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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, December 07, 1949, Image 10

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With Sunday Morning Edition.
^ WASHINGTON, 0. C.
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^ 10 ' WEDNESDAY, December 7, 1949
Rewarding Faithlessness
The case of Representative Thomas of
New Jersey, awaiting sentence for defraud
ing the Government, provides additional
evidence of the need for legislation cutting
off retirement benefits for public servants
who betray their trust. The New Jersey
Representative, like former Representa
tives May and Curley, is eligible for a pen
sion, despite his failure to contest Federal
charges of pay-roll padding and “kick
back” trickery. Approximately 80 per cent
of congressional pensions, on an average,
comes out of the Federal Treasury. Why
should the Government continue such
gifts for life to faithless servants?
Efforts in the past to deal with this
problem have gotten nowhere. A bill in
troduced at the last session of Congress
by Senator Ferguson, of Michigan, to
deprive congressional convicts of retire
ment pensions remains in a committee
pigeonhole. The Thomas case and the
recent incarceration of Representative
May have revived demands for some
restrictions on not only congressional but
civil service pensions generally. Members
ef Congress have asked the Civil Service
Commission to aid them in drafting bills
to remedy the weaknesses of the pres
ent law.
That the law needs amending should be
apparent to any one when it is considered
that there is nothing in it even to prevent
the extension of retirement benefits of
civil service employes discharged for dis
loyalty. It is reported that no claims for
pensions have yet been filed by disloyal
workers, most of whom were ineligible for
retirement, anyway, at the time of dis
missal. But civil service officials say that
they could not prevent an eligible employe,
discharged for disloyalty, from receiving
a lifetime pension, paid in part by the
Government and in small part by his own
contributions to the retirement fund.
Such generosity toward public servants
who have been tried and found wanting
does not make sense. It is about time that
Congress put some reasonable limitations
on pension payments to retired members
of all branches of the Government.
Sarawak's 'White Rajahs'
Behind the stabbing of the new British
governor of Sarawak lies one of the most
Intriguing stories of the Far East. The
crime was obviously political. The would
be assassin and his accomplice, both young
natives, were members of a loyalist asso
ciation protesting against the recent an
nexation of Sarawak to the British Crown.
But who was the former ruler who excited
such fanatic devotion? He was Sir Charles
Vyner Brooke, third in a dynasty of pure
blooded Anglo-Saxon Britishers which
ruled Sarawak as autocratic “Rajahs” for
more than a hundred years. The continu
ing popularity of the dynasty is evidenced
by the fact that the British government
refuses to let Sir Charles’ nephew, Anthony
Brooke, enter Sarawak, frankly on the
ground that his presence there might in
tensify loyalist agitation. Anthony is
His Highness The Tuan Muda or Heir
Apparent, who would normally have as
cended the throne.
Sarawak is a country of about fifty
thousand square miles lying along the
northwest coast of the big island of
Borneo. And it was in the far-off year,
1840, that the redoubtable Brooke family
appeared on the scene. In those days the
Far East was full of masterful young
Britishers intent on carving out careers
tor themselves and furthering the interests
of empire and motherland. Sarawak was
then a squalid little principality sub
ordinate to the neighboring Sultanate of
Brunei. Oppressed by the Sultan’s agents,
it was in revolt. One James Brooke offered
to quell the revolt if the Sultan would let
him run the show. The bargain was struck,
James did the job effectively, and in 1842
he became “Rajah.” Soon with a “Sir” to
his name, bestowed by an appreciative
British Crown, James proceeded to make
his little country a going concern. He was
very much the "benevolent despot,” dis
pensing law, order and justice tempered
to the natures of his subjects, who ranged
from semi-civilized coastal Malays to wild
headhunters in the jungles and mountains
of the hinterland. The key posts in the
administration were filled with picked
Brltiahet*j who likewise commanded the
pw«n yet efficient constabulary and police
force. Retail trade was done mainly by
Chinese Immigrants, wfio were encouraged
but strictly controlled. As Rajah Charles
remarked toward the end of the last cen
tury: "Without the Chinaman we could
do nothing. When not allowed to form
secret societies lie is easily governed, and
this he is forbidden to do on pain of death.”
