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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Publish ad by The Evening Star Newgpaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFfMANN, President. _ _». M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAM OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 270 Madison Ave. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Mtmd by Carrier. Running and Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly ——1.20* Monthly „_90c 10c per copy Weekly —— 90c Weekly_20c 10c per copy *We additional when 5 Sundays are In a month. Alee 10c additional far Night Final Edition. Ratee by Moil—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States (wooing and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year _13.00 1 year 11 JO 1 year 7.50 t months_ 9.50 4 months_ 4.00 4 months .. 4.00 month -1.60 1 month_1.10 1 Month_ 70c Telephone STerling 5000 Entered at the Post Office, Washington, 0. C. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for iepubllcation of all the local news printed in this newspaper as Well as all A. P. news dispatches. A—9 *_WEDNESDAY, July 5, 1950 The Real Fight Begins American ground troops are fighting their first real battle in Korea, and the reports from the front are not encouraging. An advanced group of infantrymen, at the end of the initial day’s fighting, is reported cut off from its artillery support and seriously threatened by a flanking Communist column. Perhaps this report should be received with some reservation. It may be exaggerated, and, if it is not, the threatened troops may fight their way out of the attempted encirclement. Of much greater concern are the suggestions in the news dispatches that the South Korean army has little if any will to fight. It was under standable that these half-trained and poorly •quipped troops should have been demoralized when first hit by the tank-led columns from the North. But it was expected, presumably, that they would rally when American aid, and espe cially American ground forces, reached the scene of combat. If that expectation was ill-founded, if the full burden of the fight is to be borne by the Americans, it is time for every one to recog nise that this Korean venture, far from being a minor policing action, is going to be a real, and perhaps a major, military undertaking. For reasons that may or may not be valid, the President and his principal aides have adopted an attitude which gives the impression that they are not especially concerned with the progress of the Korean campaign. They have opposed even a partial mobilization by this country, and they may be justified in their reluctance to take that step toward a full-dress war. By this time, however, they must know what the real situation is in Korea, and they must have a pretty good idea of the scope of the military effort to which we are committed there. In The Star’s opinion, the President should report to the country on these points without further delay. Veterans Should Qualify Definite improvement of the merit system of selecting Federal employes for appointment, advancement or retention would result from the suggestion made by Dr. Arthur Flemming, former Civil Service commissioner, before the House Civil Service Committee. Dr. Flemming recom mended that all war veterans be required to make a passing grade on civil service examina tions before they could qualify for appointment. He pointed out that this requirement would protect veterans from the embarrassment of taking jobs they are not qualified to fill and, at the same time, would protect the Government from costly inefficiency. Dr. Flemming did not advocate abolishment of veterans’ preference—nor did the Hoover Commission, of which he was a member. What he proposed was that all applicants for Govern ment employment be certified as fully qualified according to minimum rating standards of the classified service, with veterans thus qualified given priority in the filling of vacancies or in retention in the service. In other words, veterans who cannot make the minimum score of 70 in a civil service test should not be considered eligible for Federal employment. This is a proposal that would end the present system of permitting appointment of veterans who score as low as 60—a system that has put some veterans In positions where they are obvious misfits and which has given the veterans’ preference law a black eye with many Federal personnel admin istrators. The appointment of unqualified persons to Federal offices is unfair both to the employes and to the Government. But once qualified, preference could be given war veterans over non-veterans without impairing the efficiency of governmental operations. That is a lot more sensible that the existing veterans’ preference plan. We, Too, Need a New Airport Baltimore’s fine new Friendship Airport is all that its sponsors predicted it would be, except in one important particular. It