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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, September 18, 1950, Image 6

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President Submits
Blueprint on Civil
Defense to Congress
(Continued From First Page.)
terns and eivil defense communi
cations networks, issuing Federal
regulations on blackouts and cam
ouflage as determined by the mili
tary and co-ordinating civil de
fense operations in a national
emergency.
Regional offices would link the
States with the Federal agency.
The Federal Government would
store and supply the type of
equipment peculiar to civil de
fense. It would also bear part Of
the cost of community shelters,
communications facilities and
warning systems.
States Must Pay Part.
The States, however, were told
they would have to pay for their
own State civil defense offices and
staffs, provide the facilities and
equipment not furnished by the
Federal Government and contrib
ute part of the cost for shelters
in the communities.
Communities were told to bear
the costs of a local civil defense
director and staff, as well as the
training, equipment and shelter
costs not borne by State or Fed
eral Governments.
The 150-page “blueprint” docu
ment, entitled “United States Civil
Defense” emphasized that no
cities are expected to provide com
pletely for their own protection or
for recovery after attack. Instead,
they are to build their plans
around their own resources to
gether with what they can get in
the way of outside assistance in
an emergency.
Disaster Plan.
, In event of a disaster, here's
how the planned set-up would
work:
To the State and its area con
trol centers would go warnings of
attack. (A warning system is
now being operated by the Air
.Force until it can be taken over
by civil defense.)
From the State centers, the
.warnings would go to communities
and finally, through public alarm
. systems, to the people. If the
warning came early enough, there
might be partial evacuation from
the target area. At the alarm,
the people would take cover in
.shelters.
The local control centers would
Inform the various services of the
impending attack, marshal and
disperse all civil defense forces,
and after the attack, assess the
amount of damage and order the
local forces into action.
From communities within a
radius of roughly 20 miles, assist
ance would come' by pre-arrange
ment.
okhc jl earns on i;au.
If local and nearby forces were
Inadequate to meet the disaster,
the local center would call the
State area control center to send
In mobile teams. These would
Include rescue, first aid, emer
gency feeding, radiological and
chemical defense, engineering,
police and fire units.
If the mobile forces could not
cope with the disaster, the State
civil defense director would call
on the Federal civil defense
agency to arrange for help from
other States or, if neighboring
States already had mutual aid
pacts, a direct appeal to the other
State could be made for help.
Exactly what the individual
citizen should be doing all this
time was not detailed. A series of
booklets on “personal survival
problems in a modern war” was
promised, however.
The plan emphasized that “con
sistent with security, the people
must be told the truth about the
dangers of atomic, biological,
chemical and other types of war
fare which might be used” as well
as how effective a civil defense
program will or will not be against
these weapons.
Courses Encouraged.
Cities were told to encourage
their residents to take courses in
such self-protection measures as
first aid, fire prevention, emer
gency health and sanitation and
ether courses sponsored by the
local Red Cross or other com
munities agencies.
Householders are also to be
■urged to equip themselves with
necessary tools and supplies for
the protection of their families.
Just what tools and supplies
should be accumulated ujll be
listed, theh planners saitfll in a
forthcoming “what-to-do” booklet.
As for shelters, the plan empha
sized that providing shelters for
all the people in all places is
financially impossible. These three
types of shelter were recom
mended :
Maximum strength shelters to
Tse built in limited numbers for
key personnel and facilities im
portant to the community’s safety
in an emergency.
Mass Shelters Suggested.
Subways, underground garages,
reinforced basements of masonry
buildings and new reinforced con
crete shelters for masses of the
population.
Reinforced portions of base
ments or shored-up dugouts for
small groups and families in resi
dential areas.
It was announced that detailed
plans for practical and inexpen
sive family shelters and more
elaborate communal shelters are
being prepared. Meanwhile, city
planners were urged to review cur
rent building codes to insure ade
quate strength in at least one
part of a basement for the protec
tion of tl^pt building’s occupants.
On the score of evacuation, the
plan reported the proposed Fed
eral civil defense agency is not
planning for widespread removal
of the people before an attack.
City and State planners were
urged, however, to keep evacua
tion in mind and set up the neces
sary plans.
No State Ready Yet.
Although the civilian defense
office in the NSRB has been urg
ing the States and cities for many
months to start civil defense
planning, both Paul J. Larsen
whose resignation as civil defense
director was announced today, anc
Jam^i J. Wadsworth, the acting
director, said they knew of n<
Text of President's Message
The text of President Tru
man’s message to Congress on
submitting the civil defense re
port follows:
I transmit herewith for the con
sideration of the Congress a re
port entitled “United States Civil
Defense” which has been, sub
mitted to me by ttte chairman of
the National Security Resources
Board.
