have produced no improvement. On the other band, they have been the source of complaint over the inadequacy of in formation contained in Mr. Fay’s handouts, and the increased opportunity for error. More seriously, there 1s plainly discernible here a series of moves bjr Mr. Fay to restrict the legitimate sources of news to the sort of information that Mr. Fay and his assistants think should be made public. Mr. Fay offers a number of explanations In defending his action. One is regula tions of the Department of Justice. The Star has carefully examined the regula tions cited by Mr. Fay. They have nothing to do with the situation. The specific regulation cited by Mr. Fay as the original source of his authority was Issued by the late. Frank Murphy when he was Attorney General in 1939. It was subsequently clari fied—within a month—by a memorandum containing this statement: “It (the regulation) was not intended to change pre-existing usage or to make in accessible any Information that has there tofore been furnished to the public, to the newspapers, or to other officials 4>f the Government.” When Mr. Fay’s attention was drawn to this clarifying modification, he admitted that it previously had escaped his atten tion. But he gave to it a new interpreta tion which, in his opinion, supports the actions he has taken. The Star believes he is wholly wrong. He is letting himself drift into the position of censor in matters of legitimate public information. He is attributing to himself a sense of rectitude which is a bit stuffy and unrealistic, which serves to hamper the press in getting at tacts to which the public is entitled and which is going to get him into deeper water than he seems to realize. Montgomery's Credit |s Good In the midst of the stresses and strains of postwar expansion, it must be quite reassuring to Montgomery County citizens to learn from an expert fiscal study that the financial affairs of the county are in good shape. The findings of the so-called Wainwright report will be helpful to the new County Council in planning and car rying out future financing of public works. Specifically, the survey showed that the county’s credit position is secure now and that, in view of “the care that is being given to the planning of needed improve ments,” the financial condition of the rapidly growing Maryland jurisdiction “will remain sound.” This view is srtrlbute •to those responsible for administering the business of the county. Of. particular Interest is the experts’ belief that the financial status of the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commis sion is as sound as that of tire County itself. There have been fears among county residents in^the past that the large bonded Indebtedness of the commission imposed on the county a contingent risk that might some day prove more than worrisome. Actually, said the report, the risk is so remote as to be “a matter of little more than academic interest.” The bright financial picture painted by the auditors leaves no doubt as to the ability of Montgomery County to continue Its healthy development, even though this progress may entail a larger debt burden and heavier taxes. The report recom mended as “good business” a loan from the State to finance new schools, leaving the market clear for other financing ar rangements as needs require. Whatever Montgomery’s requirements, the county should have no trouble in obtaining loans, on the basis of its fine credit rating from the survey firm. To Prevent Disaster In his latest report to Congress on the operations of the Marshall Plan, President Truman has vigorously underscored all the major points made within recent weeks by Economic Co-operation Administrator Paul G. Hoffman. They are points well deserv ing just such re-emphasis, for they are among the imperatives of our time—the facts that must be kept constantly in mind if we and the rest of the free world are to succeed in the vital task of promoting our common prosperity and security. As the President’s report observes, the Marshall Plan has already accomplished a number of near-miracles. By helping to step up industrial 'and agricultural produc tion to new highs in the participating countries, it has saved the Western Euro peans from the all-engulfing economic disaster that would surely have struck them if there had been no such plan. In addition—and this is its greatest achieve ment to date—it has stabilized the co operating nations in such a way as to discountenance the Communists and stop the further advance of the Kremlin directed Red tide. But this splendid accomplishment, though it constitutes a rich dividend amply justifying the billions we have in vested in the project, does not alter the fact that when the Marshall Plan ends in 1952, Western Europe will still be in serious economic difficulties if certain fundamental actions are not taken in the meantime. The President’s report, echo ing Mr. Hoffman’s own warnings, is careful to make that point very clear. Two years from now, unless concrete measures are promptly set in motion to eliminate it, the