is enormous, well laid out, splendidly equipped and otherwise deserving of the high praise heaped upon it and its builders at last Saturday’s dedication cere monies. But, despite persistent efforts of Mayor D’Alesandro and other boosters to make it a two-city air terminal, it is not the answer to Washington’s acute needs for an additional air port. If the Friendship Airport enthusiasts were expecting President Truman to support them in their overzealous campaign to have the Baltimore project officially adopted as the Capital’s alter nate field, they were disappointed. The President made no mention of this ambitious idea, but repeatedly described the airport as one designed to serve Baltimore now and in the future. Mr. Truman previously had made it plain that he considers an auxiliary Washington National Air port in nearby Maryland or Virginia an urgent necessity. The Senate has passed a bill author izing such a project, but similar legislation still is bogged down in the House. A hearing before a House commerce subcommittee has been sched uled for later this week. Because the Friendship forces feared that construction of a new Washington terminal would cost them some overflow traffic coming from the congested National Airport, they have gone so far as to oppose the pending legislation. This la a selfish attitude that has failed to change the opinion of the Civil Aeronautics Administration, the National Capital Park and Planning Commission and other agencies that Washington needs a new airport within half an hour’s motor drive of the city. The Friendship field is an hour and a quarter away during the evening rush hours, according to test runs con ducted by the Washington Board of Trade. Washington naturally is glad that Baltimore at last has an adequate air terminal. It is re assuring to know that in time of emergency the big airport ten miles south of Baltimore is avail able if needed. And Baltimore, in turn, should look forward approvingly to the day when Wash ington, too, will have enough facilities—close by— to reduce the flying hazards now present here. It is unlikely that there ever will be too many airports in the Washington-Baltimore area. A Time to Be Wide-Awake In effect, in the statement issued by Deputy Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, the men of the Kremlin—resorting once again, with typical brazenness, to the technique of the monumental lie—have now called upon the Security Council of the United Nations to reverse itself and sanctify the criminal war of aggression being waged by their Northern Korean puppets. Thus, grossly libeling the United States as "the enemy of peace,” the Gromyko statement demands that the Council forthwith rescind its historic decisions of June 25 and 27 and order our American armed forces to end all interven tion and immediately withdraw from Southern Korea. In addition, in a sort of double-barreled propaganda barrage, the Kremlin's Korean stooges, using particularly violent language, have simultaneously forwarded a similar demand to Secretary-General Trygve Lie. The Soviet position is based on two main contentions, one shot through with absolute falsehood and the other amounting to a crude legal fiction. The first of them is that the Southern Koreans, instead of being the victims of aggression, are guilty of having started the war—at the instigation of American "imperial ists”—by launching an attack against the north. And the second is that the Security Council, because it moved without the assent of non member Communist China and in spite of the Russian boycott, acted unlawfully (1) on June 25 when it ordered Red Korea to cease fire and withdraw its forces to the 38th parallel, and (2) on June 27 when it appealed to all members of the United Nations to co-operate militarily in the effort to repel the Invaders. As far as the law is concerned, of course, the U. N. Charter makes it abundantly clear that the Kremlin does not have a leg to stand on in arguing that the Council had no right to take the action it has taken. As for the lie that the Southern Koreans started the war, it is too colossally obvious to need refutation in the free world, Its sole apparent purpose being to hood wink the peoples behind the Iron Curtain. The real truth of the situation—the fact that Soviet directed Red Korea is the aggressor—is plain beyond the slightest question. That is why the overwhelming majority of the United Nations— practically all but the small Communist bloc are offering full moral and material support to our American effort to effectuate the Council’s orders. Further, that is why the Council itself will certainly make short shrift of the insolent and mendacious Gromyko statement. Knee the men of the Kremlin undoubtedly are well aware of all this, since they must know that their demands will be rejected, the big question of the moment has to do with just why they have taken their present line. The lying, the fuming, the intensified