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f With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by The Evening Stor Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Fonnsylvonia Avo. NEW YORK OFFICE: 270 Madison Avo. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Avo. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly_1.20* Monthly _90c 10c per copy Weakly _30c Weekly _20c 10c per copy *10c additional whan 5 Sundays are In a month. Also 10c additional for Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year _U.OO 1 year __11 JO 1 year __7.50 d months __9.50 d months — 6.00 6 months .. 4.00 1 month __1.60 1 month _1.10 1 Month_ 70c Telephone Sterling 5000 Entered ot the Post Office, Washington, D. C. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for eepublication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as all A. P. news dispatches. A—-6 SATURDAY, July 22, If SO i teas a ggeaaaeaeMBaBaassasaa ass. as— ssr.-a Transit Pass Sales Up First returns from the sale of Capital Transit weekly passes at the increased price of $2 support the Public Utilities Commission’s stand for continuance of the pass system in Washington. Contrary to fears of the transportation company, the sale of passes increased rather than decreased when the price was raised from the old weekly rate of $1.75. If this trend continues, the order retaining the pass will have been more than Justified. The company testified at recent fare hearings that pass sales have been declining and that any boost in the price was almost sure to cause a further decline. Moreover, company representa tives said the passes were being used in ways that were not contemplated at the time the system was adopted here, at the company’s request. Some pass holders even were observed handing the ticket out the window to friends waiting in line to board the same vehicle. The PUC was reluctant to abolish the pass, however, because its experts felt that it provided a nucleus of regular riders that might be lost to other means of transportation if the pass privileges were taken away. It was not impressed by the contention that sales would fall off drastically if the price were lifted. The first week on the higher rate brought a total sale of 377 more passes than in the previous week, when the old price was still in effect. This trend may not hold for long, of course. But as long as the pass remains in popular esteem, it would be a mistake to do away with it. More Top Men Needed When Congress last year restricted to 400 the number of top-level civil service employes it did not foresee that situations might arise which would make the limitation extremely ill advised. The Civil Service Commission preferred no statutory restriction, but accepted it without protest, in view of the economy trend then prevailing. The outbreak of the Korean war and the prospect of a long struggle have shown that the arbitrary limitation was unrealistic and should be repealed. With the defense establishment scheduled to expand rapidly during the ensuing months, the need for additional key workers in posts of high responsibility will increase accordingly. Unless the Classification Act is changed, the Government will be severely handicapped in obtaining these employes. The ceiling on salaries for the top group of officials is $14,000 a year. Previously the highest salary permitted was $10,000. The men who will be sought for special administrative and technical jobs during the emergency probably are now getting much more than the ceiling salary in private industry. Many of them could not afford to come to Washington at substantially lower salaries than they are now being paid. Yet the most that these employes could be paid unless the 400-job limit is raised is $10,000. That is the reason for inclusion in the new defense production bill of a provision for lifting of the lid on pay in the higher classifications. When this is done it will be possible to pay from $11,000 to $14,000 to occupants of the top most civil service positions. That will be little enough, considering the qualifications demanded of the men who must be recruited to help in meeting problems of the developing crisis. Every obstacle in the way of securing these experienced executives, scientists and other specially qualified public servants should be removed as soon as possible. A Boost for Stalin It Is most unfortunate that Prime Minister Nehru has been unable to agree with our view that the admission of Red China to the United Nations cannot be made a condition precedent to Russia’s assistance in ending the Korean war. It is unfortunate because Pandit Nehru has great influence with the people of Asia. And when he agrees with the Russian demand with respect to seating Communist China as a pre liminary to ending