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Sunny with high about 82 today. Pair tonight with low near 62. Tomorrow some cloudiness with high in mid 80s. Temperatures Today. Midnight 69 6 a.m.__ 63 10 a.m.- 72 2 a.m.-_ 66 8 a.m.__ 65 11 a.m._ 75 4 a.m._. 65 9 a.m.__ 68 Noon_._ 77 Guide for Readers rage Amusements ..A-ll Church News A-8-10 Classified ..A-13-18 Comics_A-20-21 Editorial_A-6 Editorial Articles A-7 page Lost and Found A-3 Obituary _A-4 Radio _A-19 Real Estate—B-l-4 Sports_B-10-11 Society, Clubs. _A-12 An Associated Press Newspaper 98th Year. No. 203. Phone ST. 5000 ** WASHINGTON, D. C., SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1950—THIRTY-FOUR PAGES. City Home Delivery, Dally and Sunday, $1.20 a Month; when 5 S’ /'CIV'Vrrr'C! Sundays, $1.30. Night Final Edition, $1.30 and $1.40 per Month. * X O China Reds Shell Isle Near Amoy; Yanks Consolidate Defense Lines South of Taejon as Foe Regroups - "■ -- - ----- Attack Indicates Plan to Invade Blockade Base By the Associated Press TAIPEI, Formosa, July 22.— Chinese Communists began shell ing Quemoy Island, off the main land port of Amoy, tonight in evi dent preparation for an assault on the Nationalist blockade base. The Nationalist Defense Min istry said the Reds had assembled some 1,300 craft for an apparent attack on the island. This would be the first action of the Chinese war since President Truman requested the Nationalists to halt operations against the mainland. Quemoy is garrisoned by Na tionalist troops under able Gen. Hu Lien. Earlier, the Langlish language China News said today the Chi nese Reds still are preparing fev erishly to attack Formosa. “The security of the island should not be overestimated nor too much reliance put on United States Navy support,” it warned. However, skippers of ships steaming between Hong Kong and Keelung on North Formosa re ported a steady movement of Chi nese Communist craft northward from east coast ports. Observers said this indicated the Reds had abandoned for a time their plans to invade Formosa. U. S. Loss of Taejon No Defeat, Army Says By the Associated Prese An Army briefing officer said today the American loss of Taejon was unfbrtahate but he would not call it a defeat. The officer made the statement to reporters when questioned1 about a correspondent’s dispatch' from Korea. The dispatch de scribed the loss of Taejon as the most humiliating and costly de feat suffered by American troops in the Korean conflict. “Anytime we have to withdraw, we don’t like it,” the Army of ficer said. “As far as Taejon is concerned, it was just another step in a delaying action. “From a psychological viewpoint it was unfortunate that we couldn’t hold at Taejon. But from the tactical viewpoint, we had to fall back on stronger ground. “I wouldn’t call it a defeat. It was one of the developments to be expected. “The terrible part about a de laying action is the loss of wound ed and equipment. “Yet it has been done with great skill and courage under very try ing difficulties.” The officer expressed belief that within a short time “we can sta bilize that situation.” Korea Fighters' Wives Get Rent Rise Notices By the Associated Press SPOKANE, July 22.—Notices of eviction or rerft increases have been handed to wives and families of at least six Spokane Air Force Base Flyers who were ordered to the Pacific, Mayor Arthur Meehan says. The Mayor said the complaints reached his office during the last few days and added: “If they continue to come in at this rate I’ll recommend that rent control be put back into effect.” Spokane rents were decontrolled a year ago. The Mayor didn’t mention any names but said one expectant mother was given a 30-day evic tion notice. The Mayor said the woman called police when the landlord insisted. on bringing prospective buyers to the house at all hours. An undisclosed number of B-29 Superforts from the Spokane base were ordered to advanced Pacific fields in early July. They started leaving here July 4. A week later they participated in the first stra tegic mass'bombing attack on a North Korean target. Six crewmen have been listed officially as “missing in action.” France to Legalize Sale Of U. S. Cigarettes By the Associated Press PARIS, July 22.—Official quar ters said today that American cigarettes will be placed on legal sale toward the end of August. This news heralded a blow to one of the country’s oldest and most flourishing black markets. Officials made this statement In disclosing that 140 tons of American cigarettes have just Deen landed at Le Havre for the state tobacco monopoly. It is estimated that two or three weeks will be required to supply all tobacco Ihops. G/s Reveal How'Roof Fell In' In House-to-House T aejon Fight City Turned Into "Miniature Manila"; Americans Trudge Miles to Escape By Russell Brines Associated Press Foreign Correspondent TOKYO, July 22.