so-called "dollar shortage” or "dollar gap” will continue to plague our friends abroad with the potentials of disaster. This means that the Western Europeans cannot afford to lose time in acting singly and together to get out of the fix which finds them selling much too little to us to earn enough dollars to pay for all the goods they want and need from us. As Mr. Hoffman has repeatedly said, and as the President’s report reaffirms, they must therefore, among other things, (1) move toward the integration of their separate economies by lowering trade barriers among themselves and taking kindred steps aimed at eventually converting West ern Europe into a single marketing and producing area; and (2) launch a special drive to Increase exports to the United States—an objective requiring not merely better merchandising methods but mod ernization of plants and Improvement of labor-management efficiency to increase output, decrease costs of production, and bring sales prices down'to a point where thgy can compete with those offered by our own producers. Such an export drive, however will re quire American co-operation. If Western Europe is ever to overcome the dollar prob lem, the United States will have to continue to lower tariffs as much as pos sible, simplify customs procedures, and in general act in keeping with the reality that it is not good either for us or for our overseas allies when we sell far more to them than we buy from them. In fact, that Imbalance is one of the root causes of the free world’s troubles, and it must be eliminated by freer trade if we are ever to have the kind of long-range economic and political stability that Is needed for our common security and a lasting peace. Thus, as the President has reported to Congress, the crucial task of restoring enduring vigor to Western Europe calls for a continuing Joint effort by our friends abroad and ourselves. In Mr. Hoffman’s words, it is an effort that Involves tre mendous stakes, both for them and for us. Hot to undertake it would be to invite the return of another grave economic crisis in 1952—a crisis that would encourage a renewal of the Kremlin’s drive to subjugate the whole continent. On the other hand, if we and the Marshall Plan countries do what clearly needs to be done, that drive can be permanently halted and the free world’s safety and economic well-being greatly enhanced. Stating the Obvious Ordinarily it might be expected that the Atomic Energy Commission would stamp "Top Secret" on any memorandum to the National Security Resources Board bearing the grimly Impressive title "The City of Washington and an Atomic Bomb Attack.” But a perusal of its contents makes it evident why security-minded ABC officials decided not only to declassify the paper but to issue it to the press. For there is nothing in the memorandum that is new to any one who has redd about what hap pened to Hiroshima and Nagasaki back in 1945. As President Truman commented Thursday, this is old stuff. No secrets are divulged in the statement by the ABC staff on how an atomic bomb attack might affect the Nation’s Capital. No hintis given as to how far we have advanced (if one can call it advancement) since the devastating blasts which wrecked the Japanese cities and rocked the world. The staff simply has done what others not connected with the commission have done —used the Hiroshima and Nagasaki find ings to estimate the damage which similar attacks would inflict on Washington or, for that matter, on any other large city. Thus, the commission was .stating no more than the obvious when it theorised that the Pentagon, the White House area and the Capitol would be choice targets for enemy A-bombs; that great blast and radiation damage would be wrought by hits on these targets; that buildings in such areas “should be abandoned in the jfvent of an impending attack, or well before”; that adjoining business districts are "additional vulnerable areas”; that fires will be kindled which will destroy the contents of buildings “in the absence of firefighting”; that communications and transportation would “cease to exist in the damaged area”; that fire engines "would probably be crushed by the collapse of the firehouses”; that the attractiveness of par ticular targets “vanishes wfth dispersal of some or all of them”—preferably on the outskirts of the city at two-mile distances from one another. Although all these things are obvious, this does not mean that they are un important or that they can be taken casually. It is the duty of the AEC staff to advise military and civilian agencies even of the obvious. For the atomic bomb is one thing which does not fit into the' saying that “familiarity breeds contempt.” Familiarity with it rather should breed respect, and a determination to strive mightily to eliminate it as a threat to mankind. • Mrs. Bethune Mary McLeod Bethune has retired from the, presidency of the National Council of Negro Women, which she founded fourteen years ago. That organization, like Be thune-Cookman College at Daytona Beach, Florida, which she established