Newspaper Page Text
With Sunday Morning Edition.
^ WASHINGTON, 0. C. ”” Published by TIm Ironing Star Newspaper Company. SAMUIL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor._ MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 110 East 42d St. CHICAGO OFFICE: *33 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier—Metropolitan Amo. Bally and Sunday Daily Only ?i'.nday °nly Monthly _U0* Monthly -90c 10c per copy Weekly SOc Weekly ..- 20c 10c per copy •10c additional when 5 Sundays are In " month Also 10c additional for Night Final Edrtlon in those sections where delivery is made. Rato* by Mall—Payable In Advance. Anywhere In United States. Rvening and Sunday Evening _f<V?day ^ Imonth — 1 JO 1 month — 90c 1 month. 60c A months — 7.50 6 months — 3.00 6 months 3.00 1 year.—13.00 1 year ....10.00 1 year — A.00 Telephone STerllng 5000. ■ntered a* the Post Office, Washington, D. C, at Mcond-ckrti mail mottT. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press U entitled exclusively * (or republication of all the local nmus printed In this newspaper, as well as all A. P. news dispatches. ^ 10 ' WEDNESDAY, December 7, 1949 Rewarding Faithlessness The case of Representative Thomas of New Jersey, awaiting sentence for defraud ing the Government, provides additional evidence of the need for legislation cutting off retirement benefits for public servants who betray their trust. The New Jersey Representative, like former Representa tives May and Curley, is eligible for a pen sion, despite his failure to contest Federal charges of pay-roll padding and “kick back” trickery. Approximately 80 per cent of congressional pensions, on an average, comes out of the Federal Treasury. Why should the Government continue such gifts for life to faithless servants? Efforts in the past to deal with this problem have gotten nowhere. A bill in troduced at the last session of Congress by Senator Ferguson, of Michigan, to deprive congressional convicts of retire ment pensions remains in a committee pigeonhole. The Thomas case and the recent incarceration of Representative May have revived demands for some restrictions on not only congressional but civil service pensions generally. Members ef Congress have asked the Civil Service Commission to aid them in drafting bills to remedy the weaknesses of the pres ent law. That the law needs amending should be apparent to any one when it is considered that there is nothing in it even to prevent the extension of retirement benefits of civil service employes discharged for dis loyalty. It is reported that no claims for pensions have yet been filed by disloyal workers, most of whom were ineligible for retirement, anyway, at the time of dis missal. But civil service officials say that they could not prevent an eligible employe, discharged for disloyalty, from receiving a lifetime pension, paid in part by the Government and in small part by his own contributions to the retirement fund. Such generosity toward public servants who have been tried and found wanting does not make sense. It is about time that Congress put some reasonable limitations on pension payments to retired members of all branches of the Government. Sarawak's 'White Rajahs' Behind the stabbing of the new British governor of Sarawak lies one of the most Intriguing stories of the Far East. The crime was obviously political. The would be assassin and his accomplice, both young natives, were members of a loyalist asso ciation protesting against the recent an nexation of Sarawak to the British Crown. But who was the former ruler who excited such fanatic devotion? He was Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, third in a dynasty of pure blooded Anglo-Saxon Britishers which ruled Sarawak as autocratic “Rajahs” for more than a hundred years. The continu ing popularity of the dynasty is evidenced by the fact that the British government refuses to let Sir Charles’ nephew, Anthony Brooke, enter Sarawak, frankly on the ground that his presence there might in tensify loyalist agitation. Anthony is His Highness The Tuan Muda or Heir Apparent, who would normally have as cended the throne. Sarawak is a country of about fifty thousand square miles lying along the northwest coast of the big island of Borneo. And it was in the far-off year, 1840, that the redoubtable Brooke family appeared on the scene. In those days the Far East was full of masterful young Britishers intent on carving out careers tor themselves and furthering the interests of empire and motherland. Sarawak was then a squalid little principality sub ordinate to the neighboring Sultanate of Brunei. Oppressed by the Sultan’s agents, it was in revolt. One James Brooke offered to quell the revolt if the Sultan would let him run the show. The bargain was struck, James did the job effectively, and in 1842 he became “Rajah.” Soon with a “Sir” to