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WASHINGTON, P. C, Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Cant petty. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKILWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 420 Lexington Ave. CHICAGO OFFICEt 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly _1.20* Monthly -»0c lOt per copy Weekly _30c Weekly -20c 10c per copy *10e additional when 5 Sundays are In a month. Also 10c additional far Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States Evening end Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year _11.00 1 year -11.50 1 year .... 7.50 0 months _9.30 A months — 4.00 A months .. 4.00 t month -1.40 1 month _1.10 1 Month « 70c Telephone STerling 5000 Entered at the Peel Office, Washington, P. C as second-class mall matter. Member ef the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively ta the ace far •epublicatlen ef all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as all A. P. news dispatches, 10 WEDNESDAY, August 23, 1950 An Unnecessary Disqualification Engineer Commissioner Gordon Young evidently feels that in the Pepco rate case his role as a member of the Public Utilities Commis sion would conflict with his role as a District Commissioner. In a sense this might be true. Higher rates sought by Pepco would increase the municipality’s bill for street lighting by about 60 per cent, or $661,000 a year. General Young may feel that his interests as a District Commis sioner in keeping down municipal expense would interfere with his Judgment, as a Public Util ities Commissioner, in passing on the justification for an increase in Pepco’s rates. The interesting question in this respect, however, is whether Commissioner Young can Kit in any utility case without experiencing the same conflict of interests. The municipal gov ernment is a purchaser of gas, of streetcar passes and of telephone service, as well as of electricity. If there is a conflict of interests In one case, the same conflict would seem to apply in all of them. If that is the case—and The Star by no means agrees that it is—the law ought to be changed and the Engineer Commissioner should be permanently removed as a member of the Public Utilities Commission. As it is written, the law designates the Engineer Commissioner as one of the three Utilities Commissioners. The law, in this respect, is sound. As a member of the commission, the Engineer Commissioner sits as a judge of what should be done in the public interest, not in the interest of the munici pal government. He is not a representative, in the strict sense, of the municipal government. With the two other Utilities Commissioners, he is serving the public. If his judgment decrees an Increase or a decrease in rates charged the District, as one of the consumers of electric power, telephone or gas service, it is difficult to see where his judgment in that respect would be affected by his position as Engineer Com missioner. It is understood that General Young acted In this case after consultation with the Corpora tion Counsel. But if the District government does not see fit to intervene in the Pepeo rate ease as a consumer—and this is the decision— It seems very far fetched indeed for the Engineer Commissioner to disqualify himself from sitting on the case. His action raises more questions than it answers. This Is No Gentlemanly War The gentlemanly Gl may be all right in peace time, but he is out of place in the kind of war being fought in Korea. There is nothing gentle manly about our enemies, as our soldiers on the front lines have found out by sad experience. It Is a ease of kill or be killed in battle. This means that our boys must be trained to be rough and tough—to give the enemy a full measure of what he is seeking to hand out to us. This would seem to be elementary doctrine. Tet It was not so many months ago that the newspapers were reporting on the new era of courtesy In our Army. The stories told of recruits being welcomed by polite sergeants at experi mental training camps, of duties being assigned In a tactful manner, of strong language being banned on the drill field and so on. There were many veteran non-coms and higher officers who shook their heads over such innovations and privately rued the prospect of a soft Army, too considerate of every one, including the enemy, to really fight. Fortunately, the experimental trainees did not have to jump into the Korean combat and try out their indoctrination. Regular troops, many of them veterans of World War II, have been thrown into that struggle and are anything but gentle in their contacts with the Reds. But enough has been seen of communism at war to eonvinee Pentagon higher-ups that the old rules of basic training are still the best. Henee the word has gone out to forget the gentlemanly ideas at training camps and give the recruits the sort of