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With Sunday Morning Edition.
_WASHINGTON, P. C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 420 Lexington Ave. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly _1.50* Monthly .1.10* Monthly .45e Weekly _35c Weekly .25c Weekly .—.10c *10c additional for Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere In United States. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year _18.00 1 year -11.50 1 year -7.50 t months 9.50 6 months -6.00 6 months -4.00 1 month_.... 1.60 1 month - 1.10 1 month ........70c Telephone STerling 5000. Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C., as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well at all A. P. news dispatches. A—10 TUESDAY, September 26, 1950 ecs= : J ■ '.a . ' -«—xs-1 . i.. ,, " Recapture of Seoul and Osan The fall of Seoul to United Nations forces Is more than a notable military victory. It is an achievement that gives a psychological lift to the democratic world that has been sorely needed. Even more dramatic psychologically to American troops was the news a few hours earlier of the recapture of a lesser objective, the town of Osan, south of the capital. The reappearance of Seoul and Osan in the headlines of the Korean war is significant of the tremendous comeback effected by American troops since the dark days of their entry into the conflict. Osan was the scene of the first defeat of our courageous but ill-equipped forces early in July. It was the starting point of a long, grim series of heartbreaking withdrawals that brought our battered and bloody units into the narrow confines of their Pusan beachhead. At the lowest ebb of 4>ur fortunes in Southern Korea the unin formed public shook its head and wondered if another Dunkirk was shaping up. Then came the startling, hope-buoying news of the amphibious operation at Inchon, port of Seoul. At first some fingers were crossed, in fear of a miscalculation of Red strength in the north or intervention from Manchuria. But our plans, although drawn up in record haste, proved sound. The expected withdrawal of Communist troops from the southern front has now approached ap pearances of a rout in several sectors. Towns and strong points which figured in the news only a few weeks ago as our out-numbered forces fell back slowly before the armored onslaughts of the enemy have been retaken. No greater satisfaction could come to vet erans of the allied campaign than the recapture of Osan, from which our pitifully overwhelmed forces fled on July 6 last. That was where two decimated battalions of the Twenty-Fourth Divi sion were overpowered by a Red drive spear headed by 40 tanks. Our men had no armor to pit against this formidable thrust. The honor of retaking Osan fell to the Army’s Seventh Divi sion, after capture of the nearby Suwon airport. From Osan there extends a steadily diminishing gap between the allied landing forces in the Inchon-Seoul area and outposts of advancing United Nations troops who have broken out of the beachhead. When this gap is closed—as seemed an imminent possibility at latest reports —the supply and escape routes of the trapped Red forces in the south will have been cut off. That could mean only disaster for the North Koreans, barring some unforeseen relief develop ment—such as Russian or Chinese Communist intervention. The likelihood of such intervention fades with each passing day. The appropriate time for action from north of the 38th Parallel was before the impending encirclement and collapse of North Korean forces in Seoul and in the beachhead theater. It begins to look as though the problem of driving the Red invaders back across the North South boundary may become more or less aca demic. If the present momentum of the two pronged U.N. operations is maintained, there may be no retreat across the border by the trapped Communists. That is the primary aim of our commanders: to throw a block across the line of retreat and pound the enemy from several sides until he surrenders or is destroyed. That this prospect today is a distinct possibility, so few weeks after the Reds were threatening to drive us into the sea, is a remarkable tribute to Gen eral MacArthur and his men and to the Army, Navy and Air Force strategists who helped to plan and carry out the Inchon undertaking. Ties That Do Not Bind The Russian novelist, Mikhail Sholokhov, has publicly criticized Mr. Truman’s fondness for new neckties. Not his taste in ties, mind you. Any man has a right to criticize taste in neckties. But Mr. Sholokhov, writing in Pravda, attacks the President because of his fondness for new ties, especially bow ties. Now that goes too far. There is nothing wrong with a man who enjoys wearing new neckties, especially when he has se lected them himself. If he enjoys wearing ties selected by others, he is not only a man of imagi nation but a man of virtue as well. And when this Russian criticizes the President because he likes new neckties, he publicly exhibits himself as one fuming over an inferiority complex, a jealous man, an envious and frustrated man who has never had the opportunity to select, and proudly to wear, a new necktie. What Mr. Sholokhov really has done is to find fault with the vast majority of American males. When he does that, he makes better understanding with Russia very difficult. We must overcome this difficulty. Let our air planes fly over Russia, dropping new neckties by thousands of dozens. And when the secret police tiptoe up to Mr. Sholokhov’s apartment, and peek through his transom, what would they find? They would find Mr. Sholokhov in front of his mirror, trying to tie a new bow tie—neatly, like Mr. Truman’s. Thus we would get rid of this strange prejudice on the part of Mr. Sholokhov, or get rid of Mr. Sholokhov. 