From ruler to ruler, Sarawak grew in
prosperity and in size through purchases
from neighboring native potentates. Brit
ish capital started rubber plantations and
then a rich oil field was discovered. Tax
ation was light and equitable, the foreign
trade balance was consistently favorable
and there was not a penny of national
debt.
8uch was Sarawak in 1942, when it was
overrun by the Japanese like the rest of
the East Indies. The ruling Rajah, Sir
Charles Vjmer Brooke, happened to be out
of thefcountry at the time. Shortly after
the evacuation of the Japanese in early
1946, Sir Charles ceded Sarawak to the
British Crown. Apparently, Its trans
formation into a British colony has not
pleased a considerable portion of the in
habitants.
This is the more interesting because the
Brooke dynasty consistently emphasized
its British character. The wives were
always British, the children were sent to
England for their education, while the
palace atmosphere was redolent of “home."
Judging by their portraits on Sarawak
postage stamps, all three Rajahs were sing
ularly handsome, masterful British aristo
cratic types. Sarawak was virtually inde
pendent, with its dwn postage, coinage and
other evidences of sovereignty, albeit under
a vague protection of the British Crown.
It was a uniquely successful experiment
in Anglo-Saxon rule over an Oriental
people. It looks now as though the British
government may have made a mistake in
terminating it.
We Can Use Their Help
In announcing that Britain is suspend
ing all work on its third atomic pile, the
Labor government’s Ministry of Supply has
made the cryptic statement that the sus
pension has been decided upon because
of “possible developments in the near
future,”
Although the nature of those “possible
developments” remains an official secret,
there is good reason to assume that they
must be of considerable potential im
portance. If they were not, then it is
hardly likely that the British would put
a stop to this phase of their significant
atomic project at Sellafleld, where two
big piles, or reactors—each 120 feet high
are already in operation.
It may be more than a coincidence, of
course, that Britain has reached this
decision within about a week after the
announcement by our Atomic Energy
Commission that we are going to build
four new nuclear reactors, three of them
at the great 400,000-acre testing station
around Arco, Idaho, and the fourth at
Knolls Laboratory new Schenectady, New
York. Conceivably, too, it may be that
the British have made fresh discoveries
indicating better ways of building better
piles.
In either case—whether because they
do not want to duplicate work that we are
about to do or whether because they have
hit upon significant new ideas calling for
a change in their plans—the decision by
the British to stop building their third
pile serves as a reminder of the desir
ability of co-operating with them in atomic
matters. The same holds true for the
Canadians. The development of reactors-^
which produce the fissionable material
constituting the explosive content of the
A-bomb—is essential to additional progress
in harnessing nuclear energy for both
military and beneficent peacetime pur
poses, and our wartime partners in the
project may have as much help to offer
us in this respect as we have to offer them.
Under the law enacted in 1946, numerous
restrictions hamper Anglo - Canadian -
American atomic co-operation. But talks
are now going on in an effort to work out
an arrangement that will permit, within
reasonable limits, a»mutually helpful ex
change of information and a measure of
direct collaboration. These talks are in
line with an understanding between the
administration and the Senate-House
Committee on the atom that no classified
material will be released without prior
consultation with the committee, which
will decide whether or not such action
requires special legislative authorization.
Simple common sense argues strongly
for a properly circumscribed system of
continuing co-operation. Britain and
Canada, after all, besides being our allies
in the Atlantic Pact, control important
sources of uranium, and their nuclear
scientists are among the world’s best—a
fact amply demonstrated by the vital role
they played in helping us to figure out,
design and produce the A-bomb during
the war.
With reactor development now becoming
the most important single phase of our
atomic project, we cannot afford to shrug
off the idea of working jointly with our
British and Canadian friends. Such three
way co-operation, with adequate security
safeguards, can be of immense value to
us, to them, and to the entire free world.
Who Thinks Them Up?
■ In his little talk here the other night,
Bennett Cerf, the publisher who makes
anthologies of them, dwelt at some length
on the fact that jokes—good, bad and
indifferent—seem to travel from place to
place with supersonic speed. That is true
enough. But the equally queer thing about
them, the mystifying thing, is that their
authors apparently are all in hiding, even
though there are some people, of course,
who do not hesitate to claim that they
themselves have thought up the gags they
have really borrowed or filched.