rigorous instruction and conditioning that they win need in hand-to-hand grips with a ruthless foe. General Mark Clark, in charge of field training, has ordered his officers to put the new soldiers through a course of drlllwork as rug gedly realistic as possible. This will be rough on the green troops being mobilized for the emer gency, but if they ever go into actual combat they win be thankful that they were properly trained to fight The Senate Fails in a Test The Federal-aid Highway BUl was the first big authorization measure to come before the 8enate after the start of the war in Korea. It thus provided something of a test of wUlingness to cut domestic, non-defense expenditures—cuts which in part would offset the huge new defense budget requested by the President. The Senate did not measure up to the test. In response to a plea from the President, its Public Works Committee—in charge of the bill— cut out some $240 million to be spent over a two year period. Senator Byrd, Senator Bridges and Senator Douglas, working for the same end! but not always as a team, persuaded the Senati to go further than that and reduce the bUl bj another hundred million or so. But the bll passed by the Senate yesterday, and which nov goes to conference with the House, still calls foi •pending more money than the Budget Bureau recommended and is stUl a substantial inereast ever what is being spent now—although wha is beihg spent now was appropriated when then was Jb war in light, no tremendous incre^PV ii military expenditures and no big tax increase in prospect. The Senate should have cut the authoriza tions below peacetime expenditures, if only as an indication to the country of its realization of the very serious fiscal situation that lies ahead. It failed to indicate any such realization. When the time comes to appropriate the money that was authorized, the Appropriations Commit tees, of course, may make deeper cuts in the authorizations. But in a test of sentiment on bona fide economy, the Senate failed. Communists and the Law The Senate, within the next few days, will get around to the question of what new legisla tion, if any, is needed to deal with Communists and other subversive elements in this country. ^ This is the sort of debate which tends to become more emotional than reasoned. There are certain basic considerations, however, whieh, if kept in mind, can be helpful. Among the tests which should be applied to any anti-sub ,verslve bill, are these: (1) Is it constitutional? (2) Will it do any good if passed? (3) If so, will its benefits be outweighed by damage done to our political institutions and traditions? There are a variety of bills pending in the Senate, including a so-called administration bill which would give effect to the recommenda tions made by the President in his recent mes sage on internal security. Majority Leader Lucas has announced, however, that the Mc Carran bill will be taken up first, and this will open the door to debate on all of the measures. The McCarran bill is an omnibus measure, bundling up most of the President’s recommenda tions, the essential features of the Mundt-Fer guson bill, and some ideas that originated with the Nevada Senator. Among the latter is an ' amendment of the Immigration laws which « has met with criticism, although, in another form, it passed the Senate without a dissenting vote. Apparently, it received little scrutiny at the time of enactment, and presumably it was not intended to do the things some of its critics say it would do. In view of the complaints which have been made, the Senate should go over this provision with care when it takes up the omnibus bill. So far as our domestic Communists are con cerned the hard core of the McCarran bill Is in two sections that were taken from the Mundt Ferguson bill. One of these sections makes it a criminal offense knowingly to conspire to do any act which would “substantially contribute’’ to the establishment in this country of a totalitarian dictatorship under foreign control. The other section contains the' much-de bated registration requirements. Under these provisions, a presidential board, subject to judicial review, would designate Communist-political or Commu list-front organizations, and could also decide whether an individual belongs to such an organization. These organizations would have to file with the Attorney General the names of their officers and regular financial statements. Communist-political organizations (which means the Communist Party) would also have to make public the names of their members. Other related provisions deny passports to members of these organizations and require that any literature they send through the mails must plainly indicate its Communist source. The first section cOfbtalns language that undeniably is broad. It does not seem to The Star, however, that it menaces basic America* freedoms, or, as