in 1904 and headed until 1942, must get along hence forth without her active direction. At 74 and with half a century of arduous work behind her, she is entitled to rest. But no one who knows Mrs. Bethune can imagine her being inactive. She al ways has been a doer as well as a dreamer. The number of goals she first has visioned and then laboriously achieved is legion. No other American woman of her time has been interested in a longer list of good causes or toiled more devotedly in their behalf. Her life has paralleled that of Booker T. Washington, but it has been more fruitful of immediate results. She has had the happiness of witnessing her own achievement to an extent not equaled by Ihe sponsor of Tuskegee. Mrs. Bethune has not served the Negro community exclusively. Her purposes have been worldwide, her objectives unlimited by any arbitrary restriction of race or creed or class. In her “retirement” she deserves the gratitude of all Americans of good will. The world will last another 3,000,000,000 years, says a reputable astronomer—letting you take it either way, as a threat or a promise. There are all kinds of opinions on when to retire, Including that of the young tennis pro who hoped to pick up enough money in a few years to turn amateur. Illinois divorce records show family fights invariably start in the kitchen. It is perhaps better thus, as any breakage can readily be replaced from the dime store. They say good dentistry would have robbed Washington’s face of much of its* rugged grandeur. One muses, too, on what an enthusiastic barber might do with Czar Lewis. This and That - By Charles E. Trace well Birds come and go, but to many watchers the cardinal remains the best of them all. It Is beautiful, interesting and hopeful. Few living creatures embody our hope more than this feathered one. Just as the bluebird stands for happiness, in our minds, and the little chickadee for cheer, so the cardinal with its bright coat and sturdy crest seems to embody hope in the best way. Hope is the word for him, as he perches there in the shrubbery, a bright spot in the green, still green so late. * * * * The season has little to do with the red bird’s red. Except for the young males In their first fall, when they more resemble their mothers than their fathers, the cardinal seems to flaunt hope in the wind. All birds speak the same language to us, that is why they are so popular, probably the most popular of all forms of life. Yet the redbird, with its flame in the wind, appeals directly to the human heart. He has a way all his own of saying, “Well, today may not be so good, and yesterday was pretty bad, but tomorrow is going to be better.” A * A A Humanity needs some bird optimism, the hope exemplified by the cardinal. It is easy enough to say that the animals and the birds, and even the insects, know nothing. The truth is, they know a great deal. They know enough to keep firm hold on the realities of time. This tells them, although they have no books, that living things have been through troubled times before. The birds, for instance, often have suffered. Cold sleet storms have wiped out hundreds of thousands of.them. Some species, such as the passenger pigeon, have vanished from the earth. But the cardinal still speaks to our hearts, there is the bush, and the colder the winter day, the more eloquent he is. Provided, of course, that we have the equipment to receive his message. * * * * Hope is in the wind, whenever this good bird, he of the red coat and saucy topknot. He is like the old patent medkfine man, who lifted his finger solemnly in the air, and pronounced the verdict: “There is hope!” Of course there is. Every chickadee, every titmouse, every cardinal, knows it. Why not we? Yet we bemoan the rise of the proletariat, or sniff disdainfully at political names we do not like, or resent something, when all the time peoples have done the same thing so often before. And no matter how low the horizon, the sun has come up, at least so far. * * * * If we trust to the common sense of the human mind, a special quality, we need not fear atom bombs, or strange people. , All living things have a solid basis of living common sense, which usually comes to the fore after great stresses and strains. It is hopeful to believe—and we like to be lieve the cardinal bird would think it, too— that things too awful to contemplate will result in causing their abandonment, after a time. Just as nations tacitly failed to use poison .gas, so they may not use the atom bomb, after all, or any of the other shocking things prepared in laboratories. Common sense, human hope in operation, may save us, even when science fails us. Each ridng sun brings us closer to some thing. Let us continue to think that it will be good. The cardinal is sure of it He is Just outside your window telling you so. The common sense of all living things may Just as well win 9 lose, because we all do so want to live. Letters to The Star Appeals To Motorists To Give Dogs a Chance To the Editor of the Star: I was touched by Vincent Engel’s letter in the Star of