Newspaper Page Text
Mostly cloudy with high about 45 today. Cloudy tonight, low near 38. Tomorrow partly cloudy and warmer. (Full report on Page A-2.) Midnight..35 6 a.m. ..30 11 a.m. ..38 2 a.m.. 33 8 a.m. ..31 Noon -.41 4 a.m. _-30 10 a.m. ..36 1 p.m. ..42 Lote New York Morkets, Page A-19. Guide for Readers Pftfe i Amusements B-16 Classified .B-17-21 Comics _B-22-23 Editorial A-10 Edit’l Articles..A-11 Finance A-19 P»te Lost and Found A-3 Obituary -A-12 Radio _B-23 Sports _A-15-17 Women’s Section-B-3-6 An Associated Press Newspaper _ 97th Year. No. 327. Phone ST. 5000 ★★ WASHINGTON, D. C., MONDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1949—FORTY-FOUR PAGES. City Home Delivery. Daily and Sunday. $1.20 a Month: when 5 flj Sundays. $1.30. Night Final Edition. $1.30 and $1.40 per Month. ** j- ^ Atom Breeder' Planned by AEC To Seek Wider Use of Materials, Energy to Run Ships and Planes Industrial Power By Fission Is Goal Of New Schedule By the Associated Press The Atomic Energy Commis sion disclosed today that it has worked out scientific designs for a plant to “breed” precious atomic materials. If the plan works as anticipated It will be of momentous impor tance in supplying atomic ma terials for such peacetime projects as atom-powered ships and air craft. The announcement was made at a news conference held by David E. Lilienthal, the retiring AEC chairman. Dr. Lawrence R. Haf stad, sitting in with Mr. Lilien thal, told about it. Dr. Hafstad, director of the AEC's “reactor development” pro gram, called it “the biggest for ward step in peacetime applica tion” of atomic energy. Confident of Success. He said that while the project still is only on paper, the de signers are confident that it will work. The AEC announced that it is beginning immediately construc tion of a test plant. The word of this “breeder” project was the most important news from the conference, which ranged over a wide field. Mr. Lilenthal simply laughed off charges from Senator John son, Democrat, of Colorado that he is engaged in a “nefarious plot” to give atomic secrets to the British. Senator Johnson made those charges over the week end. For some months Britain, Canada and the United States have engaged in conversations on possible broader exchange of atomic information. A new series of talks began today at the State Department. Calls.Talks Exploratory* Asked what might come of them, Mr. Lilienthal said he thinks the talks are “exploratory” and that any comment must come from the State Department. He said it is his personal view that it is desirable to co-operate as widely as possible with the British and Canadians. But he insisted it is up to the State De partment, and Congress, to make the final decision on how wide this field should be. The AEC chairman would not let himself be drawn out about a recent telecast by Senator John son which reportedly led to a presidential order last week for the Justice Department to crack down on any one divulging atomic secrets. Regular News Sessions Planned. Mr. Lilienthal indicated, how ever, that he believed Senator Johnson was talking out of turn when the Senator said the United States now has an atomic bomb six times more powerful than the onfc which blasted Hiroshima. Mr. Lilienthal did say that the Senate-House Atomic Committee is “Completely informed on prog ress in weapons development.” This suggested that Senator John son, a member of that group, had sufficient information to know what he was talking about. Senator Johnson himself has said that he simply was repeating what had been said publicly by others—that he had disclosed no secrets. Mr. Lilienthal told reporters that even President Truman, in announcing the results of the Eniwetok bomb tests in the Pacific, had used only general terms to describe the improved model tested there. He was asked whether a member of the AEC’s staff would have been subject to prosecution for viola tion if he had made public the (See ATOMIC, Page A-6.) Chapman to Take Oath As Secretary Thursday Oscar L. Chapman will be in ducted into office as Secretary of the Interior Thursday at 11 a.m. The former undersecretary, who was given a recess appointment to succeed Secretary Krug on re tirement, will take the oath be fore officials and friends in the Interior Department auditorium. Mr. Krug is expected to be present. Montgomery Confers With Eisenhower— \'About the Weather' By tha Associated Press NEW YORK, Nov. 28.— Field Marshal Viscount Mont gomery today visited Gen. jEisenhower, president of Co lumbia University. “We talked about the weather,” Marshal Montgom ery said after the 45-minute visit. “When the weather is bad you want an umbrella— a military umbrella.” > Gen. Eisenhower refused to comment. Death of 2,000 Reported in Red Uranium Mine Negligence Blamed In Berlin Paper's Account of Fire | * By the Associated Press BERLIN, Nov. 28.