This is a matter that should have the
attention of any one who is looking for
a thesis that would be suitable for earning
a Ph.D. degree in literature. Mr. Cerf has
done no more than scratch the surface.
It is all well and good to observe that jokes
have a phenomenally fast way of cir
culating, coming into currency in a hun
dred different places—thousands of miles
from each other—at practically the same
moment. The scholar, however, must go
much deeper than that If any self
respecting university is to give him a
doctorate on the subject. He must dig
and search. He must try to find the
actual originating point of these stories.
He must travel the length and breadth of
the land in an effort to determine who
really thinks them up and why it is that
their authorship has thus far remained
so obscure.
But such a scholar ought to be fore
warned. He . ought to know that the
makers of jokes are about as elusive as
the will-o’-the-wisp. Indeed, they-may all
be one man—that fellow named Anony
mous, and nicknamed Anon, who has spiced
generations of anthology books. Strange
though it may seem, it is not inconceivable
that right now, equipped with devices
putting him in instantaneous communica
tion with the world at large, he is sitting
in some secret, inaccessible place thinking
up new gags, refurbishing old ones, and
sending the whole lot out for simultaneous
telling everywhere.
This fellow, if he exists, is not going to
be easy to track down. Presumably small
of stature, bewhiskered, full of eUfe> m!s
i cfllef and slyer than the slyest fax, he
apparently does not want to be found out—
not ever. After all, though he occasionally
has thought up some mighty good ones
and made considerable money for people
like Mr. Cerf and the radio comedians, he
has an awful lot of sins to answer for.
That may be the thing that keeps him In
hiding.
I.Ill
Right to Work
In holding that a State can protect the
right of men to work even though a strike
is in progress, the Supreme Court has an
nounced a welcome but not a particularly
significant decision.
In the circumstances of the case before
it, the court could hardly have ruled other
wise. At issue was an attack by the CIO
on the Arkansas “right-to-work” law.
According to lawyers for the union, the
statute was unconstitutional because it
abridged freedom of speech and assembly.
What the statute actually does is to make
it unlawful for any person, acting in con
cert with one or more other persons, to
assemble at or near any place where a
labor dispute exists, and by force or
violence prevent or attempt to prevent
any one from engaging in any lawful
occupation. In other words, it is unlawful
for strikers to band together and beat up
non-strikers. Another clause makes it
unlawful for any person acting either by
himself or as a member of any group or
organization, or acting in concert with
one or more other persons, to promote,
encourage or aid any such unlawful
assemblage.
This latter clause is a bit broader, but
as interpreted by the courts of Arkansas—
an interpretation noted by the Supreme
Court—it means that an accused person,
in order to be held guilty, must aid the
assemblage with the intention that force
and violence would be used to prevent a
person from working. This would not
apply to an innocent member of a picket
line in a case where violence occurred to
which he was not a party and of which
he had no foreknowledge. No such ques
tion was before the court, and it is doubtful
that a conviction in such circumstances
would be sustained.
All that the court has done is to say
that a State can punish a concerted and
forcible attempt by strikers to prevent a
man from working. Manifestly, this is no
abridgment of the rights of free speech
and assembly. It is merely recognition of
a power which the States have always had
and which more of them ought to exercise
when legitimate union activity gives way
to mob rule.
As a rule, it takes about six weeks to
get things straightened out after an eight
year-old wonders how she would look with
homemade bangs.
Science in the atomic field moves at a
breathless pace, and with Senators around
to tell all, coming events now cast their
shadows behind.
A condition has arisen in the Christmas
neckwear field whereby a tie inaudible at
three blocks is “conservative.’*
This and That
By Charles E. Tracewell
The pressure of Possy Is becoming too
much.
His story has been beating against the
bars of time for days.
Here at last he springs into being for peo
ple who never heard of him before.
This is a daily miracle, in newspaper work,
but it never grows old. either for writers or
readers.
