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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. • —■ —■ — — Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. MeKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 270 Moditon Ave. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier. Evening end Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly 1.20* Monthly _90c 10c per copy Weekly -30c Weekly _20e 10c per copy *10e additional when 3 Sundays are In a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year .18.00 1 year_11.30 1 year .... 7.30 6 months 9.50 6 months_ 6.00 6 months_4.00 1 month _—_ 1.60 1 month_1.10 1 Month__ 70c Telephone STerllng 3000 Entered at the Rost Office, Washington, D. C. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well es all A. P. news dispatches. A—10 WEDNESDAY, April 19, 1950 A Political Prosecution The Department of Justice has nothing to be proud of in its prosecution of Former Con gressman Roger C. Slaughter on charges of violating the Lobbying Act. On the contrary, the responsible officials should be ashamed of forcing a man to stand trial on the basis of '‘evidence" such as that produced against Mr. Slaughter. This case had its inception more than eighteen months ago, when the Justice Depart ment was headed by Tom Clark, now a member of the Supreme Court. It came on the heels of a political fight between the President and Mr. Slaughter, who was a member of the House from Kansas City. The President was determined to “purge” his fellow Missourian. The fraudulent voting in that contest, in which Mr. Slaughter was beaten, was investigated by the Department of Justice, but it can hardly be said that the Investigation was conducted with vigor and determination. Naturally, after that discreditable episode, there was some lifting of eyebrows when Mr, Slaughter was indicted. It looked then like a political prosecution. And that is what it looks like now. The Atom and Submarines The Atomic Energy Commission’s recent announcement of an “extensive revision” in its research program—particularly in reactor de velopment—strongly suggests that an all-out effort has been decided upon to make a reality of the still-theoretical atom-driven submarine. Work on this highly significant project first began to take shape late in 1948 when the Chicago Operations Office of the AEC revealed that the Westinghouse Electric Corporation had been com missioned to build an experimental nuclear re actor for adaptation “to the propulsion of a Navy vessel within the shortest practicable time.” Official reports have since made clea^r that the specific objective of this undertaking is to develop an atomic engine for submarines and that West inghouse. in collaboration with the Argonne Na tional Laboratory, has made important progress to that end. It is because of that progress, apparently, that the AEC, acting on recommendations made by the General Electric Company, has now decided to have the GE-operated Knolls Atomic Labora tory defer construction of a “power-breeder” reactor near Schenectady, N. Y. Instead of work ing on that project—which would have had to do with “breeding” nuclear fuel and har nessing such fuel for industrial purposes—the Knolls technical staff, in addition to taking part in an expanded production program at the Han ford Works in the State of Washington, will concentrate on the design and development of an atom engine for ship propulsion. This change in plans means that two of the Nation’s greatest electrical companies—vigor ous commercial rivals—will henceforth be en gaged in a kind of competition to speed up the arrival of what promises to be a far-reaching naval revolution. As the AEC has explained, the task of both GE and Westinghouse will be to develop reactors designed to meet similar per formance specifications, but each will take dif ferent approaches involving different technical and engineering problems. The fact that there Is business rivalry between them is likely to lend a wholesome competitive zest to their efforts— a zest that can expedite more progress. Of course, nobody in the know is giving out any hints as to when a workable atomic ship engine will be available. Yet, whether it comes within two years or ten, there can be little doubt that it is coming. And when it does come, it will almost certainly revolutionize not merely naval power, but seagoing transportation in gen eral. To appreciate this we have only to keep in mind that a weight unit of nuclear energy is estimated to be the equivalent in power of 2,000,000 weight units of gasoline. In other words, relatively speaking, something like a spoonful of it would be enough to fuel extraordinarily long voyages. As far as submarines are concerned, it tould open the way to exceptional submerged A motion to dismiss the indictment was re jected several weeks ago by Judge Schweinhaut. But it was clear, from