vilification of the United States—is all that meant to be propaganda merely for propaganda’s sake? Or does it foreshadow concrete action of some sort? Is it an Ideological offensive designed to prepare the ill-informed masses behind the Iron Curtain for full-scale Soviet intervention in Korea or for even deadlier Russian moves elsewhere— perhaps against Iran, or Western Europe or even America itself? In sum, is it sound and fury signifying nothing, or is it the prelude, possibly, to events that could unleash a new world war? The answers can be only guesses right now. But it is worth noting that within the past couple of days a systematic effort has been going on in the Soviet Union and its satellite empire to organize "spontaneous” workers’ demonstrations aimed at whipping up hatred against the United States and inflaming senti ment in favor of some kind of action to end American "aggression.” The thing has a pur pose. Although that purpose may be limited to waging a non-shooting war of nerves, the free world had better be on guard everywhere—in Asia, in the Middle East, in Western Europe, and right here at home. Grim surprises may be in the making. This is no time for sleep walking. 'Boring Classics' Columbia University Press recently sponsored a poll of professional and amateur literary critics to discover “the world’s ten most boring classics.” The result is a list headed by John Bunyan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress,” published in 1678. Other nominations for the roster of disapprobation included: John Milton’s “Paradise Lost,” 1667; Edmund Spenser’s “Faerie Queene,” 1590; Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra’s “Don Quixote,” 1605 1615, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Faust,” 1808. Also, James Boswell’s “Life of Samuel Johnson,” 1791; Herman Melville’s “Moby Dick,” 1851; Sir Walter Scott’s “Ivanhoe,” 1819; George Eliot’s “Silas Marner,” 1861, and Samuel Rich ardson’s “Pamela,” 1740. These books, it was agreed, are tiresome. • But the critics seem to have reflected a change of fashion rather than an actual decline in the values or qualities of the titles chosen for the ash can. They appear to be in revolt against “literary literature.” The editor who thought up the inquiry has explained that they registered their protest against longwindedness, “a tendency tow'ard moralizing” and “gloomy atmospheres.” Yet almost any reader of modern works could name without hesitation books of the present era which are longwinded, moralistic and gloomy yet popular with the general public as well as with professional and amateur literary critics. Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevski may be cited as an example of an author who is verbose, preachy, morbid and nevertheless enjoys a tremendous vogue. Karl Mars’s “Capital,” 1867-1895, is un readable, yet it serves as a Bible to multitudes of communists and other radicals. What the poll of the bored critics actually demonstrates above everything else may be simply the accelerated pace of life in the twen tieth century. “Don Quixote” did not seem too long or too didactic or too solemn for our ances tors. They read Cervantes with sincere apprecia tion. But, of course, they did not have to compete with radio, television, the movies, organized sport and all the other forms of entertainment and amusement available in 1950. Also It well may have happened that they were not scared away from the classics by being assured that they were classics and therefore likely to be a composite pain in the neck. . Who Gets What You Spend for Milk? /'TTN / DAIRIES \ \ FARMERS J The producers’ association says the pie is cut something like this. By Malcolm Lamborne, Jr. WHO gets how much of the price of a quart of milk sold in Washington? That question is being asked these days by many customers. The answer varies with the group you happen to put the question to. It’s complicated, too, by a natural reluctance on the part of distributors to give out figures that would let competitors know too much about their business. The milk business here, as in most metropolitan centers, is a highly competitive one. This article will attempt only to ap proximate how the milk dollar “pie” is sliced and passed out to claimants. Most of the statistics are based on the experience of the industry in 1949. The Maryland and Virginia Milk Pro ducers’ Association, which represents farmers supplying about 85 per cent of Washington’s milk, estimates that its 1,700 members received 11.7 cents a quart for all milk and dairy products sold here last year. The association places the average home-delivered price in 1949 at 21.8 cents a quart. On the basis of these figures, the dairies' return would be 10.1 cents a quart. The dairies, however, Insist that since about 75 per cent of all milk sold here is retailed as bottled milk (for which the farmer receives $5.97 a hundred pounds), the return to the farmer should be