Congress Gets Acheson Views on Rearming Germany * *
By J. A. O'Leary
No defense plan for Western
Europe will be effective in the
long run unless it includes the
manpower and resources of West
ern Germany, Secretary of State
Acheson told Congress in hear
ings made public today.
He added, however, that the re
arming of the West Germans is
still in the discussion stage.
The hearings were before the
Senate Appropriations Committee,
which met again this morning to
complete work on the $16.7 billion
supplemental defense bill.
In a preliminary session yester
day the committee raised the
State Department budget for com
bating Russian propaganda from
$77.8 million to $97.2 million, but
did not reach the big military
items, including $4 billion more to
bolster the defenses of other na
tions opposing communism.
Johnson, Acheson Quizzed.
The hearing reports released
last night reveal that less than
two weeks ago Secretary Acheson
and Defense Secretary Johnson
were called in together and ques
tioned at length by Republican
Senators on all phases of national
defense and foreign policy. High
lights of the testimony included:
1. A denial by Mr. Johnson that
he has been “undercutting” Mr.
Acheson, despite reports that this
was one of the reasons for his de
parture from the cabinet last
2. A denial by both Mr. Johnson
and Mr. Acheson that a confiden
tial report on conditions in Korea,
given to high officials by the Cen
tral Intelligence Agency six days
before the fighting started in
June, contained any indication
that the invasion was imminent.
3. A revelation by Senator
Knowland, Republican, of Cali
fornia that he has been trying to
get another 3-year-old secret
Wedemeyer report on Korea. Sev
eral years ago the Republicans
put up a long fight for a similar
report on China by Gen. Albert C
Wedemeyer, which the adminis
tration kept confidential until last
year, when it was included in the
State Department wffiite paper on
Mr. Acheson's views on bring
ing Germany into the Western
defense orbit were brought out
through questions put by Republi
can Senators Wherry of Nebraska
and Ferguson of Michigan.
At one point Senator Cordon,
Republican, of Oregon broke in to
say he got the impression that
Mr. Johnson and Mr. Acheson had
made contradictory statements
about the importance of bringing
the Germans into the North At
lantic mutual defense plan.
Mr. Acheson had said that “a
program for Western Europe
which does not include the pro
ductive resources of all the coun
tries of Western Europe, which
includes Western Germany as well
as France, and includes the mili
tary manpower of all of Western
Europe, which includes Western
Germany as well as France, will
not be effective in the long-range
political sense. Therefore we must
include them both.”
Later, Secretary Johnson said
he wanted to correct any impres
sion that the military plans being
worked out under the North At
lantic Treaty organization would
be ineffective without German
“The arrangements will be ef
fective without that power,” Mr.
Johnson went on. “The German
manpower would be in addition to
the strength I was talking about
before. I just want to get the
After Senator Cordon had noted
an apparent contradiction. Secre
tary Acheson said he did not
think the testimony was incon
sistent. Mr. Acheson suggested
that Mr. Johnson was expressing
the military judgment that the
existing defense plans, without
Germany, would be effective. The
Secretary of State said he did not
intend to get into the military
field, but added:
“The Chiefs of Staff know what
they are talking about. What I
am trying to point out is that
over a period of time, if you do
not solve the proper need of the
German people for security and
for participation in the Western
European scheme you will have
a situation which will then cause
iso much trouble that your whole
plan will not be effective.”
Chairman McKellar of the Sen
ate Appropriations Committee said
he agreed with Mr. Acheson “100
per cent,” and contended there is
ample authority in the Foreign
Military Assistance Act to use
some of the money Congress is
about to appropriate in Western
Germany if and when agreement
is reached with the other powers
to rearm the Germans.
It was Senator McKellar who
brought up the question of
whether intelligence reports from
Korea in mid-June had given
high-ranking officials in Wash
ington six days' warning of an
invasion by the North Koreans.
Shown the intelligence report.
Secretary Acheson said he could
not recall whether he had seen
that particular document in June,
but addqd that it “contains no
information which I have not
known for some time, and certain
ly no information to indicate the
slightest possibility of any in
vasion.” Mr. Johnson made sub
stantially the same comment.
Quizzed on Co-operation.
Mr. Johnson’s denial of any
•'undercutting” of Mr. Acheson
came while Senator Ferguson was
inquiring how closely the State
Department and the Defense
Establishment co-operate in for
mulating foreign policy.
Asked if there is co-ordination,
so that each department knows of
any changes in foreign policy,
Secretary Johnson replied:
“That is correct. There have
been differences of opinion be
tween Mr. Acheson and myself
on foreign policy. They have
largely been resolved in good will
and understanding. Today the
working arrangements ... are
such that there is complete dis
cussion at the top level between
Mr. Acheson and myself on such
“I would like to express myself
on another facet of this question.
As far as I am concerned, any
undercutting of the Secretary of
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I State such as you see In the papers
[is untrue. I am glad, Secretary
Acheson, to put that on the record
in your presence.”
Brazil Cement Plant
To Cost $4,580,000
BAHIA, Brazil.—A $4,580,000
cement plant will be built soon
near Salvador in Brazil’s Bahia
state. It will produce 100,000 tons
of cement a year. The Salvador
site was chosen because of old
coral beds nearby and because of
the availability of natural gas
from the Bahia oil fields.
Construction will be aided by a
$2,070,000 loan from the Export
labor Force Shrinks As Defense Needs Rise 1 I
By the Associated Press
The Labor Department, survey
ing defense manpower sources,
said last night available supplies
of workers have dropped and em
ployment increased during the
A strong continued demand for
civilian goods, plus new needs of
the defense program, have pushed
employment upward in 130 of the
143 major metropolitan areas sur
veyed by State employment serv
But no general labor shortages
have developed, the department
said. The number of areas classi
fied “E”—where 12 per cent or
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more of the labor force Is unem
ployed—dropped from 22 in June
to 14 in July. Forty-three areas
were so classified early in the year.
NEWARK. — Thomas Edison
held more than 1,100 patents on
his inventions at the time of his
Swamp Forest in Africa
Threatened By New Dam
How to exploit\ valuable forest
before It Is wiped out by man
made changes in a lake, is a prob
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When the Owen Falls dam of
the River Nile is completed, the
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Hear U. S. Senator, Millard E. Tydings, Speaker
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