November 16, telling of the fatal accident to his little cocker spaniel. This week. I saw a fine pointer who was lost and confused dodging cars on Nebraska avenue. The callous drivers never slowed their cars nor made any effort to give the dog a chance. Fortunately, he escaped unharmed. The Washington Animal Rescue League carries on an intensive program of humane education in the schools. Evidently, adults need a similar course. ' . .. Give the dogs a chance. If they are hit, don’t leave them lying helpless and injured, but take them to the nearest veterinarian or to the League’s shelter at 71 O street N W Finally we urge owners to safeguard their pets by keeping them in enclosed yards or when walking them, to keep them leashed. Traffic is a murderous hazard. MRS. FRANK ALLEN WEST, Chairman of the Committee on Humane Education, the Washington Animal Rescue League. A Department of Defense Should Be Just That, He Says To the Idltor of The Stsr: The discussions of military unification doubtless grow a bit tiresome, but since they are not Intended primarily as entertainment, it is hoped you may continue to publish occa sional remarks. . A fact which appears not to have been given the attention its significance deserves is the military unity within the Navy. The cooperation of the surface, underwater, air and land (Marine) forces has been so satis factory for so long as to be accepted as a matter of course. Sufficient consideration of this should have resulted in less of the “master-of-unity.” headknocking sort of t,h<ng in the Defense Department, and quite probably the avoidance of much of the cur rent trouble. It already seems forgotten that in contrast to this naval unity the good, little boys of unification, the Army and the Air Force, could not get along as Army Ground and Army Air Forces, but ended up in the divorce courts. One therefore suspects their current agreement to have as its basic cause a mutual case of "sour grapes" with regard to the smooth functioning of the Navy. To sing a slightly different tune, another consideration which apparently has escaped much notice is the Navy's large aviation shore bases and Navy operation of large planes which logically is an Air Force function. Doubtless, this is justified as neces sary naval patrol activity, but it is about time the Air Force were trained to distinguish objects at sea, taking over these land based jobs. As for area bombing, if it can be justified by a moral backward leaning, it is a business no real fighting force deliberately should seek. The Chief of Naval Operations wants a strong sea-going Navy, he says. To the degree in which it is not seagoing, it is deficient as a navy. That large numbers of Navy men are employed in such a way as to scarcely see a ship in several enlistments is definite that the naval organization is exercising functions not properly its own. If discipline is necessary for a military organization, discipline plus seafaring is es sential in a navy. Incidentally, the entire military controversy has centered on tactics and equipment. It seems forgotten a navy or army is first of all a body of men. Nor does the latest product of the plane factory change this in the least. It would seem wise therefore to go slowly when considering changes .In these bodies, inasmuch as the latest weapon is not likely to be latest for an indefinite time, or so important as it seems at the moment. The justification for naval aviation is in its carrier, fighter forces. This is in line with our policy of war only for defense. Upon being bombed out at home, it will be slight consolation to hear of an enemy people in the same stew. A Department of Defense - should be just that; not a Department of Instant Retaliation, as some of our great and spectacular unifiers would have it. HOOLIGAN X. SWAB. , Teacher Argues for Segregation As an Asset in School System To tfa* Editor of Tho Star: I have noticed during the past several months a veritable torrent of agitation against segregation in the D. C. schools. One or two writers especially keep popping up in your columns, chronic agitators and one not even a D. C. resident. Just another example of how a small but very articulate minority can stir up muddy waters. As a lifelong resident of Washington and a teacher in our schools, I can restrain myself no longer from protesting. Segregation In general and in educaton in particular is founded on plalx\ common sense. Where It exists, it has come to be because the customs of the community, the background of the inhabitants, and public policy decreed It. Such long-estab lished customs should not and cannot be abolished overnight—even by a Supreme Court decision, if it coihes to that. Of course, it is plain that the chief aim of the racial agitators is to sweep away immedi ately by law, by executive fiat, all customs that seem to discriminate against them. This course of action Itself is undemocratic. .These people aren't concerned with equality; they want identity. The plain truth Is that abolition of seg regation would wreck our school system. Although it