around 13 cents a quart. Obviously this estimate pares down the dairy’s return. The Bureau of Agricultural Economics supports the dairies’ statistics. This Agriculture Department agency estimates the average retail price of all milk sold here last year at 20.75 cents a quart. This includes stores sales of all dairies, both those buying their milk from the producer association and those dealing independently with other farmers. I The the the return to dairies at 7.41 cents rt. On this question of the dairy’s return. Government agencies that have made studies here and in other cities report that Washington dairies have the small est margin of profit for bottled milk of any distributors in the country. Need less to add, the dairies concur in this finding. An official of one local dairy observed recently that his firm could not stay in business if it depended entirely on its retail milk sales. This dairy and others manage to make their profits on large sales of milk to hotels, restaurants and military establishments, as well ss of buttermilk, eggs, butter and ie nog mix at Christmas time. In any conversation on this euuject, the dairy operator is likely to bring up a favorite argument: If the farmers would lower the price of their Class I milk (milk sold in bottled form), sales would go up to the benefit of all parties concerned— farmer, dairyman and, last least, the consumer. The farmers, on the other take strong exception to that theory. The association cites figures from the New York market which show that during a price war in that city in May the retail price dropped 3 cents a quart. Sales, on the other hand, according to the figures, increased only two-thirds of 1 per cent, but the farmer took a 16 per cent loss during the period. Milk consumption, the farmers feel, Is relatively inelastic and would not in crease enough to bring about the result predicted by the dairies.' “Sales might go up if the price were reduced as much as 5 cents a quart, for Instance,” one farmer spokesman ob The dairies say this is about what happens to their whole-milk return. served. "But that would give the farmer only $3.65 a hundred pounds for his milk. It would put him out of business over night." To get back to the question of price returns, dairies estimate that retail milk drivers receive about 4.5 cents a quart out of the milk “pie," leaving the dairy itself a return of 2.91 cents a quart. Out of this, they point out, they must pay for processing, bottling, refrigeration, con tainers and the like. When it’s all toted up, dairy econo mists come up with an estimate of a profit of between one-third and two fifths of a cent a quart on all bottled milk sales. The Milk Industry Founda tion places the profit per quart for the entire country at less than one-third of a cent. The producer association has no sta tistics available on farmers’ profit margins, although it insists that they, too, are small. An official cites an interesting follow up on'the recent milk strike here. He says the association has knowledge of several hundred farmers informing feed dealers that, because of the losses suf fered from lack of sales during the shut down, they would not be able to pay their feed bills in June. “That doesn’t look as though farmers were rolling in wealth,” this official com mented. Meanwhile, the Washington housewife waits momentarily for an announce ment from her dairy that the price of milk is going uj>—probably half a cent a quart—to bring it to 21 cents. With an eye on that narrow price re turn, the dairies explain the increase is necessary because of gains won by the truck drivers following settlement of the milk strike. Letters to The Star i£rt&J2«F£&£& ^ ' * * and address of writer. Please be brief. Dentistry Critic < Dental science has made significant progress in the care and preservation of teeth of the present generation. But what is being done about the numerous incompetent and careless dentists who are failing miserably in upholding the highest traditions of the dental profes sion? Many teeth needlessly are lost because a patient is inaccurately informed that he has no cavities or that all teeth have been filled. And when a toothache or a premonition prompts him to return to his dentist, or, as is sometimes the case, to go to another dentist, it often is too late to save the tooth. When a dentist takes X-rays and probes around in a patient’s mouth, it is difficult to comprehend how cavities are overlooked. Consideration should be given to periodic rating of dentists on various aspects of their professional knowledge and ability, and making avail able such information to those individ uals who have been unsuccessful in ob taining first-class dental attention. Semiedentulous. The Dust Has Settled' The dust has settled at last. The policy of fighting Communist aggression with butter instead of guns has been replaced in one corner of the world by a sterner one. It is gratifying that the President, faced