—A hint of the final burning hours of Taejon has reached here in broken bits of in formation. ,It may take days to sort names and faces and fihd out what 200 Stragglers Reach U. S. Post After Gruelling Ordeal. Page A-3 Americans escaped in those final hectic hours and who stayed be hind. It may take longer to as semble a full and coherent story of the fight—a sort of miniature Manila where houses became fortresses and alleys were full of danger. Frontline dispatches said today more than 200 Americans have struggled back to their lines They crossed the rugged moun tains for miles afoot, slipping out of the battered town after the main escape roads had been blocked. The 34th Regiment, with artil lery support, was in and north | of Taejon when a Red division attacked. The assault was like the four other major ones against the Americans — powerful and fanatic pressure from the front co-ordinated with the outflank ing and infiltration movement of well-armed and trained foot sol diers. The Americans, who started 1 Gen. Dean, Wounded, Officially Reported As Missing in Action 24th Division Chief Last Seen Thursday; Hope for Return Held Maj. Gen. William F. Dean is missing in action after being re ported wounded in Korea, the Army announced today. He was last seen on the front on Thurs day. The Army’s announcement said Gen. MacArthur had “high hopes” that the commander of the 24th Division would return with some of his troops. Gen. MacArthur’s message to the department said: “With deep regret I report that Maj. Gen. Dean, commanding general, 24th Division, is missing in action. The circumstances are as follows: “During withdrawal operations of one of his units, he remained with the unit to accompany the withdrawal and has not been heard from since that time. “High hopes exist that he will return with one of the groups of separated personnel frequently re turning to their units. Gen. Dean’s interpreter, who had been with him, indicates that Dean was wounded, but due to the inter preter’s own serious wound, he could not indicate how seriously. “It is still hoped that this gal lant officer, if alive, has not fal len into enemy hands.” Commissioned m 1921. Gen. Dean was born in Carlyle, HI., August 1, 1899. A graduate of the University of California, he was first commissioned a second lieutenant in the infantry re serve in 1921. An Army spokesman, in making the department’s announcement, commented: “Reports of Gen. Dean’s conduct are just what you’d expect of him. “He was a great personal lead er with great magnetism and great courage, and he will be an inspiration to all of bis men.” The general preferred to be in the field with his men rather than at a desk job or an administrative position. It was his idea to lead his troops personally wherever possible, and he frequently moved among his front-line troops with out regard for his personal safety. He is known as a soldier’s general, the spokesman commented. *Gen. Dean is 6 feet 2 inches tall and weighs around 200 pounds. His brown hair, beginning to turn (See DEAN, Page A-2.) Typhus Death Increase Reported in Hong Kong By the Associated Press HONG KONG, July 22.—Typhus is increasing in Hong Kong with “a dangerous tendency toward worse to come,” the colonial gov ernment officially warned yes terday. It published figures showing that during the first six months' of 1950, 54 persons died out of 103 cases. There were 28 deaths out of 171 cases during the same pe riod last year. withdrawing Thursday afternoon, had to fight their way back through miles of roads command ed by snipers armed with auto matic weapons. One account said the road was covered for 6 miles out of Taejon, almost to the next American positions. American soldiers came out by truck and by jeep. The wounded were carried on tanks. Many trudged on foot through the mountains. One convoy of about 20 trucks and a number of jeeps slipped out on a side road and was pinned down by small-farms fire. Others drove through town at breakneck speed with orders to stop for noth ing, not even the wounded. It was in such a column that Wilson Fielder of Time Magazine was riding when he reportedly was struck by machine-gun fire and fell from the vehicle. The Communists tried to draw their net as tightly as possible around the provincial capital, once a prosperous city of 150,000. When their tanks crashed into the center of town and raced past the American command ppst, they headed for crossroads to cut off retreat. It was here that Maj. Gen. William F. Dean—still miss ing—was seen directing a bazooka squad against the armored ve hicles. Reds Set Up Road Blocks. Other Communists set up road blocks of machine guns. One of the main roads out of town was blocked by a burning American anjnunition truck. Another was choked with a flanking column of Red soldiers. At the last minute one group of American jeeps sped through