Here was young Possy, a gray and white
eat, so named because of his appearance,
more or less resembling a true Virginia
opossum. Here he was, a veritable urchin
of a cat, known only to his intimate human
friends.
And now here he is, in all the glory of
print. His name may go down through the
ages with the famous cat which sat on the
prophet’s robe. Or Dick Whittington’s cat.
Or Puss in Boots, even!
Cat heroes of the ages, their shades
striped, multicolored, gather on the far
shores to wave a paw to young Possy.
Possy is not in the least interested. He is
an urchin and urchins are never interested.
That is why they are urchins.
Possy showed up one morning out of the
blue, and became a guest for a day.
He ate good salmon, beef. He rolled with
a catnip mouse.
He was long and lank, at the last stages
of kittenhood. It was difficult to know
whether he was an old kitten or a young cat.
■ He left and that was the last seen of him
for several days.
Then one morning, Just as the front door
was opened, there was Possum, seated on
the door mat.
With the infinite cat wisdom that comes
down through the ages, he had decided that
this was the best place, after all.
So he came in and has so remained, leap
ing, jumping, running at the slightest move
ment. He might live to be 22 years old,
which is equivalent to at least 110 for a
human, but if he did he would still be, in his
old age, as much an urchin as ever.
Cat urchinity is difficult to put into words.
It must be seen. It means a dirty face at all
hours, a lankness, a determination to get
what one wants and a delight in achieving
objectives.
A cat urchin Is never exactly clean, though
he lives in the cleanest house. He has ways,
too, not in the etiquette books. These make
no difference. He knows what he likes.
* * * ♦
Tearing paper to pieces, for instance.
Possy cannot bear the sight of a news
paper on the floor.
On a table, he lets it alone. On the floor,
he tears it to pieces.
Not just a few dainty rips, but into hun
dreds and hundreds of bits, all of which, by
reason of their small size, must be picked
up one by one.
Possy likes to play with electric cords, too.
When reproved, he rolls over on his side,
looks up reproachfully and meows.
There is a certain note of resignation,
mixed with indignation, or reproof, in this
i meow.
r * * * *
His meow of greeting is entirely different.
Then he sounds as if some one had
pressed a toy balloon.
His face? Long and pointed, as befits his
name.
His tail? -Long and tapered and about
three inches longer than it should be.
Few cats have ever had longer tails. If he
ever grows up to it, he will be a rather
tmnHsmne fellow, in a dumb looking sort
of way. .
It will no difference to him. With
a smudge on his nose, and his stomach full
of food, he is content. life for him holds
no atom bombs, no wars or fears of wars,
no dictators. He is not upset by ideas of
welfare states, or police states, or other
vagaries of the human mind. Possy fortu
nately knows nothing about them. He is
just an urchin, without responsibilities; in
an age when responsibilities are Just a bora.
Letters to The Star
Recalls Bad Conditions
In Schools of the Past.
To the Editor of The Star:
I am interested in the many complaints,
especially by the Negro population, lodged
against the Commissioners and the Board
of Education, concerning the crowded con
ditions of our schools and the necessity for
"double-shifts.”
A group of families in one of our north
west neighborhoods experienced crowded
conditions and double shifts far in excess of
any that have as yet been presented either
by the white or by the colored.
Personally, as a mother of three, I ex
perienced these conditions from 1913, when
my eldest daughter started to school, until
the graduation of my youngest daughter in
1936.
My eldest daughter had to go half days
because of the crowded condition, and for
three years attended classes in an old frame
house adjoining the main building. Then
she had to go nine blocks to the 8th grade,
thence to Ninth street and Rhode Island
avenue, to the Business High School. My
son went half days for four years, starting
in one of the two classes in the old Metho
dist Church for one year, and the remain
ing three years in a portable. When he went
to high' school, it was necessary to go to
Ninth street and Rhode Island avenue,
either to walk or pay full fare, for we did not
have three-cent fare then.
The associates of my children were the
sons and daughters of the now prominent
people of Washington, and during our meet
ings at the schools, no serious complaints
were lodged. We made the best of it, and
the children got good educations.