the Korean war, the effect, so far as popular opinion in Asia is concerned, will be helpful to Russia and harmful to us. Indeed, in the propaganda war that is being fought in connection with the shooting war, this position of the Indian 'Prime Minister may be more helpful to Stalin than many divisions of troops. There are certain facts in this matter, how ever, which cannot be ignored. It is clear that the aggression in Korea was launched with Rus sian assistance and probably at Russian instiga tion. It is a flagrant violation of Russia’s obligations as a member of the United Nations, and Stalin’s insistence now on a deal with respect to China as a condition of calling off the aggressors, which he could do at will, is a form of international blackmail. If we were to submit to it, no doubt the fighting in Korea could be ended. But on the record of Russian performance—a record that is filled with Soviet obstructionism in Korea as in almost every other area—nothing of lasting good would be accom plished. Appeasement may buy off one aggres sion. But it will not prevent another. We are in this Korean business as a matter of principle, in support of the United Nations. Neither we nor the United Nations can consider any deal with respect to China, whatever may be the inherent merits of that question, which would reduce the right to be free from aggression to the level of something that can be bought and sold. We should welcome the support that i i India has given through its indorsement of the Security Council resolutions on Korea. But it is unthinkable that we should resolve the problems which the Korean aggression raises by buying off the Russians. Where Did the Money Go? " Letters to The Star are asking what a great many war-worried citizens and taxpayers are asking these days: Where did all the billions appropriated for defense since World War II (95.6 billion) go? Why, with such enormous expenditures to make us militarily strong, did the Red attack in Korea find us so tragically weak? Why have we so few modern tanks, so few modern anti-tank weapons, so few planes, so few ships, so few of everything needed for national safety? Just how were our defense dollars spent? In an effort • to find the answers to these pertinent questions. The Star asked defense offi cials for a breakdown of military expenditures since V-J Day . The figures supplied reveal how amazingly little of the defense dollar goes for the purchase of actual fighting equipment. Few persons realize that of every dollar they have contributed to the Army, Navy and Air Force only 18 cents have gone for guns and ammunition and tanks for the ground troops, aircraft for the flyers, ships for the Navy. The biggest slice of the dollar—40 cents—went for pay, food, clothing and transportation. The tabulation be low gives a rough breakdown of the defense dollar, based on expenditures since the close of the late war: Item Cents Salaries, food, clothing, transportation_40 Operations and maintenance of equipment— 26 Weapons, planes, ships, etc..18 Research and development_ 5 Administration and secret work_ 4 Vi Reserves and National Guard.,. 4 Industrial mobilization _ 1 Retired pay _(nearly) 1 Construction, public works . Vi Total.100 Defense expenditures for the five years since V-J Day have far exceeded the peak World War II budget of $84,500,000,000 for 1945. The postwar budgets were: 1946, $45,134,000,000; 1947, $14,316,000,000; 1948, $10,961,000,000; 1949, $11, 914,000,000, and 1950 (exclusive of Korean sup plementary budget), $13,335,000,000. That totals $95,650,000,000* This sum includes stockpiling and certain other costs not regularly encom passed in the military budget. The Defense De partment lists the expenses, exclusive of stock piling and the other extras, at a little less than $91 billion from July, 1945, to June 30 of this year. Nearly $42 billion of this was spent during the let’s-bring-the-boys-home-quick demobilization period, from the latter part of 1945 to June, 1946. Vast sums during this period also were paid for material already used in the war, much of which was destroyed or consumed and hence did not add to our postwar strength. Included also were contract settlements. From July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1947, we continued demobilization and spent about $14 billion. Since then we have spent ap proximately $35 billion for defense. Defense officials say the best measure of military spending, as it relates to what we have to show for our money today, is the authorized outlays for the four-year period from July 1, 1946, to June 30, 1950. During this time Congress authorized $49.3 billion for the military, of which $48.4 billion has been spent to date and nearly a billion more will have been spent by the end of this fiscal year.. Almost $20 billion went for payrolls, food, clothing and travel, $13 billion for operating and maintaining military installations and tactical equipment around the globe and $8.5 billion for procurement of planes, tanks, rifles, artillery, ships and other combat tools. During this cold war era, it should be re membered, occurred the costly airlift operations and the support of our occupation troops in Europe and Japan—expenses not ordinarily budgeted in time of so-called peace. In summa tion, our defense dollar has had a huge chunk eaten out of it by ordinary and extraordinary expenses that produced no tangible equipment for our foot soldiers, flyers, sailors and Marines. In fact, 70 cents of the dollar went for house keeping and operational costs. If there is any possible way to reduce the drain on the defense dollar, the Defense Department has been unable to find it. For our fighting men must not only be supplied with arms but must be paid, fed, clothed, housed and transported. It is for such essential things that our money—nearly $100 billion of it—has gone during the past half decade of an uneasy peace. Last of the River Kings Tom R. Greene, last of a dynasty of famous river pilots, has died. Whether this means the end of the Greene line of steamboats on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers remains to be seen. The Greenes carried on the tradition as a duty. Their example may inspire other captains. If not, a fascinating chapter in American trans portation has closed. First of the steamers on western waters was the New Orleans, built from Fulton-Livingston patents in 1811. She was a 300-ton craft, a two-masted side-wheeler with her boiler, engine and vertical stationary cylinder in an open hold. The bow was reserved for freight, and the cabins were aft of the machinery. Following this ship came the Comet, a stern-wheeler featuring vibrating cylinders, launched by Daniel French in 1813. Then Henry Shreve built the Washing ton, 400 tons, with machinery and cabin on the, main deck, horizontal cylinders with vibrations to the pitmans and a double high-pressure engine. Later river steamboats represented natural developments of these three models. The ships gradually increased in beauty as well as tonnage. Some were floating palaces. The second J. M. White, constructed at Pittsburgh in 1843, was 250 feet long, had seven boilers and a 10-foot stroke. Still bigger and grander was the J. M. White III, put together at Louisville in 1878 at a cost exceeding $200,000. She was 325 feet long and had 10 boilers 34 feet in length. Her main cabin reached 260 feet. She could carry 8,500 bales of cotton at a time. The zenith of steamboating probably was the race between the Robert E. Lee and the Natchez, New Orleans to St.' Louis, in three days, 18 hours and 14 minutes—an incident of 1870. Victory went to the “Marse Robert” by three hours. More than a million dollars in bets changed hands. The contest had the effect of turning worldwide attention toward steam navigation on inland streams, throughout the United States. Captain Tom Greene personified all the great chronicle of steamboating. He took his responsibility seriously and never failed to make the most of an opportunity to educate people concerning his profession. Now he is gone, and possibly the era fo which he belonged also is finished. r No More Equality Dreams for Russia By Edward Crankshaw THE SOVIET PEOPLE are now being told more emphatically and une quivocally than ever before that they must relinquish any dreams they ever had about equality—not merely in the present condition of socialism, but also in the future condition of communism. Ever since Stalin’s famous condemna tion of the leveling off of wages as a petty-bourgeois conception, the perpetu ation of sharp inequalities has been orthodox Soviet policy. But among the common people there has always been a stubborn hope that the present extreme inequalities would be at . least partly smoothed out when the day came for communism to supercede so cialism, and the slogan “to each accord ing to his ability” should give way to the slogan “to each according to his needs.” And, in fact, for a long time past, while the propagandists talked a great deal about the approaching transition from socialism to communism, they were careful to avoid anything like a defini tion of “needs.” Of late, this caution has been cast aside. Opening the new campaign, the economist, V. G. Lopatkin, in an elabo rate broadcast lecture, “in reply to a listener’s question,” brought Stalin’s ideas on the shape of the coming Communist state fully into the open, in terms which every one could understand. “According to Stalin,” he said, “in a Communist society each citizen would work according to his capabilities and receive consumer goods not in