the <30 seems to think, that it threatens bona fide labor unions. Certainly, the bill is . not intended to do these things, and it should be remembered that any prosecution under it would have to survive the test of court scrutiny, both as to its constitutionality and its applicability to a particular set of facts. The difference of opinion as to the regis tration features presents a more difficult question. It is a question that has brought forth conflicting views from sincere and competent men. If, in fact, these provisions would outlaw the Com munist Party, they might be declared unconsti tutional. The more serious argument, however, is that registration would drive the Communists underground. But it may be doubted that there is a great deal of merit to this. The really dangerous elements among the Communists and their sympathizers already are underground. And they would stay underground with or with out a registration requirement. The basic question here, it would seem, is whether the registration section would do any good. Perhaps it would accomplish little, and the Senate should weigh this point with care. But in final analysis, the threat of Communism, both world-wide and domestic, being what it is, fears that are largely speculative or fanciful should not stand in the way of enacting legis lation that would strengthen our Internal se curity. It is hard to know where the line should be drawn between tolerance and restrictive legislation. That decision, however, is a con gressional responsibility, and in meeting it Congress should not be swayed either by an emotional hostility toward Communism which ignores constitutional restraints or by the some times silly protests from those who think there is something un-American about any security legislation. * 1 ; Collateral in Sex Cases Municipal Court judges have moved to pro tect the public in deciding to require all alleged sex offenders to appear in court to have collateral fixed. Chief Judge Barse’s order ends the old practice of delegating to police certain discretionary powers as to collateral forfeiture in so-called'minor cases of sexual nlisconduct. Experience with habitual sex offenders has shown that/’minor” violations frequently precede major offenses. It is better that the courts should assume responsibility for deciding collateral questions in cases of this kind. Issuance of the new order followed a visit to Municipal Court by counsel for a Senate Ex penditures subcommittee. The attorney said the committee had learned that precinct police often have released sex offenders on small collateral, after booking them for disorderly conduct. Many of these offenders, it was said, forfeited collateral and resumed their activities in public places. A conference of the judges discussed the problem recently and agreed that collateral questiohs in sex cases should be handled in court rather than at the precincts. Moreover, they felt that higher collateral should be required for such offenses. Chief Judge Barse’s order, distributed to all law enforcement agencies concerned, fixes collateral in all cases involving sex offenses at ’ $500 bond or $300 cash. This higher collateral is in lftie with the court’s recent request to Con i gress for stiff er maximum penalties in disorderly conduct eases. The maximum now is 25 days ; in Jail or $30 fine. The judges would like to t be able to send some of jfiiese offenders to jail i for $0 days er fine thenp^OO. Water Lily Finds Our Summers Cool By Henry Mitchell 'T'O a District resident, probably the most remarkable thing about the royal water lily now blooming here is its appetite for hot weather. Far from being wilted in these August days it’s only beginning to get com fortable. Exactly 100 summers have passed since the spectacular lily (Vic toria regia) first bloomed in England, and not one has been too hot for it. With few exceptions, the summers of the Capital have been too cold to grow this largest of all water lilies to perfec tion. In spite of the comparative chilliness of our summers, the lily grows here and is in bloom now. Lily pools at Meridian Hill park, Rawlins square, the Pan Amer ican Building and Kenilworth Aquatio Gardens all feature it. The plant- was introduced from its native Brazil in the fall of 1849. It first flowered in England and a blossom and leaf were sent to Queen Victoria at Windsor. The queen, so hard to Impress, if tradition is true, was impressed by the plant. And no wonder. Its leaf grows up to seven feet in diaineter, and its flower attains 14 inches across. No plant that can be grown outdoors here gives as good an idea of tropical rank ness and spfenner. i • Both leaves and flowers are covered with spines (like a' nettle, but the blush colored flowers are gorgeous. The fra grance is heavy like a magnolia. Surprisingly enough, this tropical plant- sets'seed here; and they will live' through a Washington