his name, bestowed by an appreciative British Crown, James proceeded to make his little country a going concern. He was very much the "benevolent despot,” dis pensing law, order and justice tempered to the natures of his subjects, who ranged from semi-civilized coastal Malays to wild headhunters in the jungles and mountains of the hinterland. The key posts in the administration were filled with picked Brltiahet*j who likewise commanded the pw«n yet efficient constabulary and police force. Retail trade was done mainly by Chinese Immigrants, wfio were encouraged but strictly controlled. As Rajah Charles remarked toward the end of the last cen tury: "Without the Chinaman we could do nothing. When not allowed to form secret societies lie is easily governed, and this he is forbidden to do on pain of death.” From ruler to ruler, Sarawak grew in prosperity and in size through purchases from neighboring native potentates. Brit ish capital started rubber plantations and then a rich oil field was discovered. Tax ation was light and equitable, the foreign trade balance was consistently favorable and there was not a penny of national debt. 8uch was Sarawak in 1942, when it was overrun by the Japanese like the rest of the East Indies. The ruling Rajah, Sir Charles Vjmer Brooke, happened to be out of thefcountry at the time. Shortly after the evacuation of the Japanese in early 1946, Sir Charles ceded Sarawak to the British Crown. Apparently, Its trans formation into a British colony has not pleased a considerable portion of the in habitants. This is the more interesting because the Brooke dynasty consistently emphasized its British character. The wives were always British, the children were sent to England for their education, while the palace atmosphere was redolent of “home." Judging by their portraits on Sarawak postage stamps, all three Rajahs were sing ularly handsome, masterful British aristo cratic types. Sarawak was virtually inde pendent, with its dwn postage, coinage and other evidences of sovereignty, albeit under a vague protection of the British Crown. It was a uniquely successful experiment in Anglo-Saxon rule over an Oriental people. It looks now as though the British government may have made a mistake in terminating it. We Can Use Their Help In announcing that Britain is suspend ing all work on its third atomic pile, the Labor government’s Ministry of Supply has made the cryptic statement that the sus pension has been decided upon because of “possible developments in the near future,” Although the nature of those “possible developments” remains an official secret, there is good reason to assume that they must be of considerable potential im portance. If they were not, then it is hardly likely that the British would put a stop to this phase of their significant atomic project at Sellafleld, where two big piles, or reactors—each 120 feet high are already in operation. It may be more than a coincidence, of course, that Britain has reached this decision within about a week after the announcement by our Atomic Energy Commission that we are going to build four new nuclear reactors, three of them at the great 400,000-acre testing station around Arco, Idaho, and the fourth at Knolls Laboratory new Schenectady, New York. Conceivably, too, it may be that the British have made fresh discoveries indicating better ways of building better piles. In either case—whether because they do not want to duplicate work that we are about to do or whether because they have hit upon significant new ideas calling for a change in their plans—the decision by the British to stop building their third pile serves as a reminder of the desir ability of co-operating with them in atomic matters. The same holds true for the Canadians. The development of reactors-^ which produce the fissionable material constituting the explosive content of the A-bomb—is essential to additional progress in harnessing nuclear energy for both military and beneficent peacetime pur poses, and our wartime partners in the project may have as much help to offer us in this respect as we have to offer them. Under the law enacted in 1946, numerous restrictions hamper Anglo - Canadian - American atomic co-operation. But talks are now going on in an effort to work out an arrangement that will permit, within reasonable limits, a»mutually helpful ex change of information and a measure of direct collaboration. These talks are in line with an understanding between the administration and the Senate-House Committee on the atom that no classified material will be released without prior consultation with the committee, which will decide whether or not such action requires special legislative authorization. Simple common sense argues strongly for a properly circumscribed system of continuing co-operation. Britain and Canada, after all, besides being our allies in