This report provides a set of
suggested guide-posts for States
and local communities, who have
the principal responsibility for
organizing and training the many
types of specialized groups needed
to cope with the potential damage
of devastating modern weapons.
This report also sets forth a
basic plan for the Federal Govern
ment’s part in the National civil
defense effort, and recommends
Federal civil defense legislation!
and the establishment of a Civil
Defense Administration.
I believe this report presents a
sound and workable outline of
civil defense problems we face,
and what the Federal, State and
local Governments Should do to
meet them. «
I urge the members of the Con
gress to consider this report care
fully over the next few weeks as
1 " ' 1 '■ 1 . - - .
a basis for the enactment of legis
lation in the near future.
Copies of the report also are
being transmitted to each Gov
ernor. and to mayors of our larger
cities. I urge them to give the
report their early attention so
that the States and local com
munities will be prepared to move
ahead rapidly with their own
plans.
In the meantime, I intend to
establish a temporary Civil De
fense Administration which will
carry forward the civil defense
work until permanent legislation
is enacted by the Congress and
which will provide a central Doint
of leadership for State and local
efforts.
As this report makes clear, the
civil defense of the United States
in the event of emergency will be
of the greatest importance. The
organization of an effective civil
defense system involves many dif
ficult problems. It will require
the combined, unselfish work of
all units of Government and many
hundreds of thousands of private
citizens. I am sure that every
one concerned will approach his
part of the preparedness task with
the spirit of initiative and co
operation which are character
istic of our free society.
State far enough along to start
recruiting volunteers. They also
said that all the States require
more legislation to ,glve the Gov
ernors anough powers to act in
emergencies and,to cope with the
problems of atomic warfare.
The plan carried not only a
proposed model State law bdt also
a step-by-step guide for city plan
ning. The process includes study
ing available resources, making a
plan to use them, testing the
plan's effectiveness with an imag
inary atomic bomb attack and
then revising the plan in the light
of what was learned from that
exercise.
The Federal planners empha
sized that they could not ask Con
gress for equipment to supply to
the States until the cities and
States have made inventories to
determine what they lack.
Services Required.
The plan also dealt briefly with
a dozen different services which
communities must organize for a
going civil defense operation.
Among them were:
Warden service—Wardens would
furnish the leadership for “group
self-protection” by organizing
teams for flre-fighting, rescue and
first aid in blocks, apartment and
office buildings, factories and other
institutoins. They would be the
bond between the people of the
community and the civil defense
organization.
Fire services—Fires caused by
atqmic bombs or incendiaries are
so fierce that public fire-fighting
companies would be limited to
preventing the spread of fires on
the fringe of fire storms and con
flagrations. A fire-guard service
would fight small blazes outside
the main fire area. At an air
raid warning, fire-fighting com
panies would be dispersed to out
lying points so they would not be
destroyed or trapped by debris
before they could go to work. Fire
departments were urged to con
sider moving permanently to new
stations of fire-resistant construc
tion preferably in outlying dis
tricts and abandoning old stations
wherever possible.
• uiuukcis neea 1 raining.
Police—Volunteer forces should
supplement the regular force but
should not be “hastily organized,
clothed with police authority and
armed with police weapons”. They
should be carefully selected and
trained before taking part in
police activities. In addition to
their regular duties, police must
be trained to handle panics, and
would be expected to prevent
looting, identify the dead, report
the presence of unexploded bombs
to the military and apply safety
precautions at the site of these
missiles until they are disposed
of by the military.
Health and Medical Services—
These would include a complete
set-up of first aid stations, im
provised hospitals usually in school
buildings, ambulance services, dis
tribution of medical supplies and
blood, protection against con
taminated food and water, veter
inary and morgue services; Hos
pitals were urged to increase cur
rent stocks. Federal storage depots
and processing plants for' blood
are planned.
Welfare Survey Required.
Emergency welfare service—So
cial workers and trained volun
teers would act in disasters to help
re-establish families, provide
emergency housing, food and
’slothing, assist in evacuation and
feed civil defense workers on the
job. Cities were told to survey
all eating establishments for their
capacity, get lists of cooks, record
housing facilities, make an in
ventory of available clothing sup
plies in retail and wholesale out
lets and negotiate agreements for
the release of supplies in an
emergency.
Engineering service—Pre-attack
duties would include measures to
safeguard watdr, gas, electricity
and food supplies. The service
would work on the shelter pro
gram and after an attack, would
help the rescue service, clear de
bris, create firebreaks and make
essential repairs.
Rescue service—The hazards of
using unskilled rescue workers are
so great to entrapped victims as
well as the rescuers that the Fed
eral Government plans to set up
rescue schools to train team lead
ers. The rescue service would go
into action immediately after the
attack to free the trapped and de
liver the injured to first-aid
teams.
