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Free World Fumbling
In Hour of Decision Obvious to Everybody Lack of Realism in U, N. Shown With Retreat Of Armies in Korea By David Lawrence The free world—fumbling, de bating, arguing for the self-in terest of each member nation— Is up against the totalitarian world where neither parliaments nor business, nor labor, nor allies have much to say about public policy. This handicap, long expected to plague the free world in its hour of decision, is visible to everybody—including Russia. If all the nations in the free world were to recognize that a state of war already exists, there would be unity in a common cause and a measure of self-discipline. But there is no such realism. American troops in large num bers are in Korea with other al lied units to carry out a mission for the United Nations to halt aggression. The U. N. troops are being beaten on the field of battle— they are meeting severe reverses after having been prevented from using air power against enemy concentrations across the Man churian border. Tirades Against General. What does the world hear from the principal members of the U. N.? From Britain and France come tirades against the Ameri can general. In the British Par liament. one cabinet minister says MacArthur exceeded U. N. direc tives. A member of the British government repudiates that charge and says MacArthur car ried out U. N. objectives. Hindsight is always better than foresight, but what is inexplicable today is the assumption in Euro pean official quarters that if U. N. troops had stopped at th£ 38th Parallel or at an imaginary line north of it, the Chinese Com munists would have promptly made peace and the U. N. mission into Korea would have been car ried out successfully. There is not the slightest evi dence that there would have been any such acquiescence by the Com munists, whose broadcasts from Peiping for several weeks have Insisted only on the immediate and complete exodus of U. N. forces from Korea. The decision which really hangs in the balance to be appraised one way or the other is the U. N. decision of June 26 to go into Korea. The moment the U. N. constituted itself as an interna tional police force it could not revert to the status of a quasi military or a quasi-diplomatic or ganization which tries to tell their troops to move into a country, then asks them to halt while the; enemy is politely asked whether; it will accept defeat. If the enemy I says it won’t do so, then there is evidently more debate on what to do about it while the enemy is, given time to regroup his mili tary forces. If the U. N. now. having gone into Korea, in effect orders its military forces to evacuate what has been conquered, then the U. N. will lose the respect of many mil lions of Americans and there will be a demand for full freedom of action for the United States in world affairs—leaving it to Ameri ca to decide hereafter when and; where it will use its forces and its j resources. Isolationists Increase. This is sometimes called "iso lationism.” More "isolationists” have been born in the last few days since the British government has enunciated its viewpoint than were bred since the 1920s. The demand for America to go its own way in world affairs—helping in Europe or in Asia as its resources permit—will become the demand of many political groups Inside both major parties. Isolationism bored within the Democratic as well as the Republican Party as late as 1932. The situation today happens to fit a paragraph written by Owen Lattimore, the Par Eastern expert, in one of his books published in 1949 when he said: ". ■ • Those who plan and carry out American policy will fall into a trap if they think that what is required of them is a decision be tween ‘Europe first’ and ‘Asia first.’ In 194fi, 1947 and 1948 Europe fitted the combined specifications of the Communist theory of what constitutes an opportunity and the methods available to the So viet state for exploiting an oppor tunity better than in Asia. "In 1949 .Asia fits the specifi cations better than Europe. But both then and now the situations In Europe and in Asia have never ceased to interact on each other.” It is the global aspect of Ameri ca's responsibility and the U. N.’s responsibility, and the inter dependence of policy in Europe and Asia which are being over looked by those who today are counseling retreat and surrender In the Par East on the theory that this means a strengthened U. N. in Europe. Wherever the free world is beaten, its prestige goes down— but it doesn’t stay down if it hero ically fights back as it did all the way from Bataan in 1941 to Tokyo in September 1945. (Reproduction Right.