by the inexorable logic of events, chose in the present crisis to accept the advice of the military experts above that of the kitchen cabinet and the crystal gaiers. Oen. MacArthur acted promptly and effectively in sending air, naval and mili tary aid to the embattled Republic of South Korea, and in arranging for the evacuation of American civilian person nel. He has first hand acquaintance with the situation. He understood the danger that threatened, as evidenced by his many warnings—warnings at which the fellow-travelers and leftists scoffed. Because of his knowledge and his deter mination, his forces were prepared to help the moment authorization was given after the aggressor struck in Korea. The country is fortunate in having a man like Oen. MacArthur in command in the Far East. It is fortunate also in having in the Congress a little group of Senators and Representative# who, de spite bitter opposition, despite the sneers about a "China Lobby,” persisted in fight ing for the honor of the United States and for the protection of its interests in the Orient. Had their councils prevailed earlier, the present calculated risk might not have been necessary. But the calculated risk that has now been taken may yet be in time to prevent the civilized world from reaching the brink of the fatal precipice that lies at the end of the road of appeasement. E. M. Johnson. 'I Was Enchanted' “Music hath charms”—so the saying goes, and on a recent visit to Washing ton, I was enchanted by the music on your streetcars! As a mob-tortured soul who must ride the buses in my own traf fic-tormented city. I found riding your musical trams to be a soothing and de lightful experience. Here’s hoping the idea catches on so that we all can wend our way to work “On Wings of SongJ” Peggy McNeany. New York, N. Y. Rent Control—Round 2 When The 8tar graciously published my letter captioned “Equity Lesson.” little did it occur to me that the simple illustration shown—concerning the fun damental purpose of rent control and what it has accomplished, in a measure, for the less fortunate class of Washing ton tenants—would not be thoroughly understood by those who took the trouble to read the letter. It now ap pears, however, that one William H. Sweitzer (Letters to The Star, June 29) is having some difficulty with the un equivocal logic concerning the question, and I am glad for this opportunity to dehorn the dilemma for him. In the first place—not that it is of any Importance at this time, but merely for the sake of exactness—while the cost of the apartment house referred to, exclu sive of the land, was $200,000, it was actually erected 18 years ago and not 15 years ago as mentioned in my letter. In the second place, it was assumed— when I said the expense of operation did not exceed $25,000 a year—that I would not have to burden the letter with the obvious and superfluous statement that included in such expense was an item of $5,000, representing depreciation computed at 2% per cent for one year on $200,000, since the apartment house in question happens to be a brick build ing having an economic life of 40 years, as previously established for income tax purposes by the United States Bureau of Internal Revenue. In the third and last place, it was no inadvertence under any circumstances that my letter did not disclose nor in fact include in the "expense of opera tion” item, computation for such pre sumptive and unauthorized deductions as “vacancy allowance,” “reproduction cost,” or “brokerage fee”l Who ever heard of the Income Tax Unit allowing as a deduction from income any of these professionally trumped-up items in ad vance of their actually taking place? If such deductions are now being al lowed. the practice has been started since the writer retired from that office three years ago. As a matter of fact, it would be just as logical to allow farmers or any other business enterprise to claim as deductions from income, such antici pated and unrealized items as losses from •‘fires'’ or "crop failures,” as it would be to allow deductions for any type of the three professionally concocted and hypothetical items mentioned above. “Reproduction cost.” to be exact, is a term synonymous with “depreciation”; whereas so-called “vacancy” losses are Just about as uncommon in Washington rental circles these days, as holy water is .in the lower regions. Losses result ing from any of these contingencies, however, are recognized for income tax purposes when they actually occur and are definitely determinable, but not un til then. Moreover, such losses may, by reason of the “carry-over” provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, be deducted from income during the succeeding three-year period, if necessary. D. A. Snyder. Airport Congestion I see that we are to have a new air port for Washington to cost something like $14 million. True, our present airport is occasion ally fog-bound, but improvements in in strument landing