a railroad overpass which then was dynamited, blocking the road and temporarily cutting off those still in the town. The “roof fell in” suddenly. Soldiers describe it that way when a battle on a perimeter some dis tance away quickly moves like a hungry monster and surrounds you. The enemy was everywhere. He was sniping from shuttered houses and he popped out of alleyways with a gun in his hand. He was in tanks that slipped by American artillery and bazooka men and crashed into town. » Became House-to-House Battle. In the entrapment this turned into house-to-house battling, per haps the most extensive battle of this kind for American troops since they took Manila, room by room, in 1945. Nobody could keep track of the whole battle as it moved through the dirt streets of the burning town. There probably is no complete estimate yet of the total American survivors. Early in the Ameri can campaign a battalion was cut off in open country in much the same way. Most of it returned— maybe most of the 34th Regiment will get back. Taejon may stand out as a clas sic of this phase of the Korean campaign. The ferocity of the battle will make it live. But also, Associated Press Correspondent Leif Erickson reported from 8th Army headquarters that this should be the last time the Amer icans will have to withdraw be fore a numerically superior en emy who has run around their flanks. Town Not Defensible. Gen. MacArthur has said Tae jon had no particular military significance. The town itself was not fully defensible because it had lost it% importance as an American supply center and as the temporary capital of the South Korean government. But the Taejon battle was part of the American fight for time. Its loss was anticipated. The Americans defensively may be better off in their new hillside positions. The question was: How long Taejon could be held and accordingly how long the Red ad vance could be delayed. It lasted longer than many at the front seemed to expect. And it died stubbornly. Fair and Cool Week End Predicted for Capital A cool and pleasant week end— devoid of showers—is in prospect for Washington, according to the Weather Bureau. Today should be mostly sunny, the forecaster said, with the tem peratures climbing to about 82. Fair weather tonight, with a low of about 65, also is expected. r Tomorrow’s forecast calls for some cloudiness with the ther mometer again reaching the mid dle 80s. Yesterday’s top was 77, at 4:50 p.m., with a low of 65 at 6:40 a.m. American Planes Strafe City and B-29s Raid Again By the Associated Press TOKYO (Sunday), July 23.— American troops consolidated de fensive positions south and south east of fallen Taejon today and maintained constant contact with the North Korean invaders in an ticipation of new enemy assaults. Gen. MacArthur’s communique early today said the war situation was “relatively quiet.” It specu lated that the Reds had suffered such heavy casualties in their seiz ure of Taejon Thursday midnight that they were having to regroup before moving again. American tactical air forces flew 92 sorties yesterday in frontline support operations, including I strafing of Taejon. Twenty-two B-29s again bombed railway yards and bridges at the enemy capital of Pyongyang. Recaptured Towns Held. East oi raejwii cu the land front the Americans held two towns newly captured from the Reds. Americans took over the ruins of Yongdok Friday under cover of heavy Allied naval gunfire. The town is on the East coast 25 miles north of the 1st Cavalry Division beachhead at Pohang. It was reported destroyed by Amer ican and British naval guns Wed nesday. Negro troops of the 25th Infan try Division routed the invaders from Yechon Friday after 16 hours of artillery attack and house-to-house fighting. Reinforcements Gathered. Yechon is 50 miles inland and in line with the northern arm of a Red pincer aimed at cutting the American rail supply line from the southeastern port of Pusan. Pusan supplies the 24th Infantry Division fighting the holding war on the Taejon front. The northern point of this pin cer arm appears to be at Mung yong, 20 miles northwest of new ly recaptured Yechon. There the tank-led Red 15th Division was reported gathering reinforcements for a drive south to Kumchon, on the Pusan-Taejon railroad 40 miles southeast of Taejon. The southern arm of the Com munist pincer is formed by two columns striking southwest of Taejon. Gen. MacArthur said in a com munique yesterday that one of these moved 16 miles from Kumje south, to Chongup and the other advanced in a parallel line 20 miles from Chonju to Imsil. The points of the southern arm, at Chongup and Imsil, are 50 and 60 miles southwest of Taejon. Taejon Is Hinge. The hinge of the pincer drive is Red-held Taejon. The pres sure there is greatest. American troops gave up Taejon after two days of heavy attack from over whelming numbers