proportion to the work he had done, but in propor tion to his requirements as a culturally developed person.” He did not define “cultural development.” But the ordinary Russian worker would take it that gov ernihent officials and writers were cul turally developed, and manual workers not so culturally developed. They would also no doubt ask how an unculturally developed person, receiving little because his needs were low, would set about developing himself so that his needs might become higher. Further, Mr. Lopatkin went on to je move all possible doubts about the extent of future inequalities by saying that far from decreasing under communism they would be bound to increase. “It is obvious,” he said, “that under communism, as under socialism, there cannot and will not be a leveling-ofT of wages. The classic Marxist-Leninist writers have always opposed the petty bourgeois interpretation of equality in a socialist society.* As Stalin has said, the cry for equality has its origin in the peasant way of thought, in the psychol ogy of primitive peasant communism, the feeling that all good things should be equally divided. “It has nothing in common with Marx ist socialism and is in complete contra diction to the permanent element of difference in individual requirements... Socialism has never denied differences in taste or in quantity and quality of requirements. Even more so does this apply In communism, where the possi bility of satisfying requirements will be incomparably greater than under so cialism.” In a word, whatever “to each according to his needs” may mean, it does not mean fair shares. (London Observer Foreign New* Service) Letters to The Star . . . A pseudonym is permissible only * when letter carries correct name and address of writer. Please be brief. Nehru as Mediator Nehru of India has proposed a solu tion to the Korean problem in which “peace” will be restored by allowing Com munist China to enter the United Nations, while the North Koreans re turn above the 38th Parallel. The cause of the war in Korea is a breach of the peace by military aggres sion, with the intent to impose an arbi trary government upon this group of people. The issue in Korea is a moral one. If the law has been broken by aggressors, then we must exact a moral penalty for this irresponsible act. If we do not exact an "unconditional surrender” from the North Koreans, and punish the war criminals, we are morally weak. We are afraid of Russia. If we do less than this, it is appeasement. We do not have the moral right to allow this action to go unpunished. Haywood C. McMulian. * * Pandit Nehru should be advised that he is misinformed as to the temper of public opinion in this country, and that in many sectors his desire, noble or otherwise, to mediate the Korean con flict on the basis he proposes is insolent and contemptuous of the effort of Ameri can soldiers now dying on Korean soil. It is well for Mr. Nehru to voice opposi tion to colonialism in Asia, an issue which has been deplorably interwoven with the Communist threat. But it is quite different for India to remain inde pendent of the Communist menace that marks the East-West conflict and to assume the role of an arbiter at the cost of Western shame and dishonor. The echo of Munich, the stench of appeasement, still hover over the graves of those who died in the past war. It would be well for the Indian government to measure its stakes in this struggle that defies geography, and then decide for one side or the other. Frank A. Lopez. * * Generalissimo Stalin’s note to Prime Minister Nehru of India is a frank ad mission that the invasion of Korea was conceived and is now being directed by the Kremlin. If the United Nations sub mits to Stalin’s terms for ending the Korean war, it will have taken its first step in following the League of Nations into extinction. Stalin’s condition for terminating hos tilities in Korea is a brazen attempt to blackmail the free nations of the world, and it is now obvious that the Com munists will not stop until either they are totally defeated or they win. Their ultimate objective is to win the world. Henry J. Schneider. Bread Beef The writer wishes to call attention to the fact that some of the bread deliv ered by the bakeries to retail stores in Washington is improperly baked. He knows of two cases of acute indigestion caused by eating such bread, one of which required the calling of a doctor at 2 a.m. None of the thoroughly baked bread made by the writer’s mother gave him acute indigestion. E. Gaylord. 