could do with many improve ments, I believe our "outmoded,” "undemo cratic” dual system is good and compares favorably with most any other in the Nation. Have the advocates of abolition ever had experience In the classroom at the teach ing end? Do they know the multitude of problems that daily beset the teacher and which he cheerfully must surmount? Have they any idea of how much these prob lems would be worsened were segregation abolished? For every problem solved, three more would take Its place. With very little trouble, it isn’t difficult for one experienced in the classroom to predict two or three almost certain results were segregation suddenly abolished—none of them very pleasant. From the practical standpoint, I see how no one familiar with tf>ai»h<ng could wish for abolition. And this applies to both white and colored teachers. It is my honest belief that the latter probably would yearn for the dual system If such a change occurred. Advocates of abolition complain that there can be no equality under segregation. Maybe so, although I don’t concede the point But it’s still better to go along with what inequities exist now in our dual system than to drag down the whole system. Good education is something more than mere facilities, fine buildings, adequate space, plenty of “pupil stations,” etc.. Stresses Freedom from Tension. Good education on the sub-collegiate level includes such things as maintenance of discipline, a program suited to abilities of students, which in turn implies homo geneous grouping; well-rounded social pro gram and most important of all, a whole some, relaxed, happy atmosphere free from tension > of any sort. How many of these things could we havd under a nan-segregated system in Washington? Please do not talk to me about New York, Bostdli or Minneapolis. Their ratio of dfcjored students to white Is nothing like what It Letters for publication must bear the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. is in Washington. To my knowledge, there is no public school system in which the pro portion of white and colored pupils is nearly equal and which is non-segregated. With the present “chip-on-the-shoulder,” abused, aggressive attitude of many of our colored citizens, I doubt if such a system could work here. Equality? Yes, by all means. The colored divisions need and should have more new buildings—the finest possible, better equip ment, athletic stadiums, tennis courts, every thing. Students in those divisions should have an opportunity to study the same courses of studies and to have the same extra-curricular activities. -All' of this is expensive, and that is what the trouble is. Congress is so expansive and generous in doling out funds right and left elsewhere and so niggardly in dealing with D. C. schools. Most of us thought we would die of old age before either the sick leave bill or the last teachers’ raise was passed (with strings attached). But to preserve our sys tem and better it, perhaps a more enlight ened attitude can be hoped for. In any case, before any really sweeping change is made, the democratic thing to do is to consider what is best with all concerned— teachers and parents of both divisions. D. C. TEACHER Thanks From Students Who Appreciate Good Music To the Editor of The Star: I wish to extend to you my sincere thanks and that of my room mate for the compli mentary tickets to the National Symphony Orchestra Concert performed on November 14 at Western High School. Although we are fond advocates of clas sical music, we seldom have time to attend any concerts, much less any of the calibre of last Monday’s. Our collective opinion ,and that of many other Georgetown students, 1s that the Neighborhood Concert series is an admirable gesture on the part of The Star and WMAL and should be emulated in other commun ities. JOSEPH LEO GUTOWSKI Tells of Other Speakers At School Buildings Meeting To tho Editor of The Star: As one who has long been a subscriber to The Star and who was present at the meeting of the Board of Education’s Build ings and Grounds Committee meeting, I wish to register a sharp protest at the man ner in which Coit Hendley, Jr., reported that meeting. Mr. Hendley’s story was neither com plete nor unbiased. He gave liberal space to the statement that the committee, “heard an expert denounce the proposal to use the Park View Elementary School as an annex.” The “expert” was Prof. Knox, of Howard University, who presented an entirely biased colored viewpoint that the 1,350 day school students and 1,200 night school students now attending Central High School be driven out of their logical school home so that the 700 student overflow at Cardoza ihight be convenienced. Mr. Hendley devoted 29 lines to Mr. Knox’s argument that the Board of Education’s carefully planned and soundly conceived long-range building program was but a “fond hope” and that the transfer of Cen tral students was the only “feasible solution in his mind.” Mr. Hendley accorded but eight lines to the statement by John H. Connaughton, past president of the Federation of