—The British licensed newspaper Telegraf said today 2,000 persons perished in a uranium mine fire in the Soviet zone last Thursday. The paper isaid it was one of the worst mine disasters in history and charged that it was due to negligence. In an early edition Telegraf said 400 German miners died in the blaze, which occurred in a mine in the Erz Mountains, on the Saxony-Czechoslovak border, near Johanngeorgenstadt. In its evening edition it said later re ports had revised the casualty list upward to 2,000. Only 300 miners were reported rescued. The bulk of the workers, said Telegraf, were political prisoners. The American-sponsored Berlin radio said it has received a report from a reliable source that hun dreds of miners had burned or suffocated in a Johanngeorgen stadt uranium mine fire. American intelligence officers said they had not heard any reports yet of such a disaster. explosives Are set on. Telegraf said the fire had spread from mine No. 35 to two nearby workings and that an explosives dump detonated, wrecking a mine hoisting tower. It said the blaze started when worn insulation on mine electric cables caused a short circuit. The deaths were said to have been caused by fire, smoke and gas. The paper said rescue teams from all nearby cities in Saxony were at the scene, and that up to Friday night, 968 bodies had been recovered. It estimated that about half the full working force of 5,000 was on the job at the time of the tragedy and declared the res cue teams did not arrive until 12 hours after it occurred. 300 Drown in Another Mine. The Russian-controlled com pand which operates the workings has evacuated its offices from Johanngeorgenstadt, Telegraf con tinued, and has cordoned off the entire area to all but rescue work ers and officials. The paper also reported that 1300 miners were drowned several weeks ago when another uranium mine was flooded. Uranium is used in the production of atomic energy. Truman in Key West For 3 Weeks' Rest ly th« Associated Press KEY WEST, Fla., Nov. 28.— President Truman arrived from Washington aboard his private Air Force plane at 12:16 p.m. to day for three weeks’ rest in the sun. The Chief Executive and virtu j ally the entire White House staff I deplaned at the Boca Chica Naval I Air Station with clear skies over head and the temperature in the i mid-seventies. Mrs. Truman and her daughter, i Margaret, also came along. The President was greeted by Capt. C. C. Adell, commandant of the Key West naval base: Rep resentative Smathers, Democrat, of Florida: Mayor Louis Eisner of Key West and a number of ranking naval officers. Lines’ of white-uniformed sail ors snapped to attention as the President’s entourage, flanked by a motorcycle escort, sped over the 8y2-mile route to the submarine base and the “Little White House.” At the junction of Roosevelt boulevard and Truman avenue the President’s open convertible coupe passed beneath a huge archway reading: “Welcome Mr. President.” School children at noon recess joined in giving Mr. Truman a welcome. The Independence left Wash ington at 8:31 a.m. British Meat Ration Raised for Holidays By the Associated Press LONDON, Nov. 28.—Britons got the happy news today that their meat ration will be increased from one shilling and four pence (slightly over 18 cents) a week to one shilling and six pence (21 cents). The present ration averages slightly more than one pound a week a person. Pood Minister John Strachey told the House of Common the increase, effective December 4, will last well over the Christmas and New Year period. . Communists Reach Suburbs Of Chungking By tht Associated Press CHUNGKING. Nov. 28.—Com munist troops smashed Chinese Nationalist defenses and pushed within 20 miles of this doomed city today. Some reports placed them even closer. Confusion amounting tc^ chaos followed the news. The rush to get out of the city was so great that roads were glutted. Traffic moved at a snail's pace. Excitement in tfhe city was like a wild fever. Hundreds on hundreds realized to their tearful dismay that they were trapped. (Nationalist sources in Tai peh, Formosa, said they were advised by long distance tele phone from Chungking that the Communist vanguard had reached South Springs, 12 miles from the city on the Yangtze River. The Nationalist gov ernment was reported to have moved to Chengtu, 170 miles northwest of Chungking.) Events within the past 12 hours moved desperately for the Nation alists. Highway Junction Seized. First came the news the Reds striking from the east had occu pied Chichiang, 40 miles to the south, where the highways to Chungking