the language of his mem orandum opinion, that he refused to dismiss because he had been led to believe the Govern ment would produce evidence at the trial to support its contention that Mr. Slaughter had not acted merely as an attorney, but also as a lobbyist in the ordinary sense of that term. When the case came to trial before Judge Holtzoff, however, the Government made a miserable showing. It produced nothing which could be called evidence to support its charge of lobbying. As “evidence”' of lobbying, the prosecution offered to show that Mr. Slaughter had made telephone calls to members of Congress which were paid for by some of his clients. But the Government attorneys admitted they did not know what had t>een said in any of these con versations. In other words, they were willing to convict a man of a crime on the basis of sheer con jecture. Judge Holtzoff quite properly refused to accept such “evidence” as that and promptly found Mr. Slaughter not guilty. On the record of this case, Mr. Slaughter seems amply justified in his contention that the charges against him were politically inspired. And it seems to The Star that Judge Holtzoff's verdict of acquittal amply demonstrates the wis dom of the founding fathers in removing our Federal judges as far as possible from the influ ence of partisan politics. ■peed over tremendoui distances without benefit of snorkels. Beyond that, assuming sueeess in developing a naval atomic engine, the advent of such an engine undoubtedly would bring with it knowl edge of vast importance in harnessing nuclear energy for industrial power and for the propul sion of things like airplanes. In effect, the AEC's latest announcement thus serves as another re minder that the atom is pregnant with around the-corner revolution. \ The Baltic Incident On April 8 a United States Navy plane—a Privateer, a modified version of the B-24—van ished somewhere in the Baltic area. On April 11 the Kremlin heatedly protested to our Ambas sador that on that date (April 8) an American B-,29 Superfortress had flown over restricted Rus sian-occupied territory; that it had opened fire on Soviet fighters after the latter had ordered it to land; that thereupon one of the fighters fired back; and that then our big bomber headed out over the sea and disappeared. And now we have the State Department’s story. In effect, as told in the note replying to the Soviet protest, it is a story that indicts the Kremlin for resorting to a colossal lie, being guilty of gross international lawlessness, and com mitting a shocking crime against humanity. For the note categorically makes the following points; (1) That all our military aviation operates under rigid orders not to fly over restricted foreign territory or adjacent waters; (2-) that the only American plane in the Baltic region on April 8 was the Navy Privateer; (3) that it had ten men aboard and was wholly unarmed; (4) that care ful investigation has convinced our authorities that it made no flight over Russian or Russian controlled areas; and (5) that the United States must therefore conclude that the Red Air Force cold-bloodedly shot down this totally defenseless aircraft, over the open and unrestricted sea, in a manner violating “the most elementary rules of peaceful conduct between nations.” Our note does not say just how the United States has been able to convince itself that the Navy Privateer could not have strayed over for bidden territory and possibly ignored or failed to observe orders to land. But the State Depart ment evidently is certain that it has stated the facts correctly, for it has demanded, in challenging language, that “the Soviet govern ment institute a prompt and thorough investiga tion of this matter” in order to prove to its own satisfaction that our position is the true one. Beyond that the department has demanded that the Red Air Force be given the strictest instruc tions to guard against all such war-breeding incidents in the future, and it has gone on to assert that it “confidently expects” the Russian authorities, after they have completed their inquiries, to express their regret, severely punish the aviators responsible, and “pay appropriate indemnity for the unprovoked destruction of American lives and property. Actually, of course, nobody “confidently ex pects” any of these things. Diplomatic language must be more or less polite even when it deals with events that infuriate. The State Depart ment's real feelings have been better expressed by the blunter words it has used in the press statement accompanying its formal note—words emphasizing f,hat here again we have another example of how the conduct of the Soviet dictatorship “shows clearly the insincerity of its oft-proclaimed desire for peaceful relations with the United States.” It need hardly be added that the American people, though they are not going to war over it, will remember this