should minimize this handicap within the near future. As far as handling more planes is con cerned, why not move the military out of Bolling Field and use those facilities in conjunction with our present airport? Communication between the two fields can be established by one or two tunnels. This method would lead to a minimum interference with air and river traffic. Robert Hofstetter. Mr. Mellett and 'Sour Grapes' Lowell Mellett is surprised and hurt that the oldest and most loyal Democrats have repudiated an administration that has deliberately antagonized and scorned them! These unreasonable States were swayed by sinister outside influences, in stead of by candidates supported by the PAC! But let Mr. Mellett stop his sour grapes lament. If Mr. Graham was too honest a man to win an election, that same disadvantage is not likely to re occur in other Truman-supported can didates. Reader. This and That . . . By Charles E. Tracewell A villain doesn’t always look like a villain. A good example is the cowbird, which puts its eggs in some other bird’s nest. Most bird watchers regard it as a culprit, and expect to see it look ugly. In truth, it is handsome, the only blackbird with a brown head. His lady fair does not resemble him, being Just a brown-gray sort of thing. * * It is the baby cowbird that is surpris ing Large, fluffy, gray-tan, he appeals instantly. “What bird is that?” is the instant question. Few onlookers realize that there is a young villain. Actually, of course, he is no villain at all, just another hungry young bird. Many watchers think he is a dove. “Why, just look at that song sparrow,” one says, “feeding that young dove!” The song sparrow is right enough, but that is no dove, buddy. It is a cowbird. * * Song sparrows are always victims, among other species. It must be admitted they are ready They spend countless h ‘ feeding the big cowbird babies, often to the detriment of their own. This is a strange thing in nature. The rightful young are neglected by their own mother. The mother song sparrow seems to recognize no difference. Can that be said to be the universal mother heart? If so, the song sparrow knows nothing of it. All she knows is that a bird with wide open bill is asking her for food. It is not possible to say, in any real sense, that she is fooled. Her small mind does not permit her to observe and say, “Well, this baby is hungry, but after all, he is not a song sparrow. Let him starve.” * * It is interesting to speculate how any bird evolved such a thing as putting its eggs in some other bird’s nest. A bird nest is not, as many think, a home, but rather a cradle. It might be called a nursery. Each mother bird builds her own nest, sometimes with the aid of her mate, and in it lays the eggs. Nature tells her to keep them warm. When they hatch, her first instinct is to drop food down those wide open bills. How does she know to do it? That is one of the many mysteries of life. To say “instinct" really explains noth ing. To make it all mechanical reflexes is to leave too much out. * * It is enough to say that all birds act in this way except the cowbird. and a few others. The cowbird is the big American exception. Where did she get her parasitic actions? It could not have been deduction, based on observation. Call it evolution, if you will, but it remains an odd thing. Probably some one mother cowbird, long, long ago. began it, but how did that influence the others to go and do like wise? Keep an eye open for cowbirds in your own yard, and suspect them when you see some species you do not know, especially if it happens to be fed by a mother bird utterly unlike it in appear ance. It is unnecessary to say the song spar row, as foster mother, lacks common sense. She has all the bird common sense there is. If something is “put over on her,” it is beyond her righting, she is exploited, but doesn’t know it, and therefor# does not mind It. Greatest Ocean Depth Put at 34,440 Feet Area Off Philippines Coast Lowest Point on Planet By Thomas R. Henry The ocean's greatest known depth Is 34.440 feet. This is the Cape Johnson Deep in the Mindanao Trench off the east coast of the Philippines. It is apparently the lowest point on the planet, exceeding by more than a mile below sea level the highest point, the summit of Mount Everest above sea level. Such is the conclusion reported to the American Geophysical Union by Dr. H. H. Hess of Princeton University and M. W. Buel, Jr., of the Navy Hydrographic Office. Dr. Hess was commanding officer of the U. S. S. Cape Johnson when the sounding was made. There, of 'course, may be still greater depths not yet discovered. Emden Sounding. The accepted record up to now has been somewhat greater, 35,400, based on soundings made about 23 years ago by the German cruiser Emden. This was in the same general neighborhood, the so called Emden Deep, about 40 miles south of the Cape Johnson Deep. Examination of the records. Dr. Hess and Mr. Buel