from Hupeh and Kweichow provinces meet. Then came the news of a quick Communist stab north of here. Tushih, 25 miles away, was cap tured. This was followed by a quick advance of 5 miles which put the Reds within 20 or less miles of Chungking. (The nearest the Japanese •got to Chungking during the war was about 200 miles to the south. Chungking has been the provisional capital of Nation alist China for a little over five weeks.) Fall May Come by Tomorrow. Another force sped up the high way from Kweiyang, capital of Kweichow Province. Most people thought this far (See CHINA, Page A-4.) Operators and U. S. Mystified by Lewis' Parley in New York UMW Avoids Washington With Strike Deadline Only 72 Hours Away By the Associated Press John L. Lewis had the Gov ernment and soft coal operators guessing today about his next move, with the deadline for a new mine strike less than 72 hours away. The truce -which Mr. Lewis called on November 9 is due to expire at midnight Wednesday. The United Mine Workers’ 200 man Policy Committee which au thorized the three-week back-to work order, was assembling in New York today. Any decision to extend the truce another 30 days or so would be a matter for the Policy Committee to approve. Why Mr. Lewis called the group to New York was hard’ for oper ators or Federal labor advisers to figure out. Has Avoided Capital. The mine leader has been avoiding Washington. Since last May he has kept the negotiations out of the Capital—where they had been held in recent years— and called off his strike November 9 from a policy meeting in Chi cago. Last Friday Mr. Lewis held a hush-hush session with Federal Conciliation Director Cyrus S. Ching and coal operator George H. Love at Winchester, Va. Most observers in and out of the industry think Mr. Lewis wants to keep the Government out of his maneuvers with the oper ators as long as possible, and meeting away from the Capital njay help to accomplish that. But if he calls on the 380,000 soft coal miners east of the Missis sippi River to resume their strike Thursday, the Government will be back in the dispute again whether Mr. Lewis likes it or not. President Truman has said he (See COAL, Page A-5.) 38 Saved in Shipwreck STOCKHOLM, Nov. 28 (/P).— The 3,881-ton British freighter Britkon ran aground near the Island of Oeland last night, i Thirty-eight passengers and crew men, including three women, were rescued by Coast Guardsmen after taking to life boats. The freight er, loaded with wooden pitprops, was heading into Oskarshaamn when it was wrecked on a shoal. U. S. Freighter Hit 12 Times by China Warship Shelling Off Shanghai Is Attributed to Nationalist Vessel By the Associated Press The American merchant ship Sir John Franklin reported today that it was shelled off Shanghai by a Chinese Nationalist warship which scored 12 hits. The message from the vessel’s skipper was relayed to the State Department by the American con sul general at Shanghai. It said all aboard the Sir John Franklin escaped injury. The skipper said his ship was proceeding to Woosung, below Shanghai. Similar to Flying Cloud Attack. The Chinese warship presum ably was inforcing the Nationalist blockade of Shanghai and other Communist-held ports. The United States and other maritime nations have refused to recognize the blockade as valid. The Sir John Franklin is oper ated by the Isbrandtsen Co.. New York. The circumstances of the inci dent were almost identical with the recent attack on another Isbrandtsen ship, the Flying Cloud. The Sir John Franklin sailed Friday from Hong Kong for Shanghai. /Not Leaking Badly. The masters message was ra dioed to the Isbrandtsen line agent at Shanghai. It said the vessel was not shipping water despite the 12 hits. The message was timed 5 p.m., Shanghai time, today, which was -early In the day Eastern Standard Time. The 8tate Department an nounced the report of the incident without comment. • After the Flying Cloud was fired on. a protest w’as made to the Nationalist government, then at Chungking. The protest stressed the peril in which American citi zens aboard had been placed by the shelling. Reports from the American con sulate on the shelling of the Fly ing Cloud said the ship had at tempted to proceed, in disregard of instructions, after being halted by a Chinese gunboat. New Ouster Order Raises Hope Ward Staff Can Leave By tht Associated Press A new Qommunist deportation order for an American group in China raised State Department hopes today that Consul General ; Angus Ward and his entire staff may soon start home from Muk den. Mr. Ward and four of his aides were ordered deported last week after a Chinese Communist “peo jples court” found them guilty of i beating a Chinese employe. A second deportation order— covering the other members of the consulate staff — was an nounced yesterday. It came at the end of a trial in which 10 Asiatics (See SHIP, Page A-67) Shah's Visit to U. S. Criticized by Pravda By the Associated Press MOSCOW. Nov. 28.