the Atlantic Pact, control important sources of uranium, and their nuclear scientists are among the world’s best—a fact amply demonstrated by the vital role they played in helping us to figure out, design and produce the A-bomb during the war. With reactor development now becoming the most important single phase of our atomic project, we cannot afford to shrug off the idea of working jointly with our British and Canadian friends. Such three way co-operation, with adequate security safeguards, can be of immense value to us, to them, and to the entire free world. Who Thinks Them Up? ■ In his little talk here the other night, Bennett Cerf, the publisher who makes anthologies of them, dwelt at some length on the fact that jokes—good, bad and indifferent—seem to travel from place to place with supersonic speed. That is true enough. But the equally queer thing about them, the mystifying thing, is that their authors apparently are all in hiding, even though there are some people, of course, who do not hesitate to claim that they themselves have thought up the gags they have really borrowed or filched. This is a matter that should have the attention of any one who is looking for a thesis that would be suitable for earning a Ph.D. degree in literature. Mr. Cerf has done no more than scratch the surface. It is all well and good to observe that jokes have a phenomenally fast way of cir culating, coming into currency in a hun dred different places—thousands of miles from each other—at practically the same moment. The scholar, however, must go much deeper than that If any self respecting university is to give him a doctorate on the subject. He must dig and search. He must try to find the actual originating point of these stories. He must travel the length and breadth of the land in an effort to determine who really thinks them up and why it is that their authorship has thus far remained so obscure. But such a scholar ought to be fore warned. He . ought to know that the makers of jokes are about as elusive as the will-o’-the-wisp. Indeed, they-may all be one man—that fellow named Anony mous, and nicknamed Anon, who has spiced generations of anthology books. Strange though it may seem, it is not inconceivable that right now, equipped with devices putting him in instantaneous communica tion with the world at large, he is sitting in some secret, inaccessible place thinking up new gags, refurbishing old ones, and sending the whole lot out for simultaneous telling everywhere. This fellow, if he exists, is not going to be easy to track down. Presumably small of stature, bewhiskered, full of eUfe> m!s i cfllef and slyer than the slyest fax, he apparently does not want to be found out— not ever. After all, though he occasionally has thought up some mighty good ones and made considerable money for people like Mr. Cerf and the radio comedians, he has an awful lot of sins to answer for. That may be the thing that keeps him In hiding. I.Ill Right to Work In holding that a State can protect the right of men to work even though a strike is in progress, the Supreme Court has an nounced a welcome but not a particularly significant decision. In the circumstances of the case before it, the court could hardly have ruled other wise. At issue was an attack by the CIO on the Arkansas “right-to-work” law. According to lawyers for the union, the statute was unconstitutional because it abridged freedom of speech and assembly. What the statute actually does is to make it unlawful for any person, acting in con cert with one or more other persons, to assemble at or near any place where a labor dispute exists, and by force or violence prevent or attempt to prevent any one from engaging in any lawful occupation. In other words, it is unlawful for strikers to band together and beat up non-strikers. Another clause makes it unlawful for any person acting either by himself or as a member of any group or organization, or acting in concert with one or more other persons, to promote, encourage or aid any such unlawful assemblage. This latter clause is a bit broader, but as interpreted by the courts of Arkansas— an interpretation noted by the Supreme Court—it means that an accused person, in order to be held guilty, must aid the assemblage with the intention that force and violence would be used to prevent a person from working. This would not apply to an innocent member of a picket line in a case where violence occurred to which he was not a party and of which he had no foreknowledge. No such ques tion was before the court, and it is doubtful that a conviction in such circumstances would be sustained. All that the court has done is to say that a State can punish a concerted and forcible attempt by strikers to prevent a man from working. Manifestly, this is no abridgment of the rights of free speech and assembly. It is merely recognition of a power which the States have always had and which more of them ought to exercise when legitimate union activity gives way to mob rule. As a rule, it takes about six weeks to get things straightened out after an eight year-old wonders how she would look with homemade bangs. Science in the atomic field moves at a breathless pace, and with Senators around to tell all, coming events now cast their shadows behind. A condition has arisen in the Christmas neckwear field whereby a tie inaudible at three blocks is “conservative.’