Years ago, my husband, in his high school
days, had to walk from Eighth and H streets,
northeast, to Seventh and O streets north
west, to the then old Central High School:
later to the Business High School in the old
brick building on First street N.W. He got
a good education, notwithstanding these
handicaps of school housing and distances
to travel.
It seems to me the complainants are
making a mountain out of a mole hill and
that they do not appreciate the fine school
facilities we now have. H. O. C.
Wants Leaders To Encourage People
To Live Together In One World '
To the Editor of The Bt»r:
A story goes that a king asked one of his
wise men for a statement that would always
be true. The wise man—who was truly
wise—responded with: "This, too, shall pass
away."
Change is the unchanging factor of life.
Instead of spending their energies, vocif
erously and vainly protesting against in
evitable social mutations, the leaders among
those who profit most from the status quo—
the teachers, the ministers, the businessmen
of our community—might far better devote
themselves to learning, and encouraging
others to learn, the techniques, already
established, for living together in this One
World that rushes on apace—even to Wash
ington. V. J. DOZIER.
One Who Dislikes Mayonnaise
Wonders Why No Bntter
To the Editor of The Star:
The wartime butterless sandwich still Is
In circulation. During the war, we patriotic
citizens were only too glad to co-operate by
forcing our taste buds to become adapted to
dry slices. What excuse is there now for
substituting mayonnaise (which I thoroughly
dislike) for butter? C. S.
Attacks A. A P. Advertising Campaign
As Misleading the Public
To the Editor of The Star:
It is most difficult for me to understand,
and I am sure many other people like my
self, have difficulty understanding why the
newspapers would be a party to any plan to
permit paid propaganda that would fool or
mislead the public. I am referring to the
continual paid advertisements of the Great
Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. which appear
in the Nation’s press centering their attack
on “anti-trust lawyers." Who are these
“anti-trust lawyers"? There must be many
thousands of lawyers throughout the Nation
specializing in anti-trust laws. I would
gather, after reading the ad more carefully,
that they mean the anti-trust lawyers from
Washington, D. C.
Truthfully and honestly, wouldn’t you
think that an organization as big as the
A. A P. would have the courage and strength
to come out and say, “The Government or
the administration’s instituted suit against
the A. & P.?"
You and I know that a group of Govern
ment lawyers could not take it upon them
selves to institute action unless such action
was approved by the principal Government
authority. The anti-trust lawyers are em
ployed by the Department of Justice, and the
only one in the Justice Department who
would institute the suit would be the Attor
ney General, who is a member of the
President’s cabinet.
Would Food Really Cost More?
The recent A. & P. advertisement, “Don’t
Let Anybody Pool You,” which appeared in
Washington papers, sets forth some state
ments that call for careful scrutiny. Suppose
the A. & P. did go out of business: How can
they substantiate their claim that “your
food will cost more”? Are they the exclusive
distributor of foods in the United States?
This is quite a challenge to the other food
chains and retailers throughout the Nation,
and we wonder if the others are afraid to
attack the statement or the claims of A. & P.
The above-mentioned statement also says:
"Others will be hurt” and continues: “Such
a decision would mean the end of the vigor
ous, healthy price competition which has
given this country the highest standard of
living ever enjoyed by any people anywhere
in the history of the world. The anti-trust
lawyers are trying to give a new interpreta
tion to the anti-trust laws that, instead of
preserving competition, will reduce compe
tition. They are trying, by court decision,
to impose a new kind of economic policy on
the people of this country.”
I will say this much, that if others were
found guilty of certain actions by the Federal
courts such as the A. & P. has been found,
they would be hurt and they would get no
sympathy.
Anti-Trust Fines Called Inadequate.
In my official position as vice president of
the National Federation of Independent
Business, in following out the mandate of
our Nation-wide membership, I repeatedly
have stated before congressional committees
that the present maximum anti-trust law
fines are inadequate penalties for the law
breakers. They should be strengthened by
demanding jail sentences for anti-trust law
violators or removal of officers.
Before concluding this letter, I must repeat
a statement made by the A. Se P. and I quote:
"Such a decision would mean the end of
the vigorous healthy price competition.” Let
us check the record on this statement.