of Red armor, infantrymen and guerillas. The Americans made further withdrawals to better defense ter ritory, Gen. MacArthur said. He said the South Korean 1st Corps on the American right flank backed up in the same direction at the same time. Associated Press Correspondent Leif Erickson said Communist forces were active yesterday near new American positions southeast of Taejon, but there was no pene tration of. the American and South Korean lines. Mr. Erickson said there was a sharp lull across the Korean bat tlefront. He said strengthened American forces dug into a rail way line east of fallen Taejon. (The Army announced at a Pentagon briefing today that guerrilla activities had been re ported in two rather moun tainous areas of South Korea behind the American and South Korean lines. It could not re port the extent of these activi ties. (One of the areas was in East ern Korea from Yongyang south (See KOREA, Page A-3.) JUST USE yOUR tiniAII : CONSCIENCE / IVHICH Leopold Home Without a Cheer, Asks Belgians to Heal Rift Radio Address Gives No Hint of Plans After Foes Demand He Abdicate By the Associated Press BRUSSELS, Belgium, July 22.— King Leopold III came home from exile today and immediately called on all Belgians to avoid further bitter struggle. The nation has been split by his insistence on re turning to the throne he left 10 years ago after surrendering to the Nazis. Less than five hours after Leo pold landed on Belgian soil, the two main opposition parties—the Socialists and the Liberals—de manded that he abdicate. But in his radio address to the nation a short time later, the King gave no indication as to whether he in tends to quit in favor of his son, Prince Baudouin, who came home with him. Speaking very slowly, Leopold declared he would make every ef fort to bring appeasement and na tional concord to Belgium. He asked his listeners to remember that Belgium’s national motto is “Union Makes Strength.” “My hand is stretched out to all those who, like me, think only of serving the country.” he said. Leopold made it- clear he in tends to support Belgium’s pres ent foreign policy, based on the Atlantic defense pact and the Brussels five-power defense union. He paid tribute to those who fought for Belgium against the (See LEOPOLD, Page A-3.) I -- Food Prices Rise 2.1% In Month as Living Cost Increases 0.9% Survey of Three Cities Indicates Still Higher Levels as of July t5 By Malcolm Lamborne, Jr. Pood prices in the Nation jumped 2.1 per cent between mid May and mid-June, boosting the cost of living during the same pe riod by nine-tenths of 1 per cent, the Bureau.of Labor Statistics re ported today. At the same time, the agency said it had made a preliminary food price check of three cities as of July 15, which leads experts to believe consumers are faced with a further sharp increase in retail prices. The general price survey was made before the outbreak of the Korean war on June 25. However, in a report prepared for the Joint Committee on the Economic Report this week, the bureau warns there are “strong indications that retail prices will continue to advance in July.” Scare Buying and Hoarding. The report adds: “This reflects, to an unde termined extent, the Korean con flict. Part of it is scare buying and hoarding by some consumers, and part of it reflects higher raw ma terial costs which have been passed on with great rapidity to the consumers.” The higher prices have led to demands on the part of some in Congress for controls and Pres ident Truman told Congress Wed nesday he may have to ask for control powers. Representative Sabath, Democrat, of Illinois said after a White House visit yes terday that Mr. Truman is de termined to ask for such powers (See PRICES, Page A-2.) Canadian Navy Probing Report Of Soviet Sub Off East Coast By the Associated Press OTTAWA, July 22.—The Cana dian Navy said today its intelli gence branch received reports several days ago that a strange submarine, possibly Russian, had been seen off Canada’s east coast. A naval spokesman said the re ports are being investigated. , He indicated that immediate checks with Washington and Lon don showed no American or Brit ish subs would have been in Grand Banks area where Newfoundland fishermen reported they had seen the craft emerge. He was commenting on press reports from St. John’s of the fishermaii’s report. He said the Navy received the same sort of report several days ago and “is investigating." Technically, he said, it would be quite possible for a Russian sub marine to reach those waters. Legally, there would be nothing Canada or any other nation could do about it so long as the sub stayed outside the three-mile limit. Outside that limit the waters are international. The sub would only transgress Canada’s boundaries if it came in side the three-mile limit without asking Canada’s permission. That would be an