* This and That By Charles E. Tracewell The pressure of Possy Is becoming too much. His story has been beating against the bars of time for days. Here at last he springs into being for peo ple who never heard of him before. This is a daily miracle, in newspaper work, but it never grows old. either for writers or readers. Here was young Possy, a gray and white eat, so named because of his appearance, more or less resembling a true Virginia opossum. Here he was, a veritable urchin of a cat, known only to his intimate human friends. And now here he is, in all the glory of print. His name may go down through the ages with the famous cat which sat on the prophet’s robe. Or Dick Whittington’s cat. Or Puss in Boots, even! Cat heroes of the ages, their shades striped, multicolored, gather on the far shores to wave a paw to young Possy. Possy is not in the least interested. He is an urchin and urchins are never interested. That is why they are urchins. Possy showed up one morning out of the blue, and became a guest for a day. He ate good salmon, beef. He rolled with a catnip mouse. He was long and lank, at the last stages of kittenhood. It was difficult to know whether he was an old kitten or a young cat. ■ He left and that was the last seen of him for several days. Then one morning, Just as the front door was opened, there was Possum, seated on the door mat. With the infinite cat wisdom that comes down through the ages, he had decided that this was the best place, after all. So he came in and has so remained, leap ing, jumping, running at the slightest move ment. He might live to be 22 years old, which is equivalent to at least 110 for a human, but if he did he would still be, in his old age, as much an urchin as ever. Cat urchinity is difficult to put into words. It must be seen. It means a dirty face at all hours, a lankness, a determination to get what one wants and a delight in achieving objectives. A cat urchin Is never exactly clean, though he lives in the cleanest house. He has ways, too, not in the etiquette books. These make no difference. He knows what he likes. * * * ♦ Tearing paper to pieces, for instance. Possy cannot bear the sight of a news paper on the floor. On a table, he lets it alone. On the floor, he tears it to pieces. Not just a few dainty rips, but into hun dreds and hundreds of bits, all of which, by reason of their small size, must be picked up one by one. Possy likes to play with electric cords, too. When reproved, he rolls over on his side, looks up reproachfully and meows. There is a certain note of resignation, mixed with indignation, or reproof, in this i meow. r * * * * His meow of greeting is entirely different. Then he sounds as if some one had pressed a toy balloon. His face? Long and pointed, as befits his name. His tail? -Long and tapered and about three inches longer than it should be. Few cats have ever had longer tails. If he ever grows up to it, he will be a rather tmnHsmne fellow, in a dumb looking sort of way. . It will no difference to him. With a smudge on his nose, and his stomach full of food, he is content. life for him holds no atom bombs, no wars or fears of wars, no dictators. He is not upset by ideas of welfare states, or police states, or other vagaries of the human mind. Possy fortu nately knows nothing about them. He is just an urchin, without responsibilities; in an age when responsibilities are Just a bora. Letters to The Star Recalls Bad Conditions In Schools of the Past. To the Editor of The Star: I am interested in the many complaints, especially by the Negro population, lodged against the Commissioners and the Board of Education, concerning the crowded con ditions of our schools and the necessity for "double-shifts.” A group of families in one of our north west neighborhoods experienced crowded conditions and double shifts far in excess of any that have as yet been presented either by the white or by the colored. Personally, as a mother of three, I ex perienced these conditions from 1913, when my eldest daughter started to school, until the graduation of my youngest daughter in 1936. My eldest daughter had to go half days because of the crowded condition, and for three years attended classes in an old frame house adjoining the main building. Then she had to go nine blocks to the 8th grade, thence to Ninth street and Rhode