We wonder if the A. & P. considers its
actions “the vigorous, healthy price compe
tition.” The grand Jury which returned the
indictment in the current Justice Depart
ment anti-trust case against the A. & P. found
that the A. & P. continued to receive dis
criminatory rebates year after year while
the criminal anti-trust case was being fought
in the court; ilso that during the years 1942
1947 the A. As P. collected $1,200,000 from two
Chicago milk companies alone and that in
1946 (the year in which the District Court
rendered its verdict of guilty against the
A. & P. in criminal aotl-truSt proceedings)
A. & P.. secret rebates from these two com
panies pone amounted to $244,000 and that
in 1947 while the appeal in the anti-trfiet
Letters for publication must bear ,
the signature and address of the
writer, although it is permissible for
a writer known to The Star to use
a nom de plume. Please be brief.
case was pending in the Court of Appeals,
the grand Jury charged that A. & P. collected
$313,000 in secret rebates from just these
Chicago milk purchases. Again we ask: “Is
this vigorous, healthy price competition?”
The officers and members of the National
Federation of Independent Business believe
it is anything but "vigorous, healthy price
competition.” GEORGE J. BURGER,
Vice President, National Federation of
Independent Business, Inc.
“ a.
Resents Paying Storage
On Surplus Products
To th« Editor of The Stir:
Why, when people are starving overseas,
do American taxpayers have to foot a bill of
$27,000 a day for storage space for surplus
products which are rotting?
Why not send this surplus food to those
in destitute countries? It’s bad enough to
have high prices, but why keep a surplus
here and torment the taxpayers more by
making them pay storage on the countless
blessings God has showered upon us? I
hope Congress rectifies this situation. I’m
sure voters will try to in 1950. R. J. S.
Expresses Hope for Response
To Angels’ Christinas Song
To the Editor of The Star:
We sometimes forget the real significance
of Christmas. This holy season commemo
rates the greatest event in all the world.
Christmas belongs to Christ: nothing equals
it. The joy, the happiness, the reunions,
the gifts, were all at the Bethlehem stable
and radiate therefrom. Christmas is a cele
bration for all countries, according to tra
dition and climate. Alaska rings her bells
over the deep, silent snow, while Australia
celebrates on the beaches where breezes
temper the heat. Wherever the name of
the Christ Child is proclaimed, sentiments
of good will and benevolence fill the mind
and lift the heart in adoration for Jesus,
who came to give peace.
Many have wandered from this divine
blessing and have sought power and greed,
to find only defeat in the end. May this
Christmas bring hot only transient joy, but
a profound realization of the spirit of love
and good will, Intended for all mankind,
by the coming of the Son of God, and may
the angels’ song, “Peace on Earth,” find
a response in our hearts.
MRS. M. L. WALDE.
Blames NAACP for Decision
Of UNFAO to Locate in Rome
To the Editor of The Star:
The announcement was made recently that
the United Nations Food and Agriculture
Organization had rejected a most generous
invitation by the University of Maryland to
locate on the College Park campus.
Instrumental in securing the rejection
was a petition submitted by the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored
People on the basis that the University prac
tices racial discrimination.
I fail to recognize any advancement in
such action on the part of the NAACP. In
fact, one must admit that it is a tremendous
setback, not only for the University of Mary
land and the people of the Metropolitan
Washington area, but also for the NAACP
and the Negro race particularly.
Few forward-looking persons can Indorse
such actions as advancements and, indeed,
they exemplify the adage of one “cutting off
his nose to spite his face.''
May I suggest that the NAACP objectively
“take stock of itself" to find out whether it
is advancing or regressing? Mutual benefits
can be secured only through mutual action.
The action of the NAACP, as the representa
tive of the Negro population, which helped
cause the rejection of the proposed Wash
ington area location for the UNFAO in lavor
of a site in Rome, Italy, resulted in a loss
for all Washingtonians merely because the
NAACP leaders were short-sighted and Ill
advised. RONALD R. PITCHERELLO.
Readers Comment on Letter
On Segregation by First D. C. Teacher
To the Editor of The Star:
It is obvious, from both of First D. C.