'Spoils' and the Courts Harold J. Gallagher, president of the Ameri can Bar Association, gave some striking figures in support of his charge that a virtual spoils system controls appointments to the Federal Judiciary. When only eight out of 200 judges appointed to the Federal bench during the past 17 years have not been Democrats, the conclusion that political considerations dominate the picking of jurists is inescapable. Mr. Gallagher is right in contending that a political unbalance of this kind impairs A 4 public confidence in the independence of the judiciary. The bar association head pointed out that about three-fourths of all judges now sitting in Federal courts were appointed either during the Roosevelt or Truman administrations. Since 96 per cent of these appointees were Democrats, the political lopsidedness of the present Federal bench as a whole is obvious. While politics of appointees always has been a factor in selection, it never had seemed to be a controlling factor until recent years. Mr. Gallagher is not the first to express concern over the predominance of one party in the judiciary. Senators Ferguson, Riley and others have spoken out strongly against the over loading of the courts with stalwarts of the party in power. It may well be, as the ABA leader commented, that partisan lopsidedness does not mean vitiated justice. But it does mean that in the selection of judges the two most recent administrations have given more weight to political considerations than to the qualities which go to make a good judge. This is a policy that is inherently wrong and potentially danger ous to the impartial administration of justice. Mr. Hoffman and the Free World In resigning as chief of the Economic Co-op eration Administration, Paul G. Hoffman leaves behind him a record of such distinguished service that his name is certain to occupy a permanent place of honor in the history not merely of his ' own country but of the entire free world. Not much more than two years ago—with Senator Vandenberg acting as one of his chief supporters and persuaders—Mr. Hoffman ac ceded to the President’s request that he take over the enormously difficult job of administer ing the Marshall Plan for European recovery. At that time, most of our friends abroad—griev ously suffering from the effects of the Second World War—were on the verge of political and economic collapse, with the Kremlin sparing no effort to overthrow them completely. Today, two years later, those same countries —though now forced to rearm to meet the con tinuing threat of Soviet aggression—have attained such a degree of stability, politically, economically and otherwise, that their come back since 1948 seems little short of miraculous. Their great achievement, however—an achieve ment vital to* the task of stopping the advance of the Red tide in Europe—has not been based on prayer alone, but on their own hard exer tions and on the vast amount of American aid extended to them through the ECA. As for Mr. Hoffman’s part in all this, it may fairly be described as an outstanding example of how a single individual can play a tremen dously constructive role in our human society. When he became chief of the Marshall Plan, he brought to his new task a wealth of experi ence and knowledge gained from such prior posi tions as his presidency of the Studebaker Corp. and his chairmanship of the Committee on Economic Development. Extraordinarily gifted both as an organizer and an administrator, he immediately began to gather around him in the ECA a staff of key experts and other workers numbering 1,000 in this country and 1,200 abroad. Then, with this help, he had to tackle a vast complex of heavy responsibilities, includ ing the main one of spending billions of dollars wisely and effectively. The transformation that has taken place in Europe is proof enough that Mr. Hoffman has spent the money exceedingly well. Similarly, it is typical of his managerial genius that he has run the Marshall Plan at the phenomenally low administrative cost of only three-tenths of a cent out of every dollar of the $10 billion thus far expended or obligated. To all of this, to get the right measure of the man, there must be added the strength and warmth of his character and personality—exceptional qualities of the mind and spirit that have placed him, as