Island avenue, to the Business High School. My son went half days for four years, starting in one of the two classes in the old Metho dist Church for one year, and the remain ing three years in a portable. When he went to high' school, it was necessary to go to Ninth street and Rhode Island avenue, either to walk or pay full fare, for we did not have three-cent fare then. The associates of my children were the sons and daughters of the now prominent people of Washington, and during our meet ings at the schools, no serious complaints were lodged. We made the best of it, and the children got good educations. Years ago, my husband, in his high school days, had to walk from Eighth and H streets, northeast, to Seventh and O streets north west, to the then old Central High School: later to the Business High School in the old brick building on First street N.W. He got a good education, notwithstanding these handicaps of school housing and distances to travel. It seems to me the complainants are making a mountain out of a mole hill and that they do not appreciate the fine school facilities we now have. H. O. C. Wants Leaders To Encourage People To Live Together In One World ' To the Editor of The Bt»r: A story goes that a king asked one of his wise men for a statement that would always be true. The wise man—who was truly wise—responded with: "This, too, shall pass away." Change is the unchanging factor of life. Instead of spending their energies, vocif erously and vainly protesting against in evitable social mutations, the leaders among those who profit most from the status quo— the teachers, the ministers, the businessmen of our community—might far better devote themselves to learning, and encouraging others to learn, the techniques, already established, for living together in this One World that rushes on apace—even to Wash ington. V. J. DOZIER. One Who Dislikes Mayonnaise Wonders Why No Bntter To the Editor of The Star: The wartime butterless sandwich still Is In circulation. During the war, we patriotic citizens were only too glad to co-operate by forcing our taste buds to become adapted to dry slices. What excuse is there now for substituting mayonnaise (which I thoroughly dislike) for butter? C. S. Attacks A. A P. Advertising Campaign As Misleading the Public To the Editor of The Star: It is most difficult for me to understand, and I am sure many other people like my self, have difficulty understanding why the newspapers would be a party to any plan to permit paid propaganda that would fool or mislead the public. I am referring to the continual paid advertisements of the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. which appear in the Nation’s press centering their attack on “anti-trust lawyers." Who are these “anti-trust lawyers"? There must be many thousands of lawyers throughout the Nation specializing in anti-trust laws. I would gather, after reading the ad more carefully, that they mean the anti-trust lawyers from Washington, D. C. Truthfully and honestly, wouldn’t you think that an organization as big as the A. A P. would have the courage and strength to come out and say, “The Government or the administration’s instituted suit against the A. & P.?" You and I know that a group of Govern ment lawyers could not take it upon them selves to institute action unless such action was approved by the principal Government authority. The anti-trust lawyers are em ployed by the Department of Justice, and the only one in the Justice Department who would institute the suit would be the Attor ney General, who is a member of the President’s cabinet. Would Food Really Cost More? The recent A. & P. advertisement, “Don’t Let Anybody Pool You,” which appeared in Washington papers, sets forth some state ments that call for careful scrutiny. Suppose the A. & P. did go out of business: How can they substantiate their claim that “your food will cost more”? Are they the exclusive distributor of foods in the United States? This is quite a challenge to the other food chains and retailers throughout the Nation, and we wonder if the others are afraid to attack the statement or the claims of A. & P. The above-mentioned statement also says: "Others will be hurt” and continues: “Such a decision would mean the end of the vigor ous, healthy price competition which has given this country the highest standard of living ever enjoyed by any people anywhere in the history of the world. The anti-trust lawyers are trying to give a new interpreta tion to the anti-trust laws that, instead of preserving competition, will reduce compe tition. They are trying, by court decision, to impose a new kind of economic policy on the people of this country.” I will say this much, that if others were found guilty of certain actions by the Federal courts such as the A. & P. has been found, they would be hurt and they would get no