1 Ku Klux Kfan I often wonder why the Ku Klux Klan uses fiery crosses in their childish rit uals. After all, the cross is the symbol of Christianity, and Christians are supposed to be tolerant. The cowardly bunch of weasels who go out only after covering their faces with sheets is anything but tolerant. Because the members of this lily-livered organization are mostly on the bottom of the social scale, they scorn the only ones they can look down on, the oppressed Southern Negroes who have never been given a chance to better themselves. I can think of no men so despicably cowardly that they would ride in large numbers, heavily masked and usually armed, to maltreat the fine race whose help we so urgently need in these trying days. P. W. Nagle. Last Words on 'Weary' The letters signed "Sympathetic” and "M. B„” relating to the nurse .“Weary,” were almost certainly directed at me, be cause the nurse's letter came to life through me after some weeks. And am I dismayed! Instead of meaning to treat the sub ject in a flippant manner, I expected you to refuse to print the letter because it was pretty harsh on the dog. I meant that if one cquld blast the noise greatly magnified right back at the selfish dog owner, the intolerable noise of a barking dog would wake up the owner and maybe make him realize how unfair he was in permitting the dog to bark. My sfecond suggestion was about a small electric fan, and you eliminated my statement that the scheme really works. But it really does. If Weary will try it, she will get her sleep. And I was being serious, and not “abusing” the nurse, when I said the trouble with the scheme was that when you got going you could not hear the alarm clock go off. Is not that a reasonably lucid way of saying you would sleep soundly? Mark Twain said that always when he wrote something serious, * people thought he was being funny. If your readers knew how many bad words I’d heaved at the yap-yap dog across the street they would have no doubts as to where my sympathies lie. But maybe I was too subtle, and if so I am sorry; for don’t think I don’t know what it is to go to work without adequate rest and sleep. Hardscrapple. * * In numerous letters to The Star in response to the nurse's request for help in her problem of seem ing sleep despite the barking dog next door, nothing more constructive than ridicule and sympathy have been offered. She might find ef fective relief in the following way: Spray a half pint of absorbent cotton lightly with melted paraffin. After the mass is cool, cut off some pieces the'size of the end of the little finger and roll them one at a time in the hands to form pellets. Press a warm pellet securely into each ear. Color and perfume may be added to the mixture. Only enough paraffin should be used to hold the cot ton together. Unfortunately, nature did not provide, us with earlids to shut out disturbing* noises as we exclude light with eyelids. But a nurse, who knows more about sup plying anatomical deficiencies than lay men do, might be expected to be re sourceful enough not to have to appeal to laymen for the solution of a problem in her special field. George Frederick Miller. Not Boys, Not Men I am a housewife—a very scared one. Yesterday, in my neighborhood, a little girl of five was nearly kidnapped. This past week, many of my neighbors were victims of robbery or attempted robbery. My 14-year-old niece cannot go to the comer for an ice cream soda without fear of being attacked, as so many young girls are in danger around here. Our Arlington police are doing every thing possible to prevent these crimes, but they cannot do it alone. Most of these atrocities are committed by youths from the ages of 16 to 21. What’s happened to the days when a household was a home, when mothers could know and trust their sons? I call on these mothers and members of the community to aid the police in preventing crimes. The boys are at the stage where they are not children, and yet they are not men. Their emotions are pent up within them. To release these emotions, and to feel “big,” they often turn to crime. Lets give them a healthful outlet. For after all, these boys will in a few years be the men who will run our com munity and our country. The moulding is in our hands. Lets help them to be strong, true men. Mrs. George C. Adams. 'Out of This World' Just how good can a comic strip be? I thought the Pogo series about “new clear” fission and the “li’l boat-tail grackles” could not be improved upon. Now comes a single strip, in the Star of July 19, that is another delight. I mean the one showing Pogo sitting under a tree reading “The Girl of the Sterling North,” while the “pup dog” chases the boll weevil. Not a word is said in any of the pictures, but the facial expressions and the actions speak volumes. Pogo is truly the most amusing, literate and satisfy ing comic strip I have ever seen. The dialogue is out of this world. * M. G. K. This and That . . . By Charles E. Tracewell This young rabbit is too bold for his own good probably; some day he may wait too long to run. To