* R#»erved) "Over tO Years of Quality Service" STORAGE Household Goods Low Rotes—Estimates Modern Fireproof Warehouses MERCHANTS Transfer & Storage Co. 9M K 8T. N.W. NA. 6900 * .1 M,"W This Changing World Attlee Has Peace at Any Price Order From London and Paris Governments By Constantine Brown Prime Minister Attlee arrived in Washington yesterday with a mandate from the British and French governments to convince President Tru man of the ab solute necessity of reaching an agreement a t any price with the Chinese Communists. The British prime minister decided to make this im portant trip to Washington after he heard last week from unimpeachable Brown, sources that Mr. Truman had decided to use every available weapon to beat back the Chinese Red aggression. According to reports received over the week end from' London and Paris, Mr. Attlee will Indicate as clearly as diplomatic language permits that if we do not accept a face-saving compromise with China—regardless of how little face Russia permits us to save— Britain and France will be com pelled for reasons of their own security to disassociate themselves from any further actions in Korea. Moreover, in the event that we intend to carry-on our mission to its fullest extent, in the face of the undeclared war with Mos cow’s China, the British and French governments will have to seek a "peaceful solution” of Western Europe's pressing prob lems direct with the Kremlin. r ear own security. The British and French govern ments naturally are more con cerned with their own security than with that of the United States. They fear that unless United Nations forces are with drawn from Korea by an agree ment with the Communists at the earliest moment. Russia may decide to strike Europe sooner than expected. The Military Aid Program, now' has been in effect for more than a year and not a single new European division has been created to man the guns and tanks we have sent across the Atlantic. Europe still has only 9 divisions to meet the 35 Russian divisions which are known to be concentrated between the Elbe and Vistula rivers. Prime Ministers Attlee and Pleven do not expect us to ask for additional French and British forces. No such request can be made, because neither has any thing more to provide. But both leaders are concerned with the prospect that if the war with China continues, America will, of necessity, commit more troops to Korea and thus have none for Eu rope. Only last September the Ameri can Government promised to re inforce substantially the one regu lar and one constabulary divisions it has in Germany. France and Britain are threat ened only from the east. We have two equally important fronts—the Atlantic and the Pacific. Unless we wish to see our national se curity seriously endangered, we not only must keep the Asiatic shore out of the Communist grip, but we must also see to it that Japan, Formosa and'the Philip pines remain outside Moscow’s reach. Even the State Department admits now that Russia is respon sible for the aggression in Asia. All efforts to make a deal with the Peiping puppets have failed— on Moscow’s order. Appeasement of the Chinese might delay the final showdown with Russia, but only long enough to permit the Kremlin to exploit our politico military defeats and make us lose face in Japan and the Philippines. Japan was denuded of American troops when Gen. MacArthur or dered all the occupation forces sent to Korea. Conditions in Japan may be vastly different when a defeated army is returned as an occupation force. These considerations do not un duly worry our European allies. Britain and France feel that any manpower or money spent by the American Government in military operations in the Far East de prives Europe of that much Amer ican assistance. Britain now has only economic interests in Asia and France has a colonial interest. But neither country’s borders are actually threatened from the Far East by Communist imperialism the way ours are. Truman’s Position Not Easy. The State Department, and to a lesser extent the Defense Depart ment, fully share this European point of view. Mr. Truman’s posi tion will not be easy. Congress and the whole country are stunned and angry over happenings in Korea, where our forces have been defeated because they are so heav ily outnumbered. Of the 110,000 Western troops in the line only 1,800 are British. France’s one under-strength battalion has not been committed yet. Neither the American people nor the majority of Congress can understand -why, under these cir cumstances. Gen. MacArthur is not authorized to us$ the Chinese Nationalist divisions offered by the Formosa government. The argu ment of last July, that such an intervention might bring the Chinese Communists into action, no longer is valid. We now are fighting only Chinese Communists. There are good reasons to be lieve that Gen. MacArthur would welcome a diversion by the Na tionalists on the mainland, where they are assured of help from more than one million antl-Cqin munist guerrillas. These guerril las, led by Nationalist officers, now are in action. There may be some important high-level diplomatic reason for our stubborn refusal of timely help from Formosa. But neither the American people, nor their representatives in Congress, can appreciate them. And Mr. Tru man will be compelled to pay some attention to the growing anger of Americans who cannot understand why, when their sons are being killed in Korea, we re-1 fuse to accept the help of the only available ground forces in thej Far East—the Chinese Nationalist army. On the Other