unfriendly act, liable to be met with a military response. The official said he could not disclose what steps the Navy has taken to investigate. He did say, however, that no Navy ship has been dispatched to the area where the sub was reported. One obvious step would be a thorough check by naval officers (See SUBMARINES, Page A-2.) Air Force Expected To Call Its Reserves Into Service Monday Air National Guard Not Included; Plans for D. C. Units Unknown The Air Force is expected soon, probably Monday, to start order ing some of its Reserve units to active duty. Unlike the move announced yes terday by the Army to summon ___ _ _ _ _ __ - - — — __ District Guard Packs for Trip Home Tomorrow. Page A-22 non-divisional elements of the Na tional Guard as well as Reserve elements, the contemplated call by the Air Force will not apply to the Air National Guard, officials said. The Navy and Marine Corps pre viously issued calls for 86,000 Re serves. The Army has not dis closed the number it expects to draw from its 932,000-man pool of National Guard and Reserve strength. But it plans to take units smaller than divisions and give the men 30 days’ notice. There are about 332,000 Na tional Guardsman and 600,000 Re servists available to the Army. Spokesmen explained that only “supporting” units are likely to be called and will not be taken from any division. u. t. ouard flans Unknown. Some of the non-divisional ele ments of the District National Guard of 2,000 men, now finish ing summer training at Fort Miles, Del., may be affected by the Army action. Pentagon authorities would not say what District units, if any. would be called. The first Washington group of reservists to receive mobilization orders was the 5th Infantry Bat talion of the Marine Corps Re serve. The 500 officers and men were ordered yesterday to report at Camp Lejeune, N. C., about July 31 for active duty. Draft activities in the Washing ton area were comparatively quiet today, but examiners prepared for the arrival of the District’s first 50 men to be examined Monday at the Arlington Farms center. Physical and mental examinations there last Wednesday, Thursday and yesterday were given to men sent from local boards in nearby Maryland. Results of the first three days (See RESERVE, Page A-4.) Pravda Says Hungary Sends Hospital to Korea By the Associated Press MOSCOW, July 22.—The Com munist Party newspaper Pravda said today that Hungary has sent equipment and personnel to set up a field hospital for Koreans. Pravda’s Budapest correspond ent said a brigade of doctors and nurses already has been flown i from the Hungarian capital. Garvin's Restaurant Destroyed as Patrons File Out; Fireman Hurt $50,000 Damage Causes Doubt Whether Cafe Can Be Reopened A two-alarm fire roared through Garvin’s Restaurant on Connecti cut avenue early today, causing $50,000 damage and injuring one fireman. Virtually the entire interior of the restaurant, at 2619 Connecti Picture of Damage in Restaurant Fire. Page A-4 cut avenue N.W., was destroyed as flames spread from the kitchen, routing many customers within 15 minutes of the £ a.m. closing hour. Eleven fire companies re sponded. Injured was Sergt. Orlando N. Brienza, 38, of No. 9 Engine Co., who suffered a cut on his left thigh. Sergt. Brienza was taken to Emergency Hospital, where he was given treatment and released. Harry Dracos, night manager, said he was sitting by the cash register near the front of the restaurant when the cook, John Coleman, colored, rushed up and told him about fire in the kitchen. Mr. Draco attempted to control the blaze with a hand extinguish er, but was forced to call the fire department. • patrons Leave quietly. He went down the aisles be tween the booths, telling custo mers “I’m sorry, the place is on fire." Taking- a last bite on a steak sandwich or a last gulp at a drink, the patrons filed out without commotion, Mr. Dracos! said. Then he and seven other employes left. Peter Monocrusos,- owner of the restaurant, said he considered the place a total loss, and said he wanted to reopen, but was not sure whether he would be able to. “Very little,” he said, was covered by insurance. Included in the equipment and wares destroyed were some 200 bottles of liquor. Reminded that ail those late customers rushing out without paying a check got a free meal, several free drinks, plus a front seat at a fire, Mr. Dracos grunted: “Never mind the drinks. We wanted to get the people out.” Finds Steaks Medium Rare. Looking through the rubbish af ter the fire, Mr. Dracos found in the bumt-out refrigerator several choice steaks, each done just about medium rare. In another fire early today, less (See FIRE, Page A-4.) _ I Tanks From Cadillac Plant May Be Year Away By the Aieocioted Press CLEVELAND, July 22.