—The Com munist Party newspaper Pravda today criticized the visit of the Shah of Iran to the United States. The paper said the Shah’s talk of desire for peace was designed merely to cover up the “agres sive substance” of talks with Pres ident Truman and Gen. Bradley. American newspaper reports were quoted to back up the paper’s claim that the Shah was pri marily interested in getting American aid for building up his army on Russia’s southern border. XA LITTLE OUTFIT \ Vlike this has three \ 7 IN six days.../ and in 1 SEVENTEEN YEARS.../ _ A.. YOU OUGHT TO / BE ASHAMED OF / km ^YOURSELF/ " Chambers Says Two Other Reds Worked in State Department Hiss Attorney Keeps Names Secret by Resorting to Designations of 'X' and 'Y' By Newbold Noyes, Jr. Star Staff Correspondent NEW YORK. Nov. 28.—Whit taker Chambers was questioned in the second Alger Hiss perjury trial today about two other former State Department employes—des ignated only as “Mr. X” and “Mr. Y”—who he says were members of the prewar Communist appa ratus in Washington. Defense Attorney Claude B. Cross employed elaborate precau tions to keep secret the names of these officials, about whom Mr. Chambers had testified behind closed doors in a pretrial hearing in Baltimore early this year. He said only that neither of them was Henry Julian Wadleigh of the Trade Agreements Section, who has admitted -ihst, he served-^** I one of Mr. Chambers' sources of j information when the latter was a Communist agent ferreting out Government secrets for the Rus sians in the 1930s. Mr. Chambers, who later be came senior editor of Time 1 magazine, accuses Mr. Hiss of being one of his State Department sources. Mr. Hiss, who resigned last spring from the $20,000-a-year presidency of the Carnegie En dowment for International Peace, is charged with falsely denying to a Federal grand jury last December 15 that this was so. His first trial ended with a hung jury last July 8. Under questioning by Mr. Cross, Mr. Chambers’ agreed today that <Scc~Hiss, Page A^6.> Jury Quickly Selected At Trial of Thomas And Ex-Secretary Six Men and Sid Women To Hear Payroll 'Kickback'; Case Against Lawmaker (Picture on Page A-4.) A jury of six men and six wom en was completed in District Court this afternoon to try Representa tive J. Parnell Thomas and his former secretary on charges of conspiracy to defraud the Gov ernment in a payroll “kickback.” The 54-year-old New Jersey Re publican, former chairman of the House Committee on Un-Ameri can Activities, also is charged with collecting three payroll vouchers totaling $880 from an employe of the committee. The indictment says the em ploye rendered no service to the committee. The employe was listed as Jacqueline Hill. The jury was selected quickly, in about an hour, with Judge Alexander Holtzoff asking only a few general questions of the prospective jurors. At the request of Defense Counsel William H.j Collins, the court asked tl\e menj and women if they had any pre-j judice against the Committee on! Un-American Activities. GAO Employe Questioned. i One General Accounting Office! employe was asked if he would be prejudiced by the fact that at least one Government witness will be a GAO agent. He replied that he would not. Another prospective juror was excused as an alternate at the suggestion of the defense counsel when he explained he was an employe of the Central Intelli (See THOMAS. Page A-4.) Pope Suggests World Observe America's Thanksgiving Day By *h» Attociatad Pran VATICAN CITY, Nov. 28.—Pope Pius XII today suggested univer sal observance of America’s tradi tional Thanksgiving Day. He told a group of visiting American Congress members: “Our heart is touched and com forted by this recurring evidence —and would that it were univer sal—of one of the very first charges linked to the mission of responsible statesmanship.” He reminded the legislators that to be sincerely grateful for God’s gifts "commits *a public servant to a program as well as a proclamation.” This program, he added, “must imply a sensitiveness, a delicate and determined adjustment of mind and heart to the divine, as well as to the merely human rights and interests that press for recognition and protection . ■ . especially during these critical days of reconstruction in the sec tor of international economy and finance.” “Thanks be, then, first and last to God,” the Pope declared. The Pope called on the Congress members to “revere His most holy will in your fulfilling of a sacred duty to your