incident for a long, long time, and with a bitterness that will do the Kremlin no good whatever in the long run. A Relic Worth Saving The little old house at 3051 M street north west may not have been George Washington's headquarters while he was planning the Federal City which was to bear his name. Somehow, it seems too small, too diminutive in its proportions, to have contained so great a man even for a few days. The same observation applies to the legend that the place once sheltered Major Pierre L’Enfant while he was working on his drawings for the future Capital. Conceivably it might have been an office for the first Com missioners of the new city, but even this story fails of attraction. Much more probably the structure was raised for and used by quite humble people. Such houses .were common in the second-half of the eighteenth eentury. Its design was standard among “carpenter architects.” Grace Dunlop Ecker, in her “Portrait of Old Georgetown,” says the edifice in question was built in 1767 and was owned by Cassandra Chew. She cites a newspaper advertisement describing it as “the house where Mrs. Annie Smith lately dwelt, containing three rooms and a passage on the lower and three rooms on the upper floor, a large cellar and garret, a kitchen detached from the house and a good garden.” . No verification of the suggestion that Gen eral Braddock stopped at 3051 has been found. He died as the result of wounds received in battle in Western Pennsylvania in 1755 and thus ante dated the little stone cottage by at least a dozen years. Other romantic legends appear to be as inconsequential. But the house still is worth saving. It has been judged by the National Capital Parks authorities to be a relic worthy of “renovation, stabilization, maintenance and preservation.” Under the proper auspices it might be a museum of a sort, reflecting the common life of the period to which it belongs. Georgia Voting There is no doubt that the county unit system of voting which prevails in Georgia dis criminates against the voters of a large city such as Atlanta. Under this unit system, six unit votes are assigned to each of the eight most populous counties. Some counties have four unit votes, and the least populous have two each. The candidate receiving the highest vote in each county wins its entire unit vote. The effect of this is to dilute the political weight of a vote cast in one of the large coun ties. Thus, in its bearing on the outcome of an election, a vote in the smallest county is more than 120 times as effective as a vote in Fulton Cdunty, the State’s largest. Obviously, this is a discrimination against the Fulton County voter. But it is not the kind of discrimination which calls for Federal rectifi cation, and the Supreme Court has acted wisely in refusing to interfere. If the discrimination is to be removed, the people of Georgia will have to remove it. Justices Douglas and Black, dissenting, have done a good job of exposing the discriminatory aspects of the county unit system. But their argument that the Federal courts should intervene is not per suasive—unless one believes that all of the vagaries of State politics are the legitimate busi ness of the Federal authorities. By Thomas S. Haney IN almost 26 years of fingerprinting, the FBI feels it has learned just about everything there is to know on that subject. It has collected 114,000.000 prints and figured out how to classify them in five basic types. It devised a means of filing them in sets so they could be checked felmost instantly. It long ago learned to bring fingerprints out of surfaces on which there apparently were none. But the FBI can't explain the fascina tion that the science it helped develop still holds for so many people. Many are the calls for lecturers and films on the subject. Tourists ask about it first, when they go through FBI head quarters here. Even FBI agents are affected. Let two or more of them meet in the base ment cafeteria for coffee, and'the con versation is bound to get around to fingerprints before very long. They ean tell some grisly tales. There was one case which began when a woman registered one summer evening three years ago in a Chicago hotel. Next morning her body was found. "Heart failure and alcoholic poisoning.” the coroner wrote on the death certificate. The city’s police stepped in. Two men turned up who identified the woman as. an acquaintance. She came, they said, from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. With so positive an identification, police and the woman’s family made funeral arrangements there. Nearly four months later, the two men met the "corpse” they had identified—in a Chicago tavern. They told her what had happened and advised her to call her home at once. She did. Meanwhile Cedar Rapids authorities ordered the body exhumed. Fingerprints were taken and all the dead girl’s fingers were photographed. The FBI had her identified correctly within two days. That doesn’t mean necessarily that she had once been involved in some crime, either. 