sympathy. Anti-Trust Fines Called Inadequate. In my official position as vice president of the National Federation of Independent Business, in following out the mandate of our Nation-wide membership, I repeatedly have stated before congressional committees that the present maximum anti-trust law fines are inadequate penalties for the law breakers. They should be strengthened by demanding jail sentences for anti-trust law violators or removal of officers. Before concluding this letter, I must repeat a statement made by the A. Se P. and I quote: "Such a decision would mean the end of the vigorous healthy price competition.” Let us check the record on this statement. We wonder if the A. & P. considers its actions “the vigorous, healthy price compe tition.” The grand Jury which returned the indictment in the current Justice Depart ment anti-trust case against the A. & P. found that the A. & P. continued to receive dis criminatory rebates year after year while the criminal anti-trust case was being fought in the court; ilso that during the years 1942 1947 the A. As P. collected $1,200,000 from two Chicago milk companies alone and that in 1946 (the year in which the District Court rendered its verdict of guilty against the A. & P. in criminal aotl-truSt proceedings) A. & P.. secret rebates from these two com panies pone amounted to $244,000 and that in 1947 while the appeal in the anti-trfiet Letters for publication must bear , the signature and address of the writer, although it is permissible for a writer known to The Star to use a nom de plume. Please be brief. case was pending in the Court of Appeals, the grand Jury charged that A. & P. collected $313,000 in secret rebates from just these Chicago milk purchases. Again we ask: “Is this vigorous, healthy price competition?” The officers and members of the National Federation of Independent Business believe it is anything but "vigorous, healthy price competition.” GEORGE J. BURGER, Vice President, National Federation of Independent Business, Inc. “ a. Resents Paying Storage On Surplus Products To th« Editor of The Stir: Why, when people are starving overseas, do American taxpayers have to foot a bill of $27,000 a day for storage space for surplus products which are rotting? Why not send this surplus food to those in destitute countries? It’s bad enough to have high prices, but why keep a surplus here and torment the taxpayers more by making them pay storage on the countless blessings God has showered upon us? I hope Congress rectifies this situation. I’m sure voters will try to in 1950. R. J. S. Expresses Hope for Response To Angels’ Christinas Song To the Editor of The Star: We sometimes forget the real significance of Christmas. This holy season commemo rates the greatest event in all the world. Christmas belongs to Christ: nothing equals it. The joy, the happiness, the reunions, the gifts, were all at the Bethlehem stable and radiate therefrom. Christmas is a cele bration for all countries, according to tra dition and climate. Alaska rings her bells over the deep, silent snow, while Australia celebrates on the beaches where breezes temper the heat. Wherever the name of the Christ Child is proclaimed, sentiments of good will and benevolence fill the mind and lift the heart in adoration for Jesus, who came to give peace. Many have wandered from this divine blessing and have sought power and greed, to find only defeat in the end. May this Christmas bring hot only transient joy, but a profound realization of the spirit of love and good will, Intended for all mankind, by the coming of the Son of God, and may the angels’ song, “Peace on Earth,” find a response in our hearts. MRS. M. L. WALDE. Blames NAACP for Decision Of UNFAO to Locate in Rome To the Editor of The Star: The announcement was made recently that the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization had rejected a most generous invitation by the University of Maryland to locate on the College Park campus. Instrumental in securing the rejection was a petition submitted by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People on the basis that the University prac tices racial discrimination. I fail to recognize any advancement in such action on the part of the NAACP. In fact, one must admit that it is a tremendous setback, not only for the University of Mary land and the people of the Metropolitan Washington area, but also for the NAACP and the Negro race particularly. Few forward-looking persons can Indorse such actions as advancements and, indeed, they exemplify the adage of one “cutting off his nose to spite his face.'' May I suggest that the NAACP objectively “take stock of itself" to find out whether it is advancing or regressing? Mutual benefits can be secured only through mutual action. The action of the NAACP, as the representa tive of the Negro population, which helped cause