date, he is enjoying life immensely, always by himself, coming into suburban gardens in Flagrant Farms, that delight ful apd swanky subdivision, to eat pe tunias. He leaves behind many an irate house holder. Surely no one should begrudge this small hungry thing a few useless plants. He is always hungry. Young rabbits are born hungry. With the exception of the mole, which must eat continuously to exist, the baby rab bit is perhaps the hungriest creature on earth. * * What’s the difference between a hare and a rabbit? Many people somehow have the im pression that hares are English rabbits, that all American rabbits are, well, just rabbits. The fact is that our Jack rabbit is not a rabbit at all, but a hare. Creatures known as swamp and pigmy hares really are rabbits. It is all very confusing, and makes no particular difference to anybody. Hares do not burrow, but live in nests. They have the longest ears and the long est legs. Real rabbits have both short ears and ■hort legs. They can run swiftly, but i not for too long a distance. Honest rab bits like to burrow. Young hares have nice coats of fur at birth. The baby rabbit is born naked and has its eyes closed, just as kittens do. * * The ordinary cottontail carries its tail up and back, so that the white shows. Three litters are born each year, each consisting of four to six babies, but other animals get most of them before they grow up. The nests are made by the mother of grass and leaves, and are lined with fur from her own body. Sometimes the fluff from vacuum cleaners is collected to cover over the burrow site, and when this is done at the base of a tree it blends in so well that not even dogs detect it. If one finds such a gray mass at the trunk, it is well to pry it up and look at the naked rabbits, then close it at once so that no marauding animal can find them. * * Rabbits have a bad name today on account of the disease, tularemia, which may be contracted by humans. * For this reason the cooking and eating of them has somewhat gone out of style with finicky persons who have swallowed the germ theory, hook, line and sinker. The modern city family, moving to the suburbs, will do well to let the wild rabbits alone, and to regard them as simply part of the scenery. Surely there is no prettier picture than to watch a half dozen young rab bits play in the evening just before dark. The popular song containing the line about the “rabbits rush around the bush” was true to nature. The creatures enjoy playing a sort of animal tag, around and around, just as children do. * * Favorite summer food consists of the inner bark of various small' trees and shrubs, and such things as leaves, petals, buds and berries. While rabbit depredations may seem heavy, from the individual gardener's viewpoint, from the standpoint of the entire neighborhood there is little real damage done. If one insists on trying to chase rabbits away, one method of doing it consists of hanging a line above the threatened plants, and dangling stream ers of white rags from it. This is said to intimidate the hungry ones, we do not konw why, except that they are, indeed, very timid by nature. Another way of getting rid of them is to spray a sort of rabbit chaser, which may be purchased at some seed and hardware stores. The best system is to let them alone. They offer no real damage to anything, and complete the picture of suburban fauna. Surely there is no better picture than our young rabbit giving himself a bath, washing himself much as a cat does. d The Political Mill ~~ Political Front Squalls Certain Despite War ! G. 0. P. to Issue White Paper Blasting Fair-Deal Diplomacy By Gould Lincoln However the war In Korea goes, there are'squalls ahead on the political front in the United States. To the Democrats it appeared at first blush that the outbreak of hostilities would make victory at the polls in the congressional elections next November much easier for them. Repub lican politicos were visibly shaken by the new turn of affairs. Today, a month later, the political pic ture is less clear. American voters, while admitting freely in most instances that President Truman acted wisely in taking the lead for the United Nations to run the North Korean Communists out of the Republic of Korea, have had a rude jolt. Instead of lower taxes they are to have higher taxes; instead of peace, they are to have war—with conscription of man power and industry. An election held in 1942, less than a 7/ear after Pearl Harbor, resulted in a Republican net gam of 9 seats in the Senate—bringing the total number of Republicans in that body up to 38—and a Republican net gain of 45 in the House, which placed Republican strength in that body at 209 or just 9 less than a majority. In that year, Republicans elected Sena tors in both Oklahoma and