people.” He invoked God’s "ever more generous boon of light and strength” to the end that “you and all legislators may heed this call of a right conscience with courage and with constancy Referring to America’s annual celebration of Thanksgiving last Thursday, the pontiff said “the legislative and executive halls of (See POPE. Page A-4J Probe of Coffee Prices Pledged by Gillette; Bread Cost Inquiry On Can't Find Why Loaf Quotations Haven't Dropped, Senator Says By J. A. O'Leary An investigation into the coffee situation, including prices, was promised today by Senator Gil lette, Democrat, of Iowa, chair man of a Senate Agriculture Sub committee etudying utilization of farm products. While the committee's authority does not cover imported commodi ties, Senator Gillette said, “we will give consideration to this im portant item,” and if necessary ask Congress to broaden the au thority of the subcommittee. As his subcommittee resumed hearings today into the price and ingredients of bread, Senator Gil lette said, “he has received liter ally hundreds of communications asking that the gyrations in the price of coffee be investigated.” Bread Cost Questioned. The Iowa Senator also an I nounced his subcommittee has not been able to determine “why the price of bread remains at its highest price in years although the cost of most ingredients have dropped in price.” As of now, he added: “the fin ger of suspicion points to the food processor.” Before drawing any final conclusions, however, he said the committee will hear high Government officials and many of the food processors. “If it is found that the proc essors are taking more than their fair share of the consumer’s dollar or if there exists trade barriers which add to the consumer’s cost of food products, the committee will not hesitate to make known its findings and recommend cor rective legislation,” the Senator said. 2-Cent Spread for Pound Loaf. Chairman Gillette said his sub committee has found instances Where the armed services have been able to buy bread at several cents per pound less than the price to the grocer. He said the spread of the retailer in the handling of bread “appears to be roughly 2 cents per loaf for the pound loaf and somewhat higher for the 20 ounce loaf.” He said these retail margins have remained static for a long time and that the retailer, can complain that his costs of doing business generally have increased. “In our investigation," Senator Gillette continued, “certain bakers have contend'd that their profit margin is one-eight of a cent a loaf or less and that they could not afford to reduce prices to the (See COFFEETPagf A-«.) Snags’ Lewis Retrial Set for January > In District Court Prince Georges Prepared To Prosecute Whenever He Is Made Available I TRIAL OF KOPEL and Plummer Begins at District Court. Page B-l The retrial of the William (Snags) Lewis gambling case was set for January 9 in District Court today. The jury in the first trial of Lewis and 13 others on gambling .and conspiracy indictments was unable to agree on a verdict, and was discharged Saturday. All of the defendants were ar rested during or after a series of spectacular raids on alleged gam bling headquarters in Prince Georges County last March 25 1 The raids were directed by United States Attorney George Morris Fay as the climax of his anti gambling drive. County Ready to Prosecute. Officials in Prince Georges said, meanwhile, they are prepared to prosecute Lewis on county charges as soon as the District makes him available. It appeared, however, that Prince Georges will have to wait until the District closes its books on the case. William Hitz, assistant United States Attorney, who prosecuted in the first trial, said the Dis trict will not turn the defendants over to the county until it fin ishes with them, despite an extra dition hearing now scheduled for December 6. “We’re ready to try them when ever we get them to try,” declared State’s Attorney A. Gwynn Bowie of Prince Georges. Wheatley Ready. Mr. Bowie said he did not know who would prosecute the cases. He pointed out that Attorney H. Winship Wheatley, jr., of Hyatts ville had been appointed by the State as a special prosecutor but he became ill last spring. Mr. Wheatley said the county’s petit jury was due to be called back for court service on De cember 5. He said he is ready to proceed with any cases that are “ready to try.” “The December 6 hearing will (See GAMBLING, Page A-4.) Suction of Speeding Train Kills 3 Women at Station Ey th* Associated Press GARY, Ind., Nov. 28.