the rejection of the proposed Wash ington area location for the UNFAO in lavor of a site in Rome, Italy, resulted in a loss for all Washingtonians merely because the NAACP leaders were short-sighted and Ill advised. RONALD R. PITCHERELLO. Readers Comment on Letter On Segregation by First D. C. Teacher To the Editor of The Star: It is obvious, from both of First D. C. Teacher’s letters that her entire conscious ness is completely permeated by a set of finely grained prejudices. Throughout both letters logical conclusion, the American birthright and the Golden Rule have been tossed to the winds in sacrificial esteem for her so-called “common sense” and “practical standpoint" line of reasoning. In justification of a dual educational setup which is morally and legally unjust (not to mention the poor eco nomics involved) First D. C. Teacher has characterized herself as being sensitively biased in racial outlook. She should not, in any guise, have to com promise with democracy or our Christian heritage in substantiation of racial or reli gious segregation and prejudice. First D. C. Teacher is whitewashing her conception of American democracy, instead of washing it white. REGINALD HUTCHINSON. To iho Editor of The 8Ur: D. C. Teacher, along with many whites, seems to think that any Negro who speaks out against segregation is an agitator. Well, if being against segregation makes one an agitator, then I truthfully can say that the vast majority of Negroes are agitators, for they certainly are against it. Maybe D. C. Teacher thinks it doesn’t imply attitudes of superiority and inferiority, but we certainly do. I’ll bet she wouldn’t like the idea of being segregated against her will. NATHAN STOLEY. To the Editor of The SUr: After reading the letter signed First D. C. Teacher. I should like the teacher to answer one question. Suppose she had three small children, and was living within two blocks of a school. Because Of our dual system, her children must go six or seven blocks, passing the school, and. then across a dangerous inter section. - Would the .teacher call this democracy? A PARENT. To tho Editor of Tba SUr: To First D. C. Teacher and to all persons in sympathy with her opinions, I offer this thought: "... It is never too late to give up our prejudices ..." ,' These words are quoted from Henry David Thoreau. IRVING M. GOLDMAN. To the Editor of The SUr: Constant agitation for the abolishment of segregation is by no stretch of the imagination improving the situation for, the Negro. The reverse is true. Right now white people are beginning to take notice of the men whom they elect to office. On every side I hear people talking about an organization for the advancement of white people to offset the political pressure that has been scaring Con gressmen. You may be certain that when the white people organize the politicians will re verse their position! on many issues. What chance would the colored agitators for the abolishment of Segregation have if the white people would form the same type of organisation as the Ngttonal Association. Jor the Advancement of COloted People? * LARRY .DOOLEY. Production of the "Glue1 Of Creation Increased Navy Research Physicists Report On Energy Into Matter Output • By Thomas R. Henry Artificial production of mesons—mysteri ous elementary particles which are the “glue" of creation—has increased more than 1,000 fold during the past year. This accomplishment by contractors under the Office of Naval Research constitutes by far the greatest transformation of energy into matter yet known. It is, in a way, the reverse process of the fission of the atomic bomb in which minute specks of matter are transformed into energy. Almost literally something is created out of nothing. The meson is something which comes out of the nucleus of an atom. Whether it ex isted as a tangible object within the nucleus, however, is quite debatable. Its existence was predicted just before the war by the Japanese physicist, Hidaki Yukawa, now at Columbia and this year’s Nobel prize winner in physics. A little later it actually was demonstrated in cosmic rays by a California Institute of Technology physicist. Two Accepted Kinds. There are two accepted kinds of mesons. First is the pi meson which weighs 280 times an electron and is what'is believed actually to come out of an atomic nucleus bombarded with tremendous energies. This is what arrives in cosmic rays at the top of the atmosphere. It exists only a 50th of a millionth of a second. Then it changes into a mu meson with a mass about 210 times that of an electron and a lifetime of 2 millionths of a second. Then this splits into two hypo thetical particles known as neutrinos, as sumed to exist but never observed, which in a few millionths of a second are converted into energy. There may be three other kinds of mesons, one with a lifespan of less than