West Vir ginia. G. O. P. Plans White Paper. The feeling in this country about the war in 1942, and in support of the Roose velt administration after Japan’s attack, was much stronger than is the feeling about the Korean war today. All of which will give the Democrats food for thought in the coming weeks. Within a few days the Republicans in Congress will put out a white paper of their own. In it, the Republicans will state categorically the mistakes of the Truman administration —and of the Roosevelt administration before it—in the field of the foreign re lations of this country, particularly those in the Far East. They will undertake to place responsibility on these administra tions for the failure to bring about peace instead of war. The Republicans intend, at present at least, to make this failure a principal issue in the coming cam paign. They will undertake to show that the Democratic administrations were out jockeyed again and again by the Rus sian Communists under Stalin, and that they played into Stalin’s hands. In addition to the war issue, there re mains the issue of the McCarthy charges against the State Department. In a vit riolic and epithet-calling report, three Democratic Senators—a majority of a subcommittee of the Senate Foreign Re lations Committee—have undertaken to smother both Senator McCarthy and that issue. The result, however, has been to unite Republican Senators and other Republicans as they have not been united for weeks. With Senators Ives of New York, Lodge of Massachusetts and Smith of New Jersey taking the floor in crit icism of the Democratic report on Sen ator McCarthy, it is evident the GOP is closing ranks. This is just what the Democrats had hoped would not happen. Report Settled Nothin;. The Democratic report of the Senate subcommittee has, as a matter of fact, settled nothing. It has brought counter charges from Republicans all along the GOP line to the effect that the in vestigation was neither thorough nor conclusive. A lot of people, who in past months believed that the subcommittee, instead of investigating the McCarthy charges and following up the leads he suggested, set out to “get” Senator Mc Carthy, will go right ahead believing just that. The violence of the attack in the sub committee report, plus the violence of the attack on Senator McCarthy by Chairman Tydings and other Democrats on the floor of the Senate, adds to the suspicion that there is just as much Dem ocratic politics involved in this contro versy as there is Republican politics. Senator McCarthy and his charges will be in the campaign. And in several con tests for Senate seats, they may play their part. For example, two of the Dem ocratic Senators who signed the report. Senators Tydings of Maryland and Mc Mahon of Connecticut, are both up for re-election. The Democrats in Connecticut will meet soon in convention to nominate their candidates for Governor and two Senate seats. The State organization, dominated by Senator McMahon and Governor Bowles, is prepared to renom inate both Messrs. Bowles and McMahon —and presumably Senator Benton, who is serving under appointment by Gov ernor Bowles. The Benton nomination, however, is being challenged by Wilbur Snow, Wesleyan professor and former lieutenant governor. y Questions and Answers * The Star’s readers can get the answer- to any question of fact by either writing The Evening Star Information Bureau. 1200 I street N.W.. Washington 5. D. C.. and Inclosing 3 cent* return postage, or by telephoning ST. 6000, Extension 368. By THE HASKIN SERVICE • Q. How are the brilliant colors of but terflies and moths produced?—C. F. D. A. The brilliant colors are due to ttteir covering of scales. If the wings are rubbed gently, the colored scales coitie off in the form of dust. The scales are arranged to overlap. > • Q. Why is the pronoun “I” always capitalized?—K. McM. A. The pronoun of the first person singular is capitalized because, in the Middle Ages, it was the custom to use a long “I” whenever the letter was Used alone. Q. Is the practice of euthanasia legal in any country? H. E. A. Euthanasia is not recognized in any country today. *«• tie* Vespers j ‘ New leaves, new evening, and the sound of bells through leaves, The slender willows waver, aspens, Quiver With vibrations of the bells in evening sun, the charged air weaves As rippled rings upon a mirrored r'iv&r. Light shifts to gold, the deeper solemn notes intone >, Through cold arpeggios of silver chiming, Light changing now from gold to blue, the sleepy pigeons moan And seek plum shadows of cornice with sun’s timing. The ringing ceases and light fades, Iasi echoes shake the air As with a wind in willows sighing; The white, white sickle of new moon as fine as silver hair Describes the arc of swallows flying. FREDERICK EBRIGHT.