winter. They sprout in the spritfg When the water warms up well. Gra'ntedr perfect con g Queen Victoria’s namesake blooming in Rawlins Park. .i —Star &tafi Photo. ditions, the tiny seedling plants will In a few weeks develop a mass of foliage and flowers occupying many hundreds of ^square feet pf water surface. To anyone interested in growing this ■Mly in hik gftrden, Mrs. Ruth Cover, water-lily specialist at Kenilworth Oar dens. warns that each plant should have a minimum of 400 square feet to grow in. The whole trick in growing them is to provide the roots with very rich soil, keep the water at 85 degrees and give them plenty of room. If you can’t duplicate these condi tions at home, you can admire them in the District parks. And marvel that they find a Washington August a bit nippy. Letters to The Star . . . A pseudonym is permissible only when letter carries correct name and. address of writer. Please be brief. Praise for Everybody Our Fire Department and our ftdice Department both deserve more praise than they get for their general feigh..: level of skill and efficiency. Usually, however, only their spectacular deeds» excite interest. This, I think, explains the spontaneous public approval of Po liceman Props’ 30-yard dash across New York avenue at Fifteenth street, to pull an old woman from under the very wheels of a speeding fire engine. His act I believe was heroic, despite the “sour grapes” of the offended fire man who wrote you last week Inferring that by praising Policeman Props one in sults the skill of the Fire Department drivers who encounter pedestrians on every run—and miss them. Private Props deserves this commen dation. I was there on the spot and saw the milling noon-hour crowds, and the old lady, evidently deaf, who walked from the curb out into the path of cer tain destruction despite sirens and whistles. Private Prop could not have been criticized if he just stood still, re lying on the skill of the engine driver. However, he chose to act and not rely. I am sure he meant no offense to the Fire Department. I don’t agree with your fireman cor respondent who thought that Fire De partment drivers should be commended after each run for not hitting pedestri ans, even when they are answering calls like this d&e—to change a burned-out, fuse at the Veterans’ Administration Building. Nevertheless, praise and com mendations are rare enough to ttye aver age policeman or fireman, so it 111 be comes one ta belittle the praise given another. Criticism of this nature might encourage the police to give up chasipg safecrackers for fear of reflecting on the skill of the safe manufacturers. Victor J. Orsinger. German Assets in Switzerland On July 6 the State Department an nounced that the quadripartite, confer ence between France, the United King dom, the United States and Switzerland convened by the Swiss government in Bern, June 22, for the purpose of solv ing the problem of German external as sets in Switzerland, was canceled be cause of the last-minute imposition by the Swiss government of a condition unrelated to the accord of May, 1946, which the United States Government could not accept. It seems to me that this disagree ment between the United States and Switzerland is not solely a matter of protocol; It Is based. Qn the much deeper problem of the Swiss government’s tall- • ure to carry out its International obliga tions. Five years have passed since the sign ing of the Allied Swiss agreement relat ing to the liquidation of the German assets in Switzerland. This agreement provided for the re tention by the; Swiss government' of 50 per cent of the German assets in that country and allowed the Allies only $58 million worth of the gold looted by the , Nczis in the occupied countries during World War n. Furthermore, the Allies were not given a determining voice in the investigation of the real extent of the hidden German assets in Switzer land. The agreement was limited in that it excluded from investigation thousands of Germans Who resided in Switeerlahd and other neutral countries prior to Sep tember 1, 1939, bbtf who, nevertheless, represented German industrial interests and contributed to the building up of the * German war machine. Perhaps the most tragic aspect of the deplorable attitude of the Swiss govern ment is the fact that under the agree ment of May 25, 1946, “the Allied gov ernments were to draw from the Swiss government immediately up to 50 mil lion Swiss francs of the proceeds of the if liquidation of the German property against their share thereof.” These funds Were to go to the International Refugee Organization for the benefit of the refugees: Yet up to the present, only 20 million francs were handed over by the Swiss. * The Swiss consider themselves a hu mane people. Would it not be fair to place at the disposal of the refugee or ganizations the 30 million francs which they still owe under the