a Republican, above partisanship, and inspired others, including Congress and the representa tives of foreign States, to “wage peace” by mak ing the most of the ECA as “a first line of defense for Western civilization.” In many ways, with two years yet to go before the completion of the Marshall Plan, there is reason to regret that Mr. Hoffman has decided to resign. Yet that is a privilege no one can by right deny him, especially in view of his serious operation a few months ago. Besides, he is celebrated for his ability to leave his work in good hands, and he has done so in the case of the experienced William C. Poster, his own choice to succeed him as head of the ECA. The change is not likely to hurt that great and historic enterprise, for Mr. Hoffman’s labors have greatly bulwarked it against both its wit ting and unwitting enemies. In that sense, our own country and the free world at large owe him a very real debt of gratitude. A Productive ‘Witch Hunt' A Brookyln grand jury is beginning to strike pay dirt in its search for evidence to show how a police department can be corrupted by big-time gambling. The resignation of New York City’s police commissioner climaxes a series of startling developments in the inquiry. District Attorney Miles F. McDonald, who has been pushing the investigation in spite of the obstructionist tactics of former Mayor xO’Dwyer, has come up with one gambler who has admitted, without yet naming names, that he has had to buy up the police in order to stay in business. This bookmaker is said to have been doing $20 million worth of business a year, and has been paying out about $1 million for police protection. Hie Acting Mayor of New York, Vincent Impellitteri, is running for election and is show ing a healthy interest in Mr. McDonald’s dis closures; The indications are that before long there may be other changes in the higher echelons of the New York police department. All of this, it should be said, is in marked contrast to the attitude of former Mayor O’Dwyer, who has been picked by the President as Ambas sador to Mexico. Mr. O’Dwyer did what he could to discredit and hamper the grand jury’s investigation. He called it a “witch hunt,” and he implied that Mr. McDonald was trying to make political capital for himself by harassing the police department. This caused the grand jury to put aside its investigation of corruption in order to investigate the Mayor’s charges. It came back, however, with a finding that the charges were without any foundation in fact and that the District Attorney had been “fair, fearless and honest” in the investigation. Nevertheless, the President chose Mayor O’Dwyer to represent the United States in the capital of one of our more important Latin American neighbors. The Senate committee which held hearings on the nomination brushed aside complaints as mere “politics,” and the Senate itself confirmed the nomination. But the Brooklyn grand jury is not yet through. Before it has finished, it may provide us with a revealing commentary on the morality of contemporary politics. 1 Watchdogs for Government Efficiency By William A. Millen A SMALL GROUP of prominent busi nessmen, at President Truman’s suggestion, is quietly at work to im prove the functioning of the Federal Government. They give the lie to the impression that Business, and Government are al ways at each other’s throat. This little publicized group, known as the Presi dent’s Advisory Committee on Manage ment Improvement, is headed by Thomas A. Morgan, chairman of the board of the Sperry Gyroscope Corp. It is in effect an extension of the Hoover Com mission. It grew out of President Truman’s de sire to be informed on the progress of better management in government and also to insure that the Hoover Commis sion’s recommendations would not get lost in somebody’s desk drawer. In short, the committee is a sort of “watch dog” defending the principle of efficiency in government. The Hoover Commission was, so to speak, a one-shot effort. The Presi dent’s Advisory Committee on Manage ment Improvement is set up on a con tinuing basis. And so, Business and Government get together to understand each other’s problems and benefit by the interchange. For the most part, the committee concerns itself with internal changes promoting better management in the various Government agencies, but which do not require new laws. It works closely with the Budget Bureau, which really does the staff work. Because of this—and President Tru man's personal interest in it—the com mittee gets things done. It has made a real contribution to the ideal of in creased Federal efficiency, at less cost to the taxpayer Periodically, Mr. Morgan and his busi ness associates on the committee take time out to come to Washington and confer. A dozen leaders in Government, private enterprise and education make up the committee. Committee members drawn from pri vate life, in addition to Mr. Morgan, are Otto L. Nelson, vice president of the New York Life Insurance Co.; James Palmer, executive vice president of Mar shall Field & Co.; Edward Mason, dean THOMAS A. MORGAN. —Harris-Eiving Photo. of the Harvard Graduate School of Puo lic Administration; Lawrence A. Appley, president of the American Management Association, and Herbert Emmerich, di rector of the Public Administration Clearing House, a private group inter ested in better government. From government iself, the commit tee draws Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman, Secretary of the Army Frank Pace, Undersecretary of State James E. Webb, Assistant Postmaster General Vincent Burke, Chairman Gor don Clapp of the Tennessee Valley Au thority, and Marcellus Sheild, retired staff member of the House Appropria tions Committee. While the public generally is not aware of me work of the committee, Mr. Mor gan says its efforts are being watched by State and municipal governments and by the universities. From time to time, President Truman himself meets with the committee to talk over the strength and weakness of the Federal Administration, and what he can do to better it. Applying the Hoover Report is the committee’s job. Mr. Morgan says: "The committee provides a forum where Gov ernment executives can frankly express their views. They can then get sugges tions which will aid them in applying the recommendations of the Hoover Report, and in improving the management of their departments in every possible way.” But Mr. Morgan warns that some of the proposed changes of the Hoover Commission will take years to accom plish. Because of its public responsi bility, Government must move more de liberately than private business. Mr. Morgan warns against expecting "bil lions” in savings immediately. Just what are the major accomplish ments of the Hoover Commission up to now—and what remains to be done? Robert L. L. McCormick, research di rector of the Citizens Committee for the Hoover Report, supplies the answer. This official of the private, non-profit group which urges that the Hoover Commis sion’s recommendations be made effec tive, puts it this way: “Major recommendations already put into effect include unification of the armed services; some 26 presidential re organization plans for streamlining the Government; creation of the General Services Administration to handle pur chasing and records; a new accounting system in the Post Office Department and stieamlining the State Department. "Among those yet to be accomplished are major reforms in Federal person nel; reorganization of the Veterans Ad ministration; better handling of nat ural resources, including a review board to see that money is not spent on com peting projects and to end competition between the Army Engineers and the Reclamation Bureau by merging them; improving public works and agriculture; taking the Post Office Department out of politics and merging the duplicative bureaus involved in land management —the Forest Service in Agriculture and the Bureau of Land Management in Interior.” It looks as though Mr. Morgan's com mittee still has quite a job ahead of it. I i • « "T"! P . A pseudonym is permissible only I_P| TPrS TO I iTOr when letter carries correct name C ■ I IW JIUI . . and address of writer. Please be brief. More About Mr. Harriman The Star, in its lead editorial of Sep tember 20, criticizes W. Averell Harri man for calling for the defeat of Sena tor Robert A. Taft, and says that this is “very cheap politics.” The second paragraph of the editorial is devoted to the so-called labor bosses. Why doesn’t The Star sometime tell us about the management bosses and how they want to retain the Senator and his act? And why are the labor bosses worse for wanting repeal than the management bosses who wish to retain? The Star knows, for example, that the Typographical Union, whose members it employs, elects its officers in a democrat ic way by popular vote. These officers are charged with carrying out the will of the majority, which is repeal of the Taft-Hartley Act. The Star says Mr. Harriman “has joined this partisan hue and cry, and in so doing he has forfeited any claim to respect or support as an instrument of a bi-partisan foreign policy.” This is a direct eharge against Mr. Harriman’s sincerity and an attempt to discredit him in the future. Weil, of course, it is reasonable to see why The Star favors Senator Taft and the act which bears his name. And I do not wish to criticize them for so doing, because that is in their interest. However, when The Star attempts to distort the facts on its own editorial pages, it should not be too critical of others, who just might be as sincere as The Star pretends to be in this editorial. Arthur W. Brumel, Vice Chairman, Labor's League for Political Education, Prince Georges County. * * The recent ridiculous charges made by W. Averell Harriman, adviser to the ad ministration on our so-called “biparti san” foreign policy, against Senator Rob ert A. Taft are another in a series of events which are making many Demo crats disgusted with their leaders. Harri man is supposed to now represent the country’s foreign policy. Instead, he is heard from only when he makes a po litical speech which is part of the cam paign of labor and the Democratic Party alliance to defeat Senator Taft. Of all the people in the country who might be accused of Communist sym pathy or aid, Senator >Taft should be the last. Virginia Democrat. Improving Auto Tags The following letter has been sent to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia: “I am writing to advocate a change in the District of Columbia license plates by the addition of the de scriptive phrase, ‘The Nation’s Capital.’ I think the tags should also bear the words, ‘Washington, D. C.’ instead of just ‘D. C.’ It has been our experience in travelling only a few hundred miles from Washington that many people have no idea what D. C. stands for, and we have overheard any number of strange and peculiar explanations. “This suggestion is not prompted alone by pride in our beautiful city, but by the feeling that everyone in the U. S. A. should at least know the name of the capital of his country—and there are many who don’t!” Mrs. E. C. B. Brotherhood I do not think we Americans should depend on super-weapons alone to bring peace on earth when we have an oppor tunity for good at our fingertips to com bat the forces of evil at work to destroy trust in God and our American way of life. I refer to our huge stockpile of surplus dried foodstuffs and butter fat. We could call upon our legislators to establish a Brotherhood Foundation as a branch of the Voice of America effort. It should be staffed by disabled veterans and native-born handicapped persons to work at packaging, shipping and distrib uting of surplus foodstuffs to starving people in different lands. All Americans would be willing to contribute a small amount to start such a project on its way, thus maintaining our present high standard of employment and wages with out causing hardship to any particular group, such as the farmers. They could make up family-sized packages of dried milk, eggs, instant potatoes and other dried foods. An instruction leaflet could be printed and placed inside each box with the heading “Manna from America.” The Stars aijd Stripes em blem could be stamped on the outside. These packages could be dropped from planes over hostile countries and distrib uted from food stations in others. They would make the Voice of America un derstood in the language a kind mother speaks to her children: “Food to the hungry.” Thus, I believe we could create a brotherhood of love instead of hate, be cause we who have been blessed with abundance are willing to share with the helpless ones. M. McCarthy. Russian Roulette Is Suicide If I place the muzzle of a fully loaded revolver against my head and pull the trigger, the resulting death will properly, and without any question, be officially recorded as “suicide.” On the other hand if there are no cart ridges in the revolver and I go through the same motions, nothing will happen and no death will result. In between these extremes there are five possible situations (assuming the revolver is a six-shooter) depending on whether there are one, two, three, four or five cartridges in the chambers. The chance of death resulting will of course range from one in six, to five in six. The District Coroner in a recent case (Star, September 11) issued a certificate of “accidental death” where there was only one cartridge in the revolver. Would he have issued a similar certificate if there had been two cartridges? Three cartridges? Four cartridges? Or five cartridges? Where is the line to be drawn? There have been a number of deaths resulting from so-called “Russian Rou lette” where there is one cartridge in in the gun and the “player” does not know whether it is in position to be fired, and all I have read about have been officially recorded as “accidental death.” It seems to me that regardless of the number of cartridges in the revolver the act is plainly “suicide,” and that our officials should get away from the euphe mism of “accidental death." Such a label may make the relatives of the de ceased feel better, but it is not realistic and casts doubt on the value of the official records. George D. Watrous, jr. Praise for Mr. Stokes Your columnist, Thomas L. Stokes, de serves a word of praise for his discern ing analysis of the current hysteria in our land. It is indeed something new in our country that special commenda tion must be accorded a Senator for daring to oppose a current trend. - Seven Senators were mentioned as be ing courageous since they “stood up and were counted against the legislative pot pourri which started out as the Nixon Wood-Mundt-Ferguson bill.” Do we want our legislators to be honest, fearless representatives? Or do we demand a Congress of “yes men”— without courage, without moral stamina —and without ability? If we demand absolute conformity in politics and the arts, we will also achieve absolute mediocrity. America’s strength was not built on that premise. Janet N. Neuman. Extra-Hazard Pay I have before me a statement by the “Army Navy Air Force Journal” of casualties in Korea. I note that, as