Citizens' Associations, now representing the North Washington Recreation Council and but seven lines to the remarks of Herbert Lee man, president of the Federation of Citizens’ Associations. He made no mention at all of the appearence of Mrs. Charles A. Rupp of the Central High School Parent-Teacher Association, or of'E. H. Walters who spoke in praise of Supt. Hobart M. Coming’s study of the Cardozo situation and of his professionally sound recommendations to the Board of Education. Mr. Hendley presented not even the brief est summary of Mr. Connaughton’s clearly presented case as to why the white citizens of Northwest Washington will under no cir cumstances surrender to any pressure group which selfishly seeks to steal from the heart of its white neighborhood the building which has served for so many years as both day and night school and recreation center for the heaviest tax-paying area of the city. Readers in the Central High School area have the right to be told that the North Washington Recreation Council and the Federation of Citizens’ Associations are solidly united In support of the Central parents and are in wholehearted .accord with Dr. Coming’s leadership and his re commendations to the Board of Educatioh. MRS. MICHAEL TROIANO, President, Central High School Parent Teacher Association. (Editor’s Note: Because of apace limita tions, Mr. Hendley’s report of the meeting was condensed by the editors.) Sees Loss of Prestige In President’s Opportunism. To tlu Editor of the Star: At a state dinner for the Shah of Iran, President Truman is reported to have told the Shah: "The people at whom you are looking are the people who make the clock tick in the United States.” I suppose that he just couldn’t help show ing off before the Shah. Mr. Truman cer tainly knows better than that. Those are the Americans who happen to be on top at the moment. Nothing more! I hope that the Shah Is astute enough to realize this. Soon' President Truman will be touring the country telling the people at every whistle-stop that they are the people who are making the clock tick in the United States. As, of course, they are! He should be careful what he says at parties. People at whistle-stops can read. The President should make up his mind what he really does think and he should stick to it. Shifting his point of view ac cording to his audience, tends to a loss of prestige in the eyes of all. Those who try to please everyone succeed in pleasing no one. LAURA K. POLLOCK. Recalls Coffee "Shortage” That Really Wax Not Real To tho Sdltor of tbo Star: Who remembers, as X do, that during World War I the coffee industry spent loads * of money in articles in papers and magazines, expressing regret at having to raise the price of coffee to 50 cents a pound and fear that it might ft to $1 a pound be cause of a shortage due to transportation difficulties and a frost in Brazil? Then the Government investigated—and found more coffee in New York than ever had been in the United States before, be cause of difficulty in shipping to Europe. And that the small spot frosted in Brazil was negligible to the coffee supply. The price, to my recollection, was stopped at 50 cents a pound and soon went below. Can there be a similar situation now when the 50 cent mark has by degrees passed to 70 cents for a good grade of a product that is generally used by dpi classes of people? . . ’ - MARY B. COX. The Political Mill Spenders vs. Savers Battle Due When Congress Meets Tax Increase Proposals Worry Lawmakers Up for Re-election By Gould Lincoln Recent developments show more strongly than ever the spenders and the savers are going to the mat when Congress reconvenes in January. The administration, under the leadership of President Truman, is still standing by the formula—tax and tax, spend and spend. Mr. Truman has just said again taxes must be increased. With the Govern ment going hourly further into debt by mil lions of dollars, Mr. Truman’s advice must be followed unless there are drastic reduc tions in expenditures, or the whole financial structure may go on the rocks. Proposals to increase taxes, with a con gressional election coming up in November, 1950, send cold shivers down the spines of many of the men who must stand for re election. With so much at stake, the Presi dent shows no little courage in his demand for increased taxes on a people that is already carrying a heavy burden, both in indirect and direct taxes. The other view is that it may be more popular to keep right ahead with big Government spending, at the same - time trying to confine tax increases to cor porations and other businesses and to the larger personal incomes. Opposition in Own Party, Mr. Truman will meet plenty of opposi tion to his proposals for tax increases—and continued big spending—in his own party on Capitol Hill. Most outspoken are Sena tors Byrd of Virginia and Douglas of Illinois, the first a conservative and the second a liberal of liberals. Liberalism, however, in the opinion of Senator Douglas, does not mean being a spendthrift. Also the chair men of the House Ways and