original agree ment? Since the Swiss pride themselves on being the earliest democracy, would it not be a contribution on their part to the strengthening of democracy by working together with the signatory powers to ferret out the real hidden Ger man assets, by eliminating the German cartel activities and by preventing the Germans from making use of the ill gotten loot? And is it not the duty of a real democracy to keep its pledges toward another democracy? > t C. Monteith Gilpin. More on Educating the Deaf Possibly Weiant Wathen-Dunn and Mrs. Lester Malhoyt would be Interested in the views of a deaf man upon the subject of the education of deaf chil dren which they have been discussing la the columns- of The Star? m* Mr. Wathen-Dunn, first let me Present my credentials. My hearing was lost at the.age of 15, through spinal meningitis. Two. years of high school were completed before X discovered any thing about special education for the deaf. After graduation from high school I attended the Washington (State) School tor' the Deaf and then went to Gallaudet College (BA. and MA. degrees). Other education Included an MA. from American University here, and 10 credits at Teachers College, Col umbia University. Before going to the school for the deaf, I took private les sons in lip reading, with little success. At the school and at Gallaudet I learned the Sign language, which I found to be, once well understood, a most flexible means of communication, full of imag ery approaching the poetic when prop erly us«id. Nine years as a teacher of the deaf, four^as a statistician with the Federal Government and three as a printer cover my employment experi ence. In addition I always have been interested in the social welfare of the adult deaf and in the education of deaf children. Mr. Wathen-Dunn is right in stess 1 ing the importance of communication in the .adjustment of deaf people to society. We" who have tested - methods in the crucible.of life, in large ma jority flpd speech and speech-reading ;far froip the panacea their advocates imply, them to be. Specifically, lip read ing is'not at all satisfactory, even for the most expert, in the following situa tions.: In groups of more than three or four, at public lectures and similar situations, when the light is poor, when ; the speakers’ lim movements are un readable, .in large meetings, at religious services, .and on occasions when tech nical terms or unfamiliar words are used. Mr. Wathen-Dunn and Mrs. Malhoyt, most deaf people would say, err in placing a "value on speech and speech ^reading above the many other elements * that-v enter into the education of a deal child' to become “an active, con structive and'well-adjusted” citizen. The core of 'education of the deaf, as all 'educators will* agree, is language—be cause the deaf child receives no audi tory ' stimulation. In addition, every child needs the tool subjects, the social < ** X ' * 9 * •' _ iff '**:**?-’ t i sciences and the social graces, which we deaf people know cfin be more rapidly and effectively taught through the clear and flexible language of signs. However, the most dangerous thing in the movement for day classes in pub lic schools is, we deaf people feel, the Isolation that the deaf children would encounter there. A group of a score or less of deaf children among many hun dreds of those who could hear would stand out like the proverbial sore thumb and their sense of being different—one of the most unpleasant situations of childhood—simply could not be over come or avoided, wishful thinking to the contrary. The psychic results should be a matter of grave consideration to any parent planning the education of his or her child. In closing I would like to say that, while I sympathize with the feelings of Mrs. Malhoyt and Mr. Wathen-Dunn, I think they err basically in their as sumption that in order to become well adjusted persons, their children must attempt to follow the pattern which their parents, altogether different in dividuals, followed as children. Dr. Rudolf Pintner, a psychologist who has studied the deaf for many years, and who has been neutral on the subject of educational methods, says: "The aim of the education of the deaf child should be to make him a well-integrated, happy deaf individual, and not a pale imita tion of a hearing person." Alan B. Crammatte. Remarks Mis-Attributed In the last paragraph of an article entitled “Abandoned Evil Habit,” etc., in The Star, August 18, I was quoted as having stated that: “The present war is largely the result of victors of the last war punishing the conquered, etc.” In my talk on mental hygiene. I made no reference whatsoever to any phase of the war, nor its causes, and held no such theory as the above. The statement quoted was made by a well-known phy sician during World War H, and was evidently included erroneously with some material picked up by a reporter previous