a billionth of a second. They have been postulated but never observed. Office of Naval Research physicists are skeptical of them. Up to a year ago these mesons were known only in cosmic rays. Then a few were ob served making tracks on photographic plates after the bombardment of carbon atoms with protons In the University of California’s giant cyclotron. There were very few of them, approximately in a ratio of a hundred mesons to a million protons, the primary particles constituting the atomic nucleus. Within tha last few months, Naval Research physicists say, the order has been reversed and about a million mesons are being produced to 100 protons. The significance of man-made mesons still Is difficult to assess. They are on the frontier . of the physics of tomorrow. They are actual material particles which, according to the most generally accepted present theory, do not exist as material particles within the atomic nucleus but become such for infini tesimal fractions of seconds due to their mo mentum when this nucleus is cracked. Matter has been made out of energy before, but on an extremely small scale. Reverse of First Process. But perhaps of even greater significance Is the vanishing of the meson into intangible energy again. This takes place in two stages —the change of the pi meson into the lighter meson and the complete disappearance of the mu meson into energy again. This is the greatest transmutation of mat. ter into energy, the reverse of the first process, yet known on earth. It is exceeded only in the carbon cycle responsible for the everlasting fire of the sun. The implications, however vague at present, make this produc tion of mesons one of the most significant developments in physics since the war. In vestigattons are being pushed with vigor. At first the elusively short-lived particles were produced only in the University of California cyclotron. Now they are being created, under Office of Naval Research con tracts, at two other laboratories and by other and cheaper means. They also are being extracted from a variety of materials other than the pure graphite which was used in the first experiments. Notable developments are rumored which have not yet been re ported. Whatever the distant future may hold, Office of Naval Research physicists say, the present major objective is to obtain from meson behavior a better understanding of the structure of the atomic nucleus itself. Questions and Answers A reader ean get the gnawer to enr' ouestloa •f fact by writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 316 Eye at. n.e.. Washington 2, D. C. please inclose three (3> cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. How many miles did Paul Revere cover during his historic ride?—D. W. H. . A. Frank W. Cobum in his volume “The Battle of April 19, 1775” states: "The en tire distance that Revere rode, from the Charlestown shore to the spot in Lincoln where he was captured, and back to Lex ington Common, was between eighteen and nineteen miles, and the elapsed time nearly four hours.” Q. What is Canada’s record in the matter of bank failures in recent years?—R. H. M. A. Since 1914 in Canada there has been only one bank failure, which occurred in 1923. In the United States there were no bank suspensions in 1945, 1946 and 1948, only 1 in 1944 and 1 in 1947. Q. Is it possible for a civilian to visit the gold depository at Port Knox, Ky.?—M.L. A. No visitors, servicemen or others, are permitted to visit Fort Knox, Ky. Q. What was the share of the world’s gold stock owned by the United States before World War I and how much has it increased?—J. T. M. A. There are no precise figures on the world’s gold stocks, including those which are privately owned. In 1913 the United States owned less than 27 per cent of the estimated world total. By 1937 the pro portion had increased to a little over one half. In 1945 the United States owned over 57 per cent of the aggregate, and by the middle of 1948. 63 per cent. During the following year gold stocks grew by about a billion dollars to a total of $24,604,994, 921.87 on October 3, 1949. This represents 702,999,854.9 ounces. Q. How much tax does the United States Govermhent collect on a package of 20 ciga rettes?—C. A. P. A. The Federal Government collects ap proximately seven cents on each package of cigarettes. Maple Thoughts The silver maple is remembering Her seasons of delight with wistful sighs, A backward look to feather-budded spring, A forward glance at pale-etched winter skies. She knows the good and bad are both so brief, Recalls the feel of growth, quick-running sap Within her, and a glowing scarlet leaf She flung 'so happily in gutumn’s lap. Her knowledge covers certainly the sum Of springtime's magic, summer, radiant fall. Now, waiting for the winds and snows to come She finds tier self complete—and this is , OIL JANS MORRISON. }