Means Commit tee, Representative Doughton of North Caro lina, and of the Senate Finance Committee, Senator George of Georgia, have both in the past been strongly opposed to tax increases. Indeed, these gentlemen have placed the emphasis on tax reduction, not tax increase. Under the instructions of Chairman Doughton, the tax experts at the Capitol have been conferring for weeks with the experts of the Treasury Department on the matter of tax revision and tax reduction. Mr. Doughton will call his committee to gether when Congress reconvenes to study the whole situation. All tax legislation orig inates in that committee. One of the main demands for tax reduction lies in the field of so-called excise taxes—taxes on trans portation, on communications, on electric light bulbs for example. These were im posed in wartime. The taxes fall on what may be regarded more often as necessities than luxuries. Repeal or reduction of many of these excise taxes was proposed in a bill introduced by Republican Representative “Joe” Martin of Massachusetts in the first session of the 81st Congress and had the support of many Republicans. The savers are violently opposed to the enactment of tax increases until Congress shall have had at least a try at cutting down expenditures by the Government. This is the position of Senator Douglas, who has insisted that at least (4,300,000,000 can be saved by cutting expenditures for the fiscal year 1951—and has mentioned just where he believes the cuts can be made. “Tight” Budget Planned. President Truman says he intends to send to Congress a “tight” budget, comparable to the budget he submitted at the first session of the 81st Congress. He says flatly that it is impossible to cut Government expendi tures to an extent which would warrant no increases in taxation. Whether it is or not o. is up to Congress. That body has never been signally successful when it comes to reducing Government expenditures. On the con- ' trary, it has usually increased them. Which is certainly not the fault of the President. Clarence Cannon’s plan for a single, omnl- ’ bus appropriation bill—Instead of ten or a - dozen separate bills—which as chairman of the House Appropriations Committee he is going to try out, should make it easier to cut expenditures to the size of expected rev enues. That’s Mr. Cannon’s idea, anyway. The conflict between the spenders and the savers may materially affect President Tru man’s welfare state program. It’s going to > be a tough job to get Congress to approve new projects costing ballons more dollars. There will be plenty of talk about the high cost of socialization—in dollars and cents. It looks almost like a squeeze play, with the Truman program caught between the need ' to save money and the demand for increased taxes. -i»fi Questions and Answers A reader can ret the answer to any question of fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau, 316 Eye at. n.e.. Washington S, D. C. Please inclose three (3) cents for return postage, By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Are the homing pigeons used by the-» Army for carrying messages all males? —B. R. E. .o A. They are not. Although all these pigeons are referred to as “he,” hens aren as valuable as males for special delivery - service. '-'W __________ orti Q. What is the military rank of King 1 George of England?—E. D. M. A. The King of England has the rank Ofv Admiral of the Fleet and Field Marshal. ** ■ i- t oi Q. From what branch of the service aftP~ the guards at the Tomb of the Unknown* ° Soldier chosen?—L. S, A. Guard duty at the Tomb of the Un known Soldier is performed by the Cef& " monial Company of the 3d Infantry, Fort” Myer, Va. Q. Please explain the reference *tor" “Aldenn” in Edgar Allan Poe’s "The Raven/1’' Also, who was “Pallas”?—D. H. F. orfr A. Aldenn means paradise. The spelling" is an Anglicised form of the Arabic for Edeni^ For the sake of rhyme, Poe used this spelling * in “The Raven,” where it is one of thfgg? words which have the sound of a, repeated''* within the space of two verses. In the^ room which Poe occupied while writing “TM” Raven,” there were furnishings left by M,r> previous boarder, an officer of Napoleon's-i army. One object was a small plaster call of Minerva (Pallas Athena). It was abow* the door of Poe’s room which opened into s the hall. The goddess was the patron-of-t learning. fens — - - -.- - -- - Identity * “! He is too far away; / cannot trace '<?ow His features, nor can I discern his taik(\> And yet / know him by some subtle graei,A 1 recognize the rhythm of his walk,~"oo? The way he tilts his head. Oh, he is minty Though undistinguished by blwe* dungarees :~?oD And pulled out shirt. There is a surer titfiC* Beyond mere clothing, that a mottytt11 sees, ^ And though she stands a hundred yarSs away ni/p And boys throng everywhere, she maria her own; How shall she err, who knew him stm^fr; that day . ‘ , She gathered him against her, tofto Hd* known The secret dreams beneath the sun-taiifafa clay, K bu * And feds herself stir in his very bong a ■r MAE WINKLER GOODMAN.