Hand Revelation Concerning A-Bomb Suggests Voluntary Censorship By Lowell Mellett One of the great military se crets of our time, perhaps the greatest of all and the most im portant, is the extent to which Russia has de veloped the atomic bomb. That is some thing our mili tary people would like to know and their curiosity, which is far from idle, is shared by .the military people of all anti - Commu nist countries. It is something :they need to L»w,|i know in planning Allied strategy against the accepted threat of a great armed adventure on the part of the Russians in Western Europe. Do the Russians really have the bomb? If so. in what quantity and how good is it, com pared with our own? When will they have a sufficient stockpile to ; warrant, in their minds, the launching of an invasion? Uncertainty Colors Thinking. As anxious for this informa tion as the “military are the poli tical strategists. The present un When you're worn out from shopping ... stop in at the Sutler! You'll perk up right away when you relax in Sutler’s cheerful atmosphere and sit down to Sutler’s superb food. Don’t worry about the cost, either! Sutler is inexpensive... one of the most economical spots in town. Stop in after your shopping tour, | today. Once you’ve tried it you’ll make it a habit. So many, many others do! (JoTEL StATLEH ! certainty color* the thinking of every government that looks upon Russia as an actual or potential enemy. And it colors the think ing of average citizens in every affected country. Has Russia got the new instru ment of wholesale devastation and, if *o, in what quantity? Russia isn’t telling. Turn the picture about. If it is important for us to know the state of Russia’s preparedness in this matter, is it not equally im portant • for Russia to know the state of our preparedness? And isn’t it equally Important for us to keep Russia uninformed and uncertain? It would seem so. But we are telling. Not officially, of course. The civilian custodians of our atomic energy program are not revealing the size of our stockpile or our rate oi production and they are not revealing the progress being made in the development of a still more formidable weapon, the H bomb. The limited group of mili tary men who have this informa tion are keeping it to themselves. The same is true of the President and any other policy-makers who may be informed. Prefer Not to Be Told. So vital has this secrecy been considered that members of Con gress, responsible for voting the money to produce the bombs, do not ask the size of our stockpile. They say they prefer not to be told lest the secret escape. So one American magazine of large circulation, on the news stands today, undertakes to tell the world, including Russia. We have, says the magazine, a stockpile of about 700 bombs. We haven't got very far, it adds, in the development of the H-bomb and there is some doubt concern ing the ultimate success of that protect. Fearful perhaps that this infor mation might be suppressed by its millions of readers at home and abroad, the magazine gave the Associated Press permission to print ii in advance. With due credit, of course. And this the Associated Press cheerfully has done. The magazine disclaims any official authority for its figures ana other information. The au thor, one of the country’s able scienct reporters, has simply pre sented a series of deductions and conclusions from the field of knowledge in which he specializes. But the magazine obviously be lieves he has hit the nail on the head or pretty close thereto. Otherwise why print the article? During the last war voluntary censorship worked pretty well. The time may have come for its, revival. LOUIE —By Harry Hanan Lii. nzzr On the Record Conquerors Throughout All History Have Sought Control of Middle East By Dorothy Thompson DAMASCUS, Syria.—The Mid dle East is that part of the Orient closest to Europe and the West. It includes the Eastern Mediter ranean and the Black Sea where the Dar danelles con nect this other w i s e Russian lake with the Mediterranean, and on the Aegean Sea which Turkey shares with Greece: Syria and the hinter lands of Iraq and Iran, the latter being the »«othr Thom*..., only non-Soviet state on the Caspian; Lebanon of which Israel is but a pendant backed by Jor dan: Egypt, and the peninsula of Saudi Arabia. With the exception of Turkey, Iran, and Israel, all this world is Arab. With the exception of Is rael all is Moslem. This Middle East is the cross ways of the world as indicated by the signs that successive conquer ors have left behind them. Visible from the Mediterranean seafront campus of the American Univer sity of Beirut is a cleft in the Lebanon mountain which rises above the sparkling bay. Through this have come wave after wave of conquerors beginning with the Assyrians in the days of Nebu chadnezzar. Through it came the legions of Caesar. Sought by Every Conqueror. Every European and Eastern conqueror down to Mussolini and; Hitler who ever endeavored to ex-! tend his domain sought the East ern Mediterranean. Whenever Eu-! ropean nations fought each other,' each tried to make an alliance with the Middle East or its domi nant power—for centuries the Ottoman Empire—and conversely the defense of Europe against Central Asia ha* demanded, and still demands, a friendly Middle East, for in the hands of a power hostile to Europe the latter would be menaced from Greece to Gi braltar. Economically the Middle East is essential as a complement to Western Europe. Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia are sources of al most all the oil that turns the wheels of Europe which has none in its own lands. Middle Eastern oil is the nearest, richest, cheap est and, for foreseeable time, in inexhaustible supply. Europe and the Middle East are natural com plementary traders, sharing as they do the common water high way of the Mediterranean. By proximity and/or industrial de velopment Western Europe and America are best equipped to fur nish the machinery for Middle Eastern industrial development. Intellectuals Not Negligible. This should, furthermore, be aided by the cultural ties which have been developing for a full generation regardless of political difficulties. In every society that is undergoing evolutionary or rev olutionary change, the determi nant class is the intellectuals. Relatively small though this class is in the Middle East, only one generation having elapsed since four centuries of Ottoman oppres sion, it is not negligible. The no tion that the Arab world consists of illiterate Bedouins, feudal land lords. and oppressed sharecroppers is a childish oversimplification. In Syria, for example, about one in 300 of the population have had a university education, and these are the fermenting source in so ciety. They are doctors, lawyers, teachers, journalists, engineers. Almost without exception, these speak one of two western lan guages, English or French. Wher ever one goes one meets gradu ates of the American University of Beirut (established in 1891), the Sorbonne, the London School of Economics, Columbia, Harvard, and even the University of Iowa. The educated Arab of this gen eration is intensely politically conscious, and he knows a great deal more about the West than the West knows about his world. The Arab world owes its mod ern existence, for better or worse, to the revolt during World War I, in which it mobilized on the side of the West to throw off the yoke of Turkish despotism, when the Arab briefly became the hero of the Lawrence of Arabia legend. Therefore, at the end of the first World War. when this gen eration of the Middle East was infant, all the breaks were with the West. Today they are not. The mind of the Middle East, like that of the Far East, is at best dubious, at worst disillusioned and bitter toward the West. This much any visitor will discover in a very short time. And it seems essential for us to try to under stand why. Usual British Planning Attlee Begins Parley With Truman On Persuasive Tide of Publicity By Doris Fletson British Prime Minister Attlee and his staff entered into confer-1 ence with President Truman and the Americans on a persuasive \ tide of advance publicity about Mr. Attlee’s in tentions. The British planned it that way. They always do. Authoritative sources depict the Prime Min ister, speaking also for the F r ah c h, as equipped with firm pledges to get down to the defense of west- Dori* riet,,B ern Europe in exchange for a United States promise not to com mit all Its strength to the Asia venture. Thus the President could do what he has grumpily com plained he is ready to do: Appoint Gen. Eisenhower head of an allied army in Europe. As an offset to some yielding on Asia, the British are promis ing complete firmness in the prospective talks with Russia. It is admitted that the President made Europe nervous with his re marks about the atomic bomb and that Gen. MacArthur is a hair shirt but no issue will be made of it. Old Story for Reporters. It is an old story for United States reporters covering interna tional conferences to get their leads from the adroit British but this time a new order is in sight. Regular briefings by one of the United States conferees are prom ised which are expected to develop for the public the alternative courses being considered with their advantages and disadvan tages. The military crisis in Korea makes it difficult to discuss in any detail yet what the United States wants. Washington is full of ru mor and speculation about what may have to be done for the out numbered and retreating U. N. forces but nothing is official. Th* United Nations decisions \ will inarch in time with the Ko rean developments and the prog ress of the Truman-Attlee talks. A sober Congress is showing that it realizes all that is involved. A substantial number of Senators gathered to hear Senator William F. Knowland, just back from Korea and Tokyo, appeal for a strong China policy with no taint of appeasement. Senator Knowl ant argued that aggression by a large nation is as truly aggression as if a small one did it: that a "Far East Munich’’ now will only encourage Russia. Points to Common Cause. Recalling that he had supported European intervention, Senator Knowland called on the British Prime Minister to