—Three women were killed yesterday when suction drew them against the side of a fast passenger train as they were standing on a station plat form. Two men were hurt. Mrs. Julia Rubenstein, 42, of Detroit, died this morning of a skull fracture. Mrs. Rose Nagy, 54, and Mrs. Ruby Green, 36, both of Gary, died almost in stantly. Mrs. Nagy’s husband, Joseph, 45, was taken to a hospital with back injuries and shock. Otis Hurley, 32, of Gary, suffered a mangled right hand. Bulletin Jail Fugitives Caught HAGERSTOWN, Md. UP).— Four men who escaped from the Washington County Jail last night—including David Conners, j 22, of Washington, have been recaptured, Hagerstown police said this afternoon. Conners, who boasted to police here that he had broken into 64 homes in the District of Columbia, was caught six blocks from the JaU. Two others were caught within a similar distance and a fourth man from Washington was cap tured in a routine traffic check in Harrisburg, Pa. (Earlier 8tory on Hue B-ll.) Bradley in Paris For Atlantic Pact Defense Talks Military Leaders To Plan for Use of Billion From U. S. By the Associated Press PARIS, Nov. 28.—The West’s top military men start work today on plans to use nearly a billion American dollars for Atlantic na tion defenses against any Russian aggression. Chiefs of staff of the United States, Britain and France—the major signers of the North Atlan tic pact—will meet for two days in the French Naval Ministry Building. They are to draw a unified plan to defend Western Europe. Not until the integrated plan is fin ished can the United States sup ply nearly $1,000,000,000 in money and arms that Congress voted to help strengthen the 11 other na tions that signed the treaty. Rearming of Germany Denied. On Thursday the defense min isters of the 12 countries meet with the three military chiefs. Political questions will be taken up then, along with the technical de tails of the military plan. But United States Chief of Staff Gen. Omar Bradley and Defense Secretary Louis Johnson already have disposed of one burning politico-defense question—possible rearming of Germany. On his arrival here Gen. Bradley told reporters: “Our Government does not think of rearming Ger many at this time.” He added, though, that the problem would come up again some day. Earlier yesterday, in Frankfurt, Mr. Johnson said just as emphati- • cally: “The United States has no intention of rearming Germany.” Up to Defense Ministers. Not the military men but the defense ministers, political states men responsible to their countries’ people, are expected to have the final say on the German question. At this meeting the defense ministers may settle another ques tion vital to military planning but still a political decision: Just what are the boundaries of the Atlan tic area that the pact’s members have agreed to defend. There are three suggested geo graphic lines on which the West ern Allies might stand—the Elbe, deep in Germany: the Rhine, on j France’s border, or the Pyrenees | Mountains, which would mean | virtual abandonment of France to enemy occupation. The answer will make a great difference in how wholeheartedly France co-operates in future ac tion under the pact. In Frankfurt, Mr. Johnson told a news conference yesterday he would discuss with American mil itary leaders here ‘‘anything that concerns the defense of the United States and the peace of the world.” When asked whether he expect ed Great Britain to accept full partnership in joint defense of continental Western Europe, Mr. Johnson said “I don’t expect there will be any difficulty with any na tion adopting the program of our Military Committee.” Mr. Johnson will fly to Berlin today, then on to London where he will see Prime Minister Clem ent Attlee and Sir Stafford Cripps. Mr. Johnson and Gen. Bradley left Philadelphia Saturday night after attending the Army-Navy football game there. Next Neighborhood Concert At Eastern High Dec. 19 The next concert in the Neigh borhood Series by the National Symphony Orchestra under the sponsorship of The Evening Star will be held Monday. December 19, in Eastern High School. The concert at Wilson High School originally scheduled for tonight has been postponed to April 3 in order that Station WMAL, The Evening Star station, may broadcast tonight’s Board of Trade dinner. Invitations to the Eastern con cert will be ready for distribution early this week. Air Force Articles By Gen.'Hap' Arnold Start Tomorrow Beginning tomorrow, The Star will publish the first of a series of 10 articles by Gen, “Hap” Arnold, retired wartime comm ander of the Air Force. Gen. Arnold ex presses plain ly and vigor ously the point of view of the Air Force in the heated con troversy over military uni fication. The subject of Gen. Am- G*n old’s first article is “Freedom of Speech vs. Loyalty.” Don’t miss this timely series beginning tomorrow and ap pearing every Tuesday and Friday in THE ST£R.