Teacher’s letters that her entire conscious
ness is completely permeated by a set of finely
grained prejudices. Throughout both letters
logical conclusion, the American birthright
and the Golden Rule have been tossed to the
winds in sacrificial esteem for her so-called
“common sense” and “practical standpoint"
line of reasoning. In justification of a dual
educational setup which is morally and
legally unjust (not to mention the poor eco
nomics involved) First D. C. Teacher has
characterized herself as being sensitively
biased in racial outlook.
She should not, in any guise, have to com
promise with democracy or our Christian
heritage in substantiation of racial or reli
gious segregation and prejudice. First D. C.
Teacher is whitewashing her conception of
American democracy, instead of washing it
white. REGINALD HUTCHINSON.
To iho Editor of The 8Ur:
D. C. Teacher, along with many whites,
seems to think that any Negro who speaks
out against segregation is an agitator. Well,
if being against segregation makes one an
agitator, then I truthfully can say that the
vast majority of Negroes are agitators, for
they certainly are against it. Maybe D. C.
Teacher thinks it doesn’t imply attitudes of
superiority and inferiority, but we certainly
do. I’ll bet she wouldn’t like the idea of
being segregated against her will.
NATHAN STOLEY.
To the Editor of The SUr:
After reading the letter signed First D. C.
Teacher. I should like the teacher to answer
one question.
Suppose she had three small children, and
was living within two blocks of a school.
Because Of our dual system, her children
must go six or seven blocks, passing the
school, and. then across a dangerous inter
section. -
Would the .teacher call this democracy?
A PARENT.
To tho Editor of Tba SUr:
To First D. C. Teacher and to all persons
in sympathy with her opinions, I offer this
thought:
"... It is never too late to give up our
prejudices ..." ,'
These words are quoted from Henry David
Thoreau. IRVING M. GOLDMAN.
To the Editor of The SUr:
Constant agitation for the abolishment of
segregation is by no stretch of the imagination
improving the situation for, the Negro. The
reverse is true. Right now white people are
beginning to take notice of the men whom
they elect to office. On every side I hear
people talking about an organization for the
advancement of white people to offset the
political pressure that has been scaring Con
gressmen. You may be certain that when the
white people organize the politicians will re
verse their position! on many issues.
What chance would the colored agitators
for the abolishment of Segregation have if the
white people would form the same type of
organisation as the Ngttonal Association. Jor
the Advancement of COloted People? *
LARRY .DOOLEY.
Production of the "Glue1
Of Creation Increased
Navy Research Physicists Report
On Energy Into Matter Output

By Thomas R. Henry
Artificial production of mesons—mysteri
ous elementary particles which are the “glue"
of creation—has increased more than 1,000
fold during the past year.
This accomplishment by contractors under
the Office of Naval Research constitutes by
far the greatest transformation of energy
into matter yet known. It is, in a way, the
reverse process of the fission of the atomic
bomb in which minute specks of matter are
transformed into energy.
Almost literally something is created out
of nothing.
The meson is something which comes out
of the nucleus of an atom. Whether it ex
isted as a tangible object within the nucleus,
however, is quite debatable. Its existence
was predicted just before the war by the
Japanese physicist, Hidaki Yukawa, now at
Columbia and this year’s Nobel prize winner
in physics. A little later it actually was
demonstrated in cosmic rays by a California
Institute of Technology physicist.
Two Accepted Kinds.
There are two accepted kinds of mesons.
First is the pi meson which weighs 280 times
an electron and is what'is believed actually
to come out of an atomic nucleus bombarded
with tremendous energies. This is what
arrives in cosmic rays at the top of the
atmosphere.
It exists only a 50th of a millionth of a
second. Then it changes into a mu meson
with a mass about 210 times that of an
electron and a lifetime of 2 millionths of a
second. Then this splits into two hypo
thetical particles known as neutrinos, as
sumed to exist but never observed, which in
a few millionths of a second are converted
into energy.
There may be three other kinds of mesons,
one with a lifespan of less than a billionth
of a second. They have been postulated but
never observed. Office of Naval Research
physicists are skeptical of them.