114 Million Fingerprints Can't Be Wrong The agency keeps three basic files. One has to do with known criminals. In the other two are millions of prints taken during the war as a factory se curity measure, and by the military forces. The use of fingerprints in pressing veterans' death and disability claims against the Government is widespread. The FBI keeps all its fingerprints in the old OPA Building, a seven-story structure .that is guarded closely. Some 1.500 experts man the “Ident” department on a 24-hour, seven-day basis—two full shifts until midnight and a skeleton force until 8 am. These offices, which are several blocks from FBI headquarters, receive more than 5.000 prints a day. A police de partment. asking for a check on an in closed set of prints, has all available These files contain just c part of the FBI’s collection of non-criminal prints. —FBI Photo. information In the mails within S6 hours. On occasion, ‘Tdent” can do even bet ter. When the body of Elisabeth Short. Los Angeles’ famed ‘‘Black Dahlia.” was found in a vacant lot there, the police had her identification in less than an hour. The tourists aren’t shown the whole fingerprint works. Much of it is rou tine. done in offices where quiet must be maintained. But they are shown exhibits—oversized photos of well known gangsters’ prints. One agent says he can’t explain why tourists often pay more attention to the prints than they do to the display of guns and equipment of the same gangsters. "It might be.” he ventured, "because they have fingerprints, too.” (Chicago Dally Newg Servlet.) Letters to The Star . . . A pseudonym is permissible only when letter carries correct name and address of miter. Please be brief. Ba, Ba, Ba! In the debate about music in the buses, nobody has brought up the plight of the ultra-musical person who is obliged to sing music in his head after hearing it in transit. The other day, I had a critical interview ahead of me, and since no taxi was in sight, I hopped a bus. My trip was short, but long enough to hear “Were Poor Little Lambs That Have Gone Astray” played through several times with modern variations on the theme. All through my interview with a dignified gentleman, I was mentally obliged to sing to myself, “We’re poor little lambs that have gone astray, Ba, Ba. Ba” to the blunting, Sir, of my self-command. I refrained from writing you at the tirtie, because I hate to write for nothing. But soon afterward, I had to visit the Library of Congress, and rashly took a streetcar. If you will credit a thing when I say it to be true, the radio on that car was playing that same tune. Again to the chorus of “Ba, Ba, Ba,” I spent my morning. I love that piece in its place, Sir, with Yale boys in their Bowl singing it to their football, but “Ba, Ba, Ba” was of no avail on my errand. And, Mr. Editor, if the question should be asked why I don’t take a taxi next time, where I can control the radio if it is on—the answer is that, next time, I shall. Frances Lester Warner. Annapolis, Md. The American Abroad Whether we like it or not, the United States has become the leader of the world —the free world, I should add. Every American abroad, whether an official or a private citizen, is an integral part of that great republic on which the eyes of all free-thinking men are turned. Great privileges confer great responsibilities. To be an American citizen is a great privilege, and great are the responsi bilities that he has to shoulder. Just like an actor who has the atten tion of an audience, the American abroad, much to his amazement, finds himself the focal point of any foreign milieu that he happens to be in. “Foreign” is what I want to underline. Living in such a country as the United States is a blessing, a blessing that I don’t think is fully appreciated by those who enjoy It, as it is by those who have been fortunate enough to find a haven here from persecutions and terror in the Old World. People here, no matter from what part of the country they come, understand each other. They can joke and be themselves; they can brag and criticize and still they can be understood and appreciated. But not so abrpad. Not only an ocean separates this new continent from the Old World—it is more than that. It is a question of different mentalities—very different mentalities. It is not enough to know the English language or to have lived amongst Amer icans abroad to know the United States. Only when one has lived a certain time in America, can he begin to see and realize its mentality—for it has a men tality of its own which has no equal. Sb it cannot be expected of people who have only heard of the fabulous country far away across the ocean that they will automatically understand the ways and thinking of the people that