to my talk. H. E. Andren, M. D. (Editor’s Note—The Star regrets that statements by Dr. William B. Terhune. director of the Connecticut State Men tal Hygiene Commission, were attributed, through a misunderstanding, to Dr. An dren.) Well, Why 'Guamanians'? In an excellent letter on possible legis lative injustice to certain peoples (Star, August 18), Martha L. Jay thrice uses the designation "Guamanians” for the people of Guam. But she writes “Hawaii ans” for the people of Hawaii, and not “Hawaiianians.” The same form, “Pana manians,” continually is used by writers referring to the people of Panama. But we always say Africans, Alabam ans, Alaskans, Asians, Chicagoans, Colo radoans, Cubans, Dakotans, Floridans, Georgians, Kansans, and so on down the long line to Puerto Ricans, San Fran ciscoans, Tennesseeans, Texans, and Utahans. No one writes Africanians, Alabamanians, Bostonanians, Cubanians, Georgianians, Puerto Ricanians, Texan lans, or Utahanians. Carleton R. Ball. Holds New Deal Responsible The newest New Deal alibi, that “the people are responsible” for our military unpreparedness, is the supreme insult of all time: nor will it go unchallenged in our elections of 1950-52. A. C. Harrover. Scituate Harbor, Mass. ■ This' and That . . . t ’ v By Charles E. Tracev/ell Templeton Jones came into the office the other day, bringing a bird book and a determined look. “I hope you can identify this one for me,” he said. “If it’s in this blamed book, it’s hiding. I Can’t find it.” Recalling the last time, when Jones described a bird as “orange colored,” only to have it turn out to be a cardinal, we were properly hesitant “What color was it, Temp?” “Well,” said Jones, “it is green on top, and has a blue breast— “There ain’t no sich bird,” we re plied, falling easily into the vernacular, a thing easy to do with Jones, who pre fers it. * * Temp Jones is no pedant, whether with birds or words. He likes ’em /Tough and ready. He invariably says, “It’s me,” and is willing to defend his choice against all comers. Some people are purists. But to Jones, language is somethin* to be used, not to be used by, We assured him that such a bird Is he described was not in existence, At least in North Amerlcl. ' PSP In South America, yes, but not around here. He was positive, however. "Where did you see this bird?” We asked. "On the ground, in the alt, or perching?” "That has a professional ring,” grinned Templeton Jones. "Well, it wasn’t in the air* or perehing, so it was on the ground.” "Did it walk, or hop?” "Didn’t do either,” said Jones. "It must,” we answered, firmly. "This specimen didn’t.” "Well, what did it do?” “It just stopd there.” "Was it eating?” "I suppose- so. There was plenty of food* around.” * * "Did you.see it in flight? Did it have whitp spots on its wings?” Templeton Jones repeated his descrip tion and said that he saw no white spots, just a bright''green back and a bright blue chest.. „ "Must be .a cage bird,” we hazarded. vSometimes they get loose, and fly around— "But this one hasn’t flown yet.” he replied. "Every ...time'X looh4out, it is there eating.’' ___ “Your description is rather meager. Haven't you got a pair of binoculars?” * * Temp Jones grinned his famous smile. “Of course,” he said, rather disgusted ly. “I never thought of that.” “Take a good look at it, the next time. Maybe there is some identification mark. "How about you coming out with me?” said Jones. “Maybe you can tell what it is.” * * Since we wanted to borrow a book from Jones, anyway, we acquiesced, and soon found ourself at his palatial estate. “Right this way,” he said, piloting to a garden window. "Right there he is, just as usual,” he pointed. Sure enough, what seemed a vivid green bird with a striking blue breast loomed a, few feet from the feeding station. “Gimme those binoculars,” we said, and took a good look. “Well, what is it?” asked Templeton Jones in an excited voice. “Is it a rare bird?” “Very,” we said, putting down the glasses. “It isnlt a bird, though. It is just a piece off^ per.” Explosion Effect Hinges On Atomic Bomb Weight Commission Experts Report On So-Called Critical Size By Thomas R. Henry An atomic bomb must contain a minimum of 1,000,000.000,000,000,000,• 000,000 uranium or plutonium atoms. These weigh approximately 2.2 pounds. Such is the minimum weight of the ex plosive material in an atomic bomb to produce the energy equivalent of 20,000 tons of TNT, the announced power of the first bombs dropped on Japan. This Is equivalent to the dally output of Hoover Dam but is a millionfold less than the energy of a major earthquake. The figures are published in the re port of a group of Atomic Energy Com mission experts on the effects of atomle weapons. Actually, it can be assumed, the weight must be considerably greater than the minimum. It has been estimated—there are no official figures—that a large num ber of the fissionable atoms