—It may be 9 to 12 months before Cadillac starts building tanks at the Fisher bomber plant near Cleveland Air port. That was the word from Col. David J, Crawford, commander of the Detroit Arsenal, last night. He said negotiations for the con tract still were going on. Charles E. Wilson, president of General Motors, of which Cadillac is a division, said the transmis sions for the tanks would be made at GM’s Allison division in In dianapolis. No announcement of the type of vehicle to be produced was made, but sources in Detroit said it may be a new 28-ton light tank which recently was described by the Army as sensational.” i During World War n, the Fisher bomber plant turned out sections of B-29 bombers. It was built at a cost of $50 million and has about i 1,600,000 feet of floor space. i Congress to Get Arms Program Early Next Week Connolly Sees Delay In Request for More Military Aid Funds By John A. Giles The Defense Department’s plan for Ipending an additional $10 billion as a result of the Korean war was on President Truman’s desk today. It arrived at the White House yesterday—too late for forwarding to Congress this week as originally planned — and indications were that it would reach Capitol Hill by Tuesday or Wednesday. Although ground troops will bear the brunt of the Korean fighting and the Navy will take on additional heavy duties because of transportation and convoying, the larger portion of the fund which Mr. Truman requested will go to the Air Force. This is at tributable to an increase in air craft procurement, officials said. 2 Million Seen in Service. As predictions were made on Capitol Hill that the number of Americans in uniform would climb to above the 2-million mark in the next few months, there were these other defense developments: 1. Chairman Connally of the Senate Foreign Relations Com mittee predicted a delay in any presidential request for more arms aid funds. Mr. Truman has indi cated he would seek more money— possibly up to $5 billion—to equip friendly nations, but the Texas Democrat said that the $1,222, 500,000 Congress already has au thorized would “take care of the problem for awhile.” 2. Mr. Truman ordered 14 ma jor Government agencies to curb Federal construction, tighten credit and hold down their buying on items using critical materials, The action was in line with his message to Congress Wednesday in which he said he was direct ing executive agencies to review their programs with the idea of lowering demand upon services commodities, raw materials, man power and facilities competing with those needed for defense. 12 Ships Taken From Reserve. 3. The Maritime Commission announced that 12 troop ships were being taken from its West Coast “mothball” fleet and turned over to the military. Shipping space is one of the major needs in the Korean fighting and the additional ships have a potential carrying capacity of 35,000 men or more—enough to move two full divisions of troops. 4. The Senate moved swiftly late yesterday to approve a bill giving the President power to ex tend for one year the enlistment period of men now in the ftmed services. It also would apply to the National Guard. 5. An immediate tax increase on individuals and corporations was urged unanimously by the Senate House Economic Committee which acts in an advisory capacity on economic matters. Chairman O’Mahoney, Democrat, of Wyom ing said the increase should be “at least” 10 per cent on in dividuals. 6. The Senate voted to give the President control over the oper ation of all foreign ships in Amer ican waters in an effort to guard against possible “sneak attacks” (See DEFENSE, Page A-2.) Texans Voting Today In Democrat Primary By th» Associated Press DALLAS, July 22.—War-con scious Texans voted today. Fighting in Korea helped divert interest from already-dull cam paigns. But Congressional con tests and some local races built up public attention. Fewer than a million ballots were expected from 1.6 million qualified voters. Voting booths opened at 7 a.m. and were to close at 7 pjn. (CST). Only in the 1948 Presidential year have there been so many qualified. In 1948 the voting po tential was 2,251,391. Victory today in the Democratic primary—or in the second primary August 26 if run-offs are neces sary—is tantamount to election in Democratic Texas. Gov. Allan Shivers ended his campaign for re-election with a 6-minute speech at his home town of Woodville. Caso March, Gov. Shivers' most active opponent, spoke at an out door rally in Fort Worth last night. Thirteen of 21 House members are opposed. At least four of the others have well-organized and financed opponents. Six Die in French Tornado CAMBRAI, France, July 22 (IP). —A tornado ripped through this northern industrial area late yes terday, killing six and possibly eight persons and injuring scores. One estimate of the number in jured ran as high as 200. About 300 persons were left homeless. Damage to buildings and cropi exceeded a billion francs ($2,850, 000).