inhabit it. It is this fact that creates misunder standings and makes things harder than they should really be. The best of inten tions can be misinterpreted if the right approach is not there. Things don't come at once. Dealing with foreign people is hard, but it is not impossible. It will come—with patience and understanding. A powerful propaganda machine is now ‘in operation all over the world. The best intentions of countries and men of good will are distorted. This makes the task of America's representatives hard and thankless. It also demands of those who are responsible for the execu tion of the different statesmenlike pro grams, like the Marshall Plan and the Point Four program, a far-sightedness in the choice of the people that are to carry them on. Most of the people abroad are sus picious of anything that is given them when nothing is asked in exchange. You cannot blame them for that. In the past, whoever gave them anything, so to say gratis, made them pay very dearly afterwards. What is needed is a more widespread and clearer interpretation of the spirit and the intent that lie behind those wise undertakings. The hostile propaganda is too powerful to counteract with propaganda. The best that can be done Is to present the truth in the simplest possible way and through the best of media—the men who are sent abroad. Dimitri K. Karaghiosoff. Former Acting Consul General for Bul garia in Turkey. .Griff Called Old, Not Foxy Clark C. Griffith, during his horse trading days, was known as the "Old Fox.” However, it seems the auto, plane, atomic energy, inflated pocket books, and millionaire ball-club owners are here to stay. Griff can’t seem to bargain with these modern car dealers. He is outmoded. He’d best forget the short-term welfare of a few stockholders, and consider the real meal ticket, "Gus.” the suffering fan. Otherwise, young John Jachym might take over. Think about it, Griff. Stephen P. Allen. Unemployment Compensation The worst feature s>t the proposed legislation to increase by 50 per cent the maximum benefits payable under the District of Columbia Unemployment Compensation Act is that it will put a premium on loafing and avoiding em ployment. If a worker can make almost as much, and even more, by not work ing, why work? And that's just what he can and—experience proves—will do. Remember the 52-20 clubs? How? Simple enough. Under proposed legislation, an unmarried beneficiary may draw as much as $30 compensation a week for 26 weeks. This handout is not subject to income tax or deduction for old age benefits; it is sacred, so to speak. But an employed single worker’s pay may be taxed—and is, if he makes more than $13 in any one week. Here's an example. A worker drawing $30 compensation a week is offered a job at $35. Suppose he is sap enough to take it. His first pay envelope contains $31.07, his pay less withholding and old age benefit taxes. By working, say, 40 hours in a week, he increases his income $1.07. That figures out 2.7 cents an hour for working. If he lands a job at $45 a week he does better, but not much better. His take home pay is $39.42, so by toiling away for eight hours a day five days a week, he increases his income by 23 cents for each hour worked. And should he In some thoughtless moment accept employment at $30 a week, he is a fit subject for a psychiatrist. The poor, misguided simpleton then actually pays for the privilege of work ing, since his pay envelope contains $3.05 less each week than he was getting from the Government. Why work for 5 cents an hour when for doing nothing you can be paid 75 cents? Rufus S. Lusk, President, Washington Taxpayers’ Association. Times Have Changed In ancient Greece, according to Plato, the eldest son was first taught religion; then to be. upright and true—to become master of his desires and fear nothing. How times have changed! Today, large groups teach sons and daughters to be atheistic; to double-cross their neigh bors; to cater to the lower impulses (or even glorify them) and to fear everybody on the theory that no one can be trusted. Decay of our vaunted civilization ap pears imminent unless indeed, the race rebuilds its structure on decency, Justice, faith and fau- play. Edmund K. Goldsborough. Cheerio to You, Too I have just had the pleasure of read ing the w'rite up by Henry McLemore, about his desire to visit Scotland. Well, he has had that pleasure, and I, as a Scot, thank him for all the nice things he writes about, especially the dog Robert Bruce. The article was very in teresting. Should Mr. McLemore visit Scotland again. I would be delighted to show him around some very interesting parts. As a boy. my desire was to visit Mount Vernon, and in 1947 my wife and I had the great pleasure of seeing not only Mount Vernon but also Williamsburg. Detroit, Chicago, Minneapolis and Charleston, W. Va. Our visit to Wash ington was beyond our