uphold the com mon cause of freedom, not Just regional freedom. Administration supporters took pains to be present: they notably refrained from partisan question ing. One of their leaders later described the speech as a moder ate presentation of a point of view that the American people were entitled to take into account. This group, however, gave the ab sent treatment to a following de mand by Senator Kem of Mis souri for the resignation of Sec retary Acheson and his replace ment "by some man of seasoned judgment like Robert A. Taft or Harry Byrd.” It is improbable that President Truman would choose either of these two but within his own party there is evident a willing ness to accept some creative move toward national unity. Influen tial Democrats recalled that Presi dent Roosevelt put two Republi cans in his Cabinet and sug gested that if the Korean solu tions must be unpalatable. Mr. Truman might ponder that ex ample. i L-j-hJGAS heat m tnail* A*k your neighbor ,JQHM <L WlBSTBI. | PtUMlING-HtATlNG-ASftlAHCtS | 627 F St. N.W. • Coll ST. 6100 .. — 1 ■ McLemore— Blames Kitchen For His Cooking By Henry McLemore With every able-bodied person in the house except myself down with flu "it has been my job to do the cooking for the past.two days. Everyone has gone steadily downhill since I became chef, and the doctor has hinted that unless a change is made all con cerned might soon be beyond medical care. I can’t un derstand this at all. Cooking isn’t new to me. I took do mestic science H,nr» McLemore. training in high school, and well do I remember the day when I was honored by having one of my pies given to the track team to replace a lost discus. Kitchen at Fault. There are no end of cook books around the house, ranging from . one on casserole cooking for lum berjacks to one on what to do with leftover leftovers. And I fol low their directions as relentlessly as ever did a bloodhound follow a loose jailbird. The more I think about it, the more I believe I have an answer to the awful food I have dished out in the past 48 hours. The fault is with my kitchen,1 not me. r It’s too confounded modem. It is to kitchens what a supersonic jet is to planes. The fingerprints of the designers are still on most of the stuff. I wouldn’t be sur prised if my kitchen didn’t need ;a few more hours in the air, so to speak, to work the bugs out. Take the range, and you’re wel come to it. I learned my cook ing first on a cast-iron monster that had to be fed chunks of stove wood, and whose lids burned like the eyes of the devil himself, and then on a gas model that had to be lighted with kitchen matches. When I light an oven I am used i to getting on my hands and knees, j 'holding my breath while I poke! a match through a hole, and then jumping back when I hear a: "Boom!” that denotes she is cook-j jing with gas. The range I have now has a; I built-in TV, PM and record chang- j er. and a radar for detecting the: first signs of a falling souffle or a burnt crust. Half the professors at M. I. T. couldn’t explain it, much less cook on and in it. Fascinated by Dishwasher. There’s an automatic dishwash er, too, and I find it so fascinating that, I have spent more time fid dling with it than I have trying to master the stove. Where I come from in Georgia half the fun j in living was raising your own' little automatic dishwashers and dryers right under your own roof. There are so many gadgets a man doesn’t have time to pay attention to his cooking. There’s a Goldbergish ice crushing ma : chine which does away with wrap j ping a chunk of ice in a dish towel and whamming it on the floor or beating it with a rolling pin. Right by that is a perfectly j beautiful can opener which does | everything but give you a trim • and a singe while it’s slicing off j the top of a can of tomatoes. No adventure in opening a can any! ! ■ ! An Ideal Christmas Gift=■ ■' j Poems of Love and Faith A STAR STILL SHINES by R. Serrell W. Walker I In a war-wracked world, here is a reminder that life is still worth living and singing about. Magnificent poetry on the simplest, most universal themes —the healing power of nature, the wonder of love, the need for God. $2.50. Order Toer Cepr New Fro* Any Book Store EXPOSITION PRESS 386 Fourth Avonuo, Now York 16, N. Y. j more. No risk of losing half a finger tip trying tp pry it open when the old-fashioned cutter re fused to go but half way ’round. The kitchen is too pretty for my taste. All pale yellow and white, even to the dish rags—par don, dish cloths—and the prize winning combination stool and ladder. I'm so afraid of breaking some of the high-powered equipment, or scratching what must be the Ming porcelain on the sink, that I can’t get down to serious cooking. (Distributed by McNaught Syndicate. Die.) For Weddings And Parties RENT morning and evening clothes and accessories that make you feel at ease because they fit well and are correctly tailored. Clothes made ready in an hour or two. Moderate Fees I i Now at 1306 G St. N.W. j 3WA offers new low fares to all EUROPE The year's biggest transatlantic travel bargain! 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