say, throws great doubt on the Emden sounding. It was made when depth finding apparatus was quite primi tive and corrections for speed of sound in various temperatures and salinity of water poorly systematized. The Cape Johnson measurements were made in 1945 when the human element was en tirely eliminated from depth soundings and the latest tables of the British Ad miralty have been applied in making corrections. The electronic soundings showed a maximum depth of only 31,380 feet. Still a difference of nearly a mile remains very great. It can be accounted for, Dr. Hess and Mr. Buel believe, by an error difficult to detect—sound waves echoed at an angle from the walls of the deep rather than directly from the bottom. This possibility was eliminated in the Cape Johnson measurements. Complicated Calculations. It is highly probable that the so-called Mindanao Trench contains the deepest water on earth. The Cape Johnson with Dr. Hess as commander surveyed the whole area quite thoroughly, but the 34,440-foot depth was the greatest they could obtain. Discovery of this lowest point on earth was not announced at the time since complicated calculations were necessary to determine the validity of the Emden claims. The whole Mindanao Trench, Dr. Hess reports, has a gently undulating bottom surface, probably made up largely of soft mud due to sinking of sediments from the sea surface. Soft mud returns few echoes, and these are difficult to inter pret. Dr. Hess and Mr. Buel believe the Emden commander was entirely honest in making his claims. The second deepest spot in the sea, the report says, probably is the Ramapo Deep, ofT the coast of Japan. The depth is 34,038 feet. The sounding was made by the UJ5.S. Ramapo about 15 years ago. The measurements were made with stop watch timing, subject to great errors, and all have been subjected to intensive analysis. All that can be said for them with any confidence, the report says, is that they leave the Ramapo Deep, the second greatest in the sea. It formerly was con sidered second only to the Emden Deep. * * Parallels of latitude are from 20 to 30 per cent more elastic than meridians of longitude. In other words the earth is a lot more “stretchable” east and west than north and south. This has been reported to the Amer ican Geophysical Union by Dr. Eiichl Nishimura of the Geophysical Institute of Kyoto University after probably the most extensive studies yet made of “earth tides.” More than 300,000 pairs of star observations were used in making the calculations. The phenomenon of earth tides are well known to geophysicists. The light upper crust of the earth is under the gravitational attraction of sun and moon and hence displays constant tidal move ments. These are so small, however, that they can be detected only with delicate instruments and individuals never are conscious of them. Crust Fairly Elastic. The extent of these tides depends on the rigidity of the crust, as well as the temporary configuration of sun and moon. Dr. Eiichi's observations show that the crust is fairly elastic in an east west direction. It is able to undergo considerable distortions and snap back into its old shape again, following either tidal pulls or depressions due to heavy weights. At present no valid explanation can be offered for the difference in the north south direction, but the star observations leave little doubt of the validity of the phenomenon. They, however, are based largely on Japanese stations. Dr. Eiichi appeals for a longer series of observations in other parts of the world. These need not necessarily be tied in with the Japanese program which was in process long before the war. Questions and Answers A reader can set the answer to any auts «on of fact by writing The Evening SUr Information Bureau. 1200 I street N.W., Washington 6. D. C. Please inclose 3 cent! for return Hostage By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Is It possible for a commissioned officer of the National Guard to transfer to the Organized Reserve Corps of the Army, and how does he apply?—E. M. K. A. According to the Department of Defense, it is possible. The National Guard and ORC are two separate en tities. An officer must resign NG com mission and apply for appointment to the ORC. If there is a vacancy on the ORC the officer will be appointed in grade in the active reserve. If there is no vacancy he may be appointed only In the Inactive reserve. An officer should contact his local ORC unit instructor prior to making any commitment of his status. Q. What causes a grasshopper to sing or buzz?—V. S. G. A. Grasshoppers sing, fiddle, buzz, and call by rubbing their wing covers to gether. ' Summer Road Leaf galaxies of shadows fall Across the long gray monotone Of concrete with an interval Sun-brightened, and one shining lone Mirage of mirror coolness, iced Upon the roadbed’s level way; Swept by a vagrant west wind spiced With fragrance of a summer day, n CHRISTIE JEFFRIOf. i. '