expectation, thanks to our friends on Rhode Island avenue N.W., Mr. and Mrs. J. Garber. They certainly did show us around! Their kindness to us can never be for gotten by two people from Scotland. We love America and look forward to visiting the United States again. Cheerio and kind regards. Thomas Munro. Edinburgh, Scotland. This and That . . . By Charles E. Tracewell "PRINCE FREDERICK, Md. "Dear Sir: "Could you suggest some text, not too scientific, which would help one identify the birds seen here in Calvert County, beside the Bay? “Also. Is there a book you could suggest which tells the types of bird houses to build to attract certain kinds of birds— wrens and bluebirds, for instance? “We find your column of interest, as we have many kinds of birds around us here. “Thanking you, R. W. P.” * * There are so many good books nowa days to help with bird identification that one hesitates to recommend any one in particular. How helpful any one book will be depends upon just how it happens to strike the reader. For that reason, we recommend that our correspondent go to his public library and look over the books they have in this department. After a little study he should be able to select the one he likes best, that is, the one he thinks he can work best with, and get the most help from: he will discover that pretty pictures alone do not make a good bird book. Nor is the latest.book by any means the best. Some of the older works do very well. Any book dealing with the birds of the Eastern United States will serve equally well in Calvert County; or Montgomery County, or Washington, D. C., or nearby Virginia. * * As for a book on building birdhouses, “The Audubon Guide to Attracting Birds” is a good one. There the information seeker will find a listing of various houses, w'ith their proper dimensions. Most generally used houses are those intended for bluebird, wren, crested fly catcher and flicker. If one desires to put up houses for common sparrow---and some do—the bluebird house suits him very well! Just the other day we received a call from a man who wanted to please his English sparrow friends. He wanted to know how large the entrance should be made, so that they could get into the house easily. “An inch and a half in diameter,” we told him. “That is the right size opening for the bluebird house, and it is the bluebird house that the common sparrow prefers.” - * * If one wants to reverse the situation, and keep sparrows out of bluehird houses, the thing to do is to place the house low. Sparrows do not like to nest low. Wherefore, if one seeks to please spar rows, the best thing to do is to put a bluebird house rather high, say 15 or 20 feet. If intended for bluebirds, the house is put as low as 4 or 5 feet, on a post or other solid base, and faced south. Some care should be taken to give any type of birdhouse ventilation. This may be secured by drilling a few small holes both in the floor and near the top of the sidewalls. There should be a roof, of course, but under this it is best to place a sort of subrooflng, also with a few holes bored in it. Holes in the bottom of the house help carry off any water that may get into the house in heavy rains. If nesting materials are deemed, neces sary for the birds, they should be cut to very short lengths, not more than 3 or 4 inches. Every year yields one or more pictures of robins and others hanged with nesting materials. Keep it cut very short and help save bird lives. Experts say that brightly colored yarns are not good, since they tend to attract other birds to the nests. Soft dark grays and browns are the best. If you have a pair of Baltimore orioles, the yam lengths may be a* much as 12 inches, but never longer." The female oriole is the nest builder. She is an expert at stresses and strains, and lashes her nest as securely to the end of a branch as any human engineer could do It. New Atomic Toy Pistol' Developed by Physicists Instrument Soon to B« Used Bor Precise Measurements By Thomas R. Henry A featherweight cyclotron has been developed by U. 8. Bureau of Standards physicists. This Instrument, operating on pre cisely the same principle aa the giant machines used for atom smashing, la basically about the sise of a pack of cigarette*. It is called the omega tron" and is intended for some extremely pre cise physical measurements rather than for hurling atomic cannon balls against the hearts of atoms. - The cyclotron atomic particles, such as protons and neutrons, move In a circu lar magnetic path and at each revolution are given a push until they are moving at velocities approaching the speed of light. Thus they can be focussed Into a beam which strikes atoms with enor mous force. A small cyclotron would weigh several tons. Atomic Toy Pistol. Comparatively the omegatron la an atomic toy pistol. Its purpose, as de veloped by Dr. J. A. Hippie and his associates of the Bureau staff. Is