usual, the greatest number of casualties falls to those engaged in close combat on the ground, and further that a heavy share Is born by Army officers. A year ago, Congress passed legislation authorizing extra-hazard pay to certain members of the Air Force and the Navy. Why are those who engage in close combat with the Army excluded? Juanita Peale. This and That . . . ByCharles E.Tracewell “CONNECTICUT AVE. “Dear Sir: “I read the interesting account of V. R. J. of Alexandria and her chip munks, and having had a like experience when I was giving my time at the Ca thedral Herb Cottage, I though you might be pleased to read it. ‘This was in the summer, during July to September, and there were fine pecan nuts in a basket on a low shelf Inside the cottage, the Dutch door being always open. “The nuts began to disappear and we noticed the little chipmunk stealing in and taking one. “The herb cottage and garden had only been started that April, so there were not many visitors. The Dean’s wife, who started it to raise money to help the gardeners on the grounds (it was dur ing the depression years) was away and I was the principal one there to sell. “Loving animals and birds and flowers, and often being alone, I thought I’d try to tame the little fellow to take the pecans, and I had fed squirrels over a long period. “Knowing that one must keep very still, I started in holding the nut, stoop ing down. Being nervous, I found it harder for me to stay rigid than for the chipmunk to risk coming and taking the nut. * * “Each day he came a little nearer, and then would run back. "finally, he came all the way and 3 thought I’d die for lack of breath before be did take the nut. ‘We became close friends after that and I would fill the pockets of my smock and he would climb up and reach in and help himself. “He had a home with several entrances under the bushes in the Bishop’s yard next door. “His little jaws looked so funny all puffed out. “Sincerely, K. R. G.” * * CARLTON AVE. N.E. “Dear Sir: “I have been interested in the article about the tailless cat. “I had an all-black cat that was bom without a tail. I do not think he had any Manx in his ancestry. “I think the condition is rare, as many people asked me if he had an accident to his tail. “I think he died from getting a bone in his throat. They like big bones to gnaw, but it is a mistake to let them get smaller bones. “I always bend cans before leaving them so that the cats cannot get their heads in them. Cats have died of suffo cation in a salmon can. “Sincerely, H. E. J.” * * “CHEVERLY, Md. “Dear Sir: “I have a fine color movie of one of our chipmunks filling his pouches with sunflower seed and departing with his load. ? | “We have an opossum which paid a visit to our feeding shelf. “Our largest feed bills are' during spring and summer, because there are so many more raisin-eating bird varie ties present. “We have counted over 30 varieties, including myrtle warblers. I am confi dent that the presence of starlings has helped a lot in decreasing greatly the number of Japanese beetles on our place. “Many people are amazed at the amount of feed I buy, and no doubt they think it foolish; however, it is much more pleasant and satisfying than going to the movies. I feel personally repaid many times over for the time and money required to maintain our feeding station. “Sincerely, P. M.” * * Chipmunks, tailless cats, opossums, Carolina wrens— These and scores of other natural resi dents of our suburbs greet the open eyes and understanding hearts of thousands of persons each day. Surely, for a certain type of person, they far excel in interest many other features of modern life. Natural sights are to be had, mostly free of cost, and in the event one wants to spend a little money, it is well spent. Any food put out for the birds and other wild things comes back with inter est, over the years. Above all, there is built up in the mind and heart a kind ness and inherent decency that is price less today. The Political Mitt M ——■, . -4 Barkley Trip to Hustings Sets Off-Year Precedent Threat to Party Control In Senate Behind Move By Gould Lincoln No President or Vipe - President has gone barnstorming in a Congressional election campaign—until Vice-President Barkley received the assignment recently and like a good soldier accepted. Presi dent Truman himself had promised to get out on the hustings, with a swing across the country. Indeed, last spring, he traveled out to the Pacific Coast, laying the groundwork for an intensive campaign trip this fall. The war in Korea is given now as a reason for abandoning this plan. In 1946, the last congressional campaign (without a presi dential election at the same time); there was no trip by President Truman,; al though frequently promised — and in that year there was no Vice-President to send. Mr. Truman’s trips were given up that year because Democratic leaders and candidates in various States felt they would be better off without him—it was his year of unpopularity. The late President Franklin D. Roose velt’s Vice-Presidents, successively