Up to a year ago these mesons were known
only in cosmic rays. Then a few were ob
served making tracks on photographic plates
after the bombardment of carbon atoms with
protons In the University of California’s giant
cyclotron. There were very few of them,
approximately in a ratio of a hundred mesons
to a million protons, the primary particles
constituting the atomic nucleus. Within tha
last few months, Naval Research physicists
say, the order has been reversed and about
a million mesons are being produced to 100
protons.
The significance of man-made mesons still
Is difficult to assess. They are on the frontier .
of the physics of tomorrow. They are actual
material particles which, according to the
most generally accepted present theory, do
not exist as material particles within the
atomic nucleus but become such for infini
tesimal fractions of seconds due to their mo
mentum when this nucleus is cracked.
Matter has been made out of energy before,
but on an extremely small scale.
Reverse of First Process.
But perhaps of even greater significance
Is the vanishing of the meson into intangible
energy again. This takes place in two stages
—the change of the pi meson into the lighter
meson and the complete disappearance of
the mu meson into energy again.
This is the greatest transmutation of mat.
ter into energy, the reverse of the first
process, yet known on earth. It is exceeded
only in the carbon cycle responsible for the
everlasting fire of the sun. The implications,
however vague at present, make this produc
tion of mesons one of the most significant
developments in physics since the war. In
vestigattons are being pushed with vigor.
At first the elusively short-lived particles
were produced only in the University of
California cyclotron. Now they are being
created, under Office of Naval Research con
tracts, at two other laboratories and by other
and cheaper means. They also are being
extracted from a variety of materials other
than the pure graphite which was used in
the first experiments. Notable developments
are rumored which have not yet been re
ported.
Whatever the distant future may hold,
Office of Naval Research physicists say, the
present major objective is to obtain from
meson behavior a better understanding of
the structure of the atomic nucleus itself.
Questions and Answers
A reader ean get the gnawer to enr' ouestloa
•f fact by writing The Evening Star Information
Bureau. 316 Eye at. n.e.. Washington 2, D. C.
please inclose three (3> cents for return postage.
By THE HASKIN SERVICE.
Q. How many miles did Paul Revere cover
during his historic ride?—D. W. H.
. A. Frank W. Cobum in his volume “The
Battle of April 19, 1775” states: "The en
tire distance that Revere rode, from the
Charlestown shore to the spot in Lincoln
where he was captured, and back to Lex
ington Common, was between eighteen and
nineteen miles, and the elapsed time nearly
four hours.”
Q. What is Canada’s record in the matter
of bank failures in recent years?—R. H. M.
A. Since 1914 in Canada there has been
only one bank failure, which occurred in
1923. In the United States there were no
bank suspensions in 1945, 1946 and 1948,
only 1 in 1944 and 1 in 1947.
Q. Is it possible for a civilian to visit the
gold depository at Port Knox, Ky.?—M.L.
A. No visitors, servicemen or others, are
permitted to visit Fort Knox, Ky.
Q. What was the share of the world’s
gold stock owned by the United States
before World War I and how much has it
increased?—J. T. M.
A. There are no precise figures on the
world’s gold stocks, including those which
are privately owned. In 1913 the United
States owned less than 27 per cent of the
estimated world total. By 1937 the pro
portion had increased to a little over one
half. In 1945 the United States owned
over 57 per cent of the aggregate, and by
the middle of 1948. 63 per cent. During
the following year gold stocks grew by about
a billion dollars to a total of $24,604,994,
921.87 on October 3, 1949. This represents
702,999,854.9 ounces.
Q. How much tax does the United States
Govermhent collect on a package of 20 ciga
rettes?—C. A. P.
A. The Federal Government collects ap
proximately seven cents on each package of
cigarettes.
Maple Thoughts
The silver maple is remembering
Her seasons of delight with wistful sighs,
A backward look to feather-budded spring,
A forward glance at pale-etched winter
skies.
She knows the good and bad are both so
brief,
Recalls the feel of growth, quick-running
sap
Within her, and a glowing scarlet leaf
She flung 'so happily in gutumn’s lap.
Her knowledge covers certainly the sum
Of springtime's magic, summer, radiant
fall.
Now, waiting for the winds and snows to
come
She finds tier self complete—and this is ,
OIL JANS MORRISON. }

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