to de termine precise weights of atomic par ticles. Moving in the circular magnetic path heavier particles, like the nuclei of atoms, are accelerated less than lighter ones, such as single protons and neutrons. The differences measured ara ex tremely precise. Thus the omegatron becomes one of the most delicate weighing devices known. It Is Intended particularly, according to the Bureau physicists, to make precise determina tions of the make-up of varloua gasses and to establish standards of atomic, measurement which ean be used in laboratories throughout the world. At present the apparatus has a aome what bulky superstructure, but this 1» being reduced to the point where the whole machine will fit In the top of an ordinary desk. a. ^ Northern and southern Ireland, at odds on almost everything else, have Joined hands in a major scientific project— study of the contents of space between the earth and the center of the vast Milky Way galaxy. The Universities of Armagh in Ulster, of Dunsink in Eire, and Harvard are partners in this project, now being di rected by Dr. Bart J. Bok at the Harvard observatory at Bloemfontaine in the Orange Free State. A special telescope of high resolving power has just been set up there under the Joint auspices of the three institutions. Curtain of Star Dust. The center of the billion-star Milky Way system, of which the whole solar system Is an infinitesimally minute part, lies in the general direction of the con stellation of Sagittarius In the aouthem heavens. Nightly, this passes directly over Bloemfontaine. In this direction, as also In the direction of the neighboring constellation of Scorpio, start grow thicker and thicker with distance. The actual center of the galaxy, around which everything revolve*, never will be seen. A black curtain of star dust hangs in front of each and beyond each of these constellations. The Irish astron omers and the Americans, however, pro pose to get as precise a picture as pos sible of the composition of the great star conglomerations in front of the curtain and possibly to penetrate a little way behind 1U „ v Questions and Answers A reader ean fit the aniver te any gueetlon of fact by writing The Ivanlng Star Information Bureau, 1300 Ire street N w . Washington B. D C. Pleaae inclose S aenu for return post age. By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. Did John D. Rockefeller. Jr. own the site on which the United Nations headquarters buildings are to be con structed?—T. O. Z. A. Mr. Rockefeller provided the funds for the purchase of the site. He did not own the land. The city of New York alse donated land. Q What is the total number of makes of automobiles that have been placed on the market in the United States at one time or another?—C. H. N. A. According to a carefully revised list by Automotive News, the total i| 1.492 names, excluding trucks and com mercial cars. Out of the old makes ther4 are 27 survivors. _ * Q What areas In the Netherlands were flooded by salt water In the last war?—Q. M. M. A. At the end of World War n, two major sections of the country were flooded. One was Walcheren Island 111 the Schelde estuary, where dikes had been breached by the Allies before the invasion. The other was a reclaimed district north of Amsterdam, flooded bf the Germans before they retreated. Q. What proportion of American peo* pie live in prohibition areas?—B. L. A. On the basis of 1949 population flgO ures. 18.2 per cent of the people of th4 United States live in "dry” areas. Q. Why cannot empty liquor flasks ba returned to the manufacturers and us4& again?—H. B. A. There is a provision under th4 United States Bureau of Internal Reve nue Regulation No. 13, whereby certain authorized collectors (having a permit) may collect the empty bottles for reuse by certain dealers. It is, however, a complicated system and an expensive one. Therefore, little use has been made of the provision. The bottle must be returned to the original bottler. Thtf ownership is designated by the bottler'# own identification mark on the bottle. " * r. %r No Commori Man Although I try at best I can, v I cannot find, the common man. Look here, look there, hou> different aUl And not one common will I call. - • To live on earth and to be human ~ It always to be most uncommon. My Negro plowman hat a way Of singing at the break of day. I know a tramp who't always smiling; V A blacksmith with blue eyes beguiling;*, I know a mountaineer who plays The dulcimer on rainy days. All these are humble, all diverse. To call them common it to curse J The varied wonder of each heart. Eternal law sets them apart. Each is original and lonely As if the Lord had made him only. All human spirits deviate; Marvelous, whether small or great. A tiny mountain streafn I know, -35Jf Whose warbling secret waters flow With elfin song and fairy motion, zi Is fascinating as the ocean. ARCHIBALD RUTLtDQm.