Transportation—WaHime needs
would cause a shortage of ve
hicles, making it necessary to
take stock now of railroads, buses,
truck lines, air transport, taxi
cabs, wagons, ferries, public and
private automobiles, private air
craft, warehousing and storage
facilities. Plans should be made
to “freeze” private automobiles
where they are at the time of an
alert to prevent clogging of
streets. Vehicles would be com
mandeered %nly in cases of ex
i treme urgency..
Mayors to Ask Funds
For Civil Defense
‘The Nation’s Mayors will seek
immediate Federal funds for civil
defense supplies when they come
here for an emergency meeting
October 5 and 6, Mayor David L.
Lawreiice of Pittsburgh, presi
dent of the United States Confer
ence of Mayors, announced today.
Mayor Lawrence said he ex
pected that representatives from
the 150 largest cities, with a total
combined population of approxi
mately 60 million people, will at
tend the session.
Many cities, the Mayor said,
have awaited the National .civil
defense program, released today,
before going ahead with full-time
defense preparations. The Mayors,
he added, will discuss the pro
gram with the chairman of the
National Security Resources Board,
W. Stuart Symington.
WCTU Is Told Alcoholism
In Women Is Growing
By the Associated Press
DENVER, Sept. 18.—A Women’s
Christian Temperance Union of
ficial said today the spread of beer
and liquor sales to the corner
store has increased alcoholism
among women.
“The number of women addicts
has skyrdiketed with the opening
of more “and more beer and whisky
retail places in residential neigh
borhoods,” Violet T. Black of
Evanston, 111., told the National
WCTU Convention.
Miss Black, WCTU treasurer,
placed the number of women al
coholics and chronic drinkers at
800,000 in the United States.
Yesterday Dr. Caradine R.
Hooton, executive secretary of the
Board of ' Temperance of the
Methodist Church, referred to dis
tribution of beer to combat troops
in Korea, and declared:
“If the brewers and distillers
can have their way, we can ex
pect a sufficient number of our
defense troops to become so habit
uated to drink that they can no
longer constitute an army of
strength and courage."
WCTU Meeting Set
CHARLOTTESVILLE, Va., Sept.
18 (Special). — The Albemarle
County convention of the Wom
en’s Christian Temperance Union
will be held September 26 at the
First Baptist Church.
• . f
Larsen Quits as Head
Of Civil Defense Unit;
Wadsworth Succeeds
Paul J. Larsen, who directed
the preparation of the United
States’ civil defense plan, re
signed today as director of the
serve as acung
Mr. Ursen. director. The
younger Mr. Wadsworth is Mr.
Symington’s brother-in-law.
In resigning, Mr. Larsen wrote
that United States civil defense is
moving “from the planning to the
operating phase” and heeds a per
son with broader administrative
and organizing background and
experience than his own.
His resignation coincided with
publication of "United States Civil
Defense,” the plan sent to Con
gress by President Truman today.
Mr. Larsen, who became civil de
rense director last March, formerly
aid atomic research as director of
the Sandia Laboratory at Albu
querque, N. Mex., and associate
director of the Los Alamos Scien
tific Laboratory at Los Alamos,
N. Mex.
Mr. Wadsworth has been serving
as Mr. Larsen’s deputy since join
ing NSRB last June. He previous
ly served as special assistant to
Economic Co-operation Adminis
trator Paul O. Hoffman.
A member of the New York
State Legislature for 10 years,
Mr. Wadsworth was with Curtiss
Wright for five years and was
director of the Public Interests
Division of the War Assets Ad
ministration in 1945-46. He is 45
years old and stands 6 feet 5 inches.
Law Scholarship Awarded
To Coolidge Graduate
Sheldon Stanley Cohen, son of
Mr. and Mrs. Herman Cohen, 6123
Fourteenth street N.W., has been
awarded the Charles Worthington
Dorsey Memo
rial' Scholar
ship by George
Washing
ton University
Law School, it
was announced
today.
Mr. Cohen
was graduated
from the school
of government
at the univer
sity last May.
He is a Navy
veteran and a
graduate of
Coolidge High School.
Trustee scholarships in the law
school were awarded to Edna Ann
Asper, Blairsville, Pa.; Ernest
Henry Land. Greenfield, 111., and
John Prewett Hurd, Sandy, Utah.
Malone Charges Plot
To "Get' MacArthur
By the Associated Press
Senator Malone, Republican, of
Nevada, said yesterday that a
State Department cabal is "out
to get" Gen. MacArthur.
Implying that Secretary of State
Acheson heads the anti-MacAr
thur group. Senator Malone told
a television audience that he be
lieves Mr. Acheson himself will
not last as a cabinet member for
more than 60 days.
"The whole crowd is out to get
Gen. MacArthur in an undercover
way,” Senator Malone said. “I
fear that unless something is done
MacArthur may be on his way
out.”
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