in any bomb structure will not explode. Better Bombs Now. The atom bomb of the type used over Hiroshima and Nagasaki—there pre sumably are somewhat better ones now, but this is the kind on which all pub lished descriptions are baaed—can be very little larger or smaller than it was at the beginning and still remains. Whatever increase in effectiveness is attained is in getting more atoms to explode. The so-called critical size remains a zealously guarded secret, although it must have been worked out independently by the Russians. If the bomb is smaller than this critical size,'the neces sary chain reaction of atom splitting will not go on and there will be no ex plosion. If it is too large, there are likely to be small premature explosions which will do little damage and can be considered “fizzles.” Once the chain reaction is started, the report points out, the time required to produce the explosion is about a mil lionth of a second. * * It would require at least 775,000 atomic bombs to poison the surface of the earth with radioactive material so that it would be dangerous for human habitation. This is the calculation of Atomic Energy Commission experts in a report recently issued. Some predictions have been made that a full-scale atomic war with the poisonous dust from the blasts settling uniformly everywhere would make the planet uninhabitable. Much of the concern has been over the residuals of the synthetic element plutonium, which is the major ingre dient of the bombs of the type which have been exploded to date. Plutonium atoms would settle over the earth. They would be taken up by vegetation and eaten by men. The exploding atoms would settle in the bones. But, assuming the plutonium from one bomb were distributed evenly over the earth, there would be less than a tenth of a billionth of a gram per pound of soil. Seven hundredths of a millionth of a gram per year is a perfectly safe dose for a human being. What Calculations Show. Using these figures, the calculations show that the dropping of about 70, 000,000 bombs would be required before there would be need for any general concern. But there are many other dangerous radioactive isotopes which permeate thf atmosphere after an atomic blast. Eventually, it might be assumed, they would be distributed pretty generally over the face of the planet and add to the danger of the plutonium. This cuts about tenfold the number of bombs necessary to make the earth’s surface uncomfortable, if not actually dangerous to all life. The calculations are made for six months after the bombs were exploded. The decrease would be very marked from that time on. Questions and Answers The Star’* readers can set the answer to any question of fact by either wrltlnc The Evening Star Information Bureau, 1200 I street N.W.. Washington S, D. C., and inclosing S cents return postage, or by telephoning ST. 6000, Extension 368. By THE HASKIN SERVICE Q. Please explain briefly the problem of Chinese representation in the United Nations.—K. S. P. * A. According to a statement by the United Nations, in the U. N. today some member countries continue to look upon the "Nationalist” government—the same one which has represented China since U. N. was organized—as the representa tive of the 450,000,000 people of China. Others believe that because of the recent changes in China, the Chinese people should be represented by the Central Peoples’ Government of the Peoples’ Re public of China. It is from this differ ence of views that the Chinese repre sentation issue springs. Q. Which is the most valuable spice? —R. M. A. Pepper. At one time it was so expensive as to replace money in busi ness transactions. When Alarlc the Goth besieged Rome, part of the ran som demanded was 3,000 pounds of pepper. This was black pepper, the dried fruit of Piper nigrum, a plant that is native to the East Indies. Q. Who presided over Maj. Andre’s trial in 1780?—B. W. A. Maj. Gens. Greene, Stirling, La fayette, R. Howe and Steuben, with eight brigadiers, formed the trial board. Col. John Lawrence was judge ad vocate. The British officer was con victed and hanged as a spy by the Amer ican Revolutionary Army on October 2. Buccaneer Island, Caribbean Great, tawny hills surround the secret bay. The reef-girt channel lies serenely blue. Its coral rim white-lipped where breakers flay Themselves to froth. A ceaseless ret inue Of swells rolls in; the tradevsind's steady breath Has piled them over leagues of open sea To find at last a sudden, thunderous death Upon these lonely shores of mystery. For none lives on the island now. Its lore Of blood and violence no man can tell. The cutlass thrust that spilt a doxey’s gore Is unremembered now, except in hell; And silence guards the crumbling walls of stone, Cloaked in the bougainvilla’s purple flame. The island lives as lovely and alone As once it did before the pirates came. RICHARD F. ARMKNECHT/