John Garner and Henry Wallace, were not used to stump the country in 1934, 1938, and 1942, during the congressional cam paigns. President Roosevelt himself, in 1938, took the stump in primary elections to “purge” some of the Democratic Sena tors who had opposed his Supreme Court packing bill, among them George of Georgia and Tydings of Maryland, but met with no success. Threat to Control Seen. In still earlier days—the horse and buggy days—Presidents and Vice-Presi dents did not tour the country in strictly congressional campaigns—but left to the State party leaders and candidates themselves the burden of such cam paigns. Now, however, the Democratic national organization, headed by Presi dent Truman and his national chairman, William M. Boyle, jr., takes the view that the people of Texas, for example, are just as much interested in the elec tion of a Senator in Ohio as are the people of Ohio. Hence the Barkley trip, which is to begin October S and take him into the States of Iowa, Wisconsin, Idaho, Washington, California, Utah, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Penn sylvania, New York, Connecticut and Kentucky, in all of which important senatorial races are being run, as well as elections for the House. The threat to Democratic control of the upper house of Congress seems to have been recognized. For example, Mr. Barkley is to seek the defeat of Republi can Senator Taft in Ohio, and the defeat of Republican Senators Wiley in Wiscon sin, Millikin in Colorado and Capehart in Indiana. He is to bolster the chances of Democratic Senators Myers in Penn sylvania, Lucas in Illinois, Thomas in Utah, Lehman in New York, and Mc Mahon and Benton in Connecticut. Although the tour is strenuous and will keep Vice-President Barkley traveling and talking for a full month, other States may be added to his itinerary— perhaps Oklahoma, where Representative Mike Monroney, who won the Demo cratic senatorial nomination from vet eran Senator Elmer Thomas, now is engaged in a brisk campaign against Republican “Flying Parson” Bill Alex ander. If that race should appear later to be really close, Mr. Barkley, who is recognized as the Democrat's most popu lar campaigner, may be rushed there. Ohio Talks Waited. In view of the vituperation which has been heaped upon Senator Taft by the labor bosses and administration spokes men, it will be of interest to see how Mr. Barkley handles the senatorial cam paign in Ohio. The Kentucky Vice President has been on friendly terms personally with Senator Taft. During the Republican-controlled 80th Congress, Taft, as the G. O. P. leader, and Barkley, as the Democratic leader, learned to respect the ability and integrity of each other. The abuse of Senator Taft does not seem in character with Mr. Barkley. However, the Vice-President will not fail to bear down heavily in his criticism of the legislation and policies for which the Ohioan has stood. Senator Taft, whose chances for re election appear to ebb and flow as the weeks pass, had at least three good breaks last week. First, Averell Harriman, sent to Texas by the President for the purpose, attacked Mr. Taft at the AFL convention on the ground that Senator Taft’s stand had been helpful to the Russian Communists. This will be diffi cult to swallow. Second, John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers, urged that if Senator Taft went into the coal mines of Ohio to campaign, the miners should stage a walkout. Third, at the Ohio Democratic State Convention in Columbus, Governor Frank L. Lausche, candidate to succeed himself, in his ad dress to the convention made no men tion whatever of State Auditor Joe Fer guson, Taft’s Democratic opponent, al though Mr. Ferguson sat on the platform beside him. Nor did Mayor Thomas Burke of Cleveland, who introduced the Gover nor, mention the Democratic nominee for Senator. The implication was that neither of these important Democratic leaders was going to line up with Fergu son. It is well understood that Governor Lausche has respect for Senator Taft’s abilities—and none for Mr. Ferguson’s. Questions and Answers The st*r’» reader* can get th* aa*w«r to any question of fact by either wrltia* lie Evening Star Information Bureau, 1200 1 ttxeet N.W.. Washington 6. D. C„ and inclosing 3 cent* return postage, or by telephoning ST. 6000, Extension 368. By THE BASKIN SERVICE Q. At what rate does the population of the world increase dally?—N. R. A. Each day the increase in popula tion amounts to 97,000. Q. How can low-grade honeys be made more marketable?—C. B. A. Scientists have learned to reflne or deflavor dark, strong-flavored honey by the use of bentonite or charcoal. Q. Carson City, Nev.’ is rated as the smallest State capital. What is the population according to the 1950 census report?—Z. L. M. A. This State capital has a population of 3,069. Child on a Swing How wondrous a thing To be happily seven, With silken hair blowing— Toes touching a tree! Child on a swing With clear eyes turned to hea&s. And elfin face glowing— * ' J Enchanted and free! ESTHER ^&FURCH.