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Lote New York Markets, Poqe B-11 _ _An Associated Press Newspaper 99th Year. No. 102. Phone ST. 5000 **WASHINGTON, D. C., THURSDAY, APRIL 12, 1951-EIGHTY PAGES.5 CENTS MacArthur May Fly Back toll.S. Next Week, Martin Says, While Truman Foes Hit Policy Speech Republicans Vow To Bring General . Before Congress Gen. MacArthur may fly back to the United States next week to present his views to Congress. House Republican Leader Martin said today. Mr. Martin made the announce ment after a morning meeting of Widely Different Opinions Expressed in United States Newspapers. Page A-5 Today's Instalment of "Riddle of Mac Arthur" Describes Character. Page A-4 House Republican Policy Com mittee. Original plans, Mr. Martin said, were for Gen. MacArthur to re turn by boat. In that case it would be at least three weeks be fore he could arrive here. Mr. Martin said he had heard from a reliable source—and not from Gen. MacArthur himself— that the General might fly back here next week. Mr. Martin did not disclose the source. At a news conference shortly after noon, the Republican leader also said he would go before the House Rules Committee tomorrow to urge approval of a resolution inviting Gen. MacArthur to ad dress a joint session of Congress. No Opposition Expected. Mr. Martin said he did not ex pect any opposition on the House floor to having Gen. MacArthur appear, and remarked: “Even a Democrat might want tome knowledge." Several Republicans said they wanted to speed the General s re turn because public sentiment seemed to be with him now. “It could cool off if we waited three weeks," one Republican re marked. In the event the Democrats op pose and block the move, one Republican said they are consid ering the renting of "the biggest hall we could hire” for a iparty conference to which. every one wnnlH hp Senate Attitude Uncertain. Meanwhile, the House Republi can Policy Committee adopted a resolution suggesting that the fir ing of Gen. MacArthur may pave the way for a “super-Munich” peace settlement by the “Truman Acheson-Marshall triumvirate.” Mr. Martin said that he did not know what the Senate atti tude would be. A fight over the move loomed there and one Dem ocratic Senator—Kerr of Okla homa—said he would do all he could to block it. Senator Kerr said he thought Congress should obtain Gen. MacArthur’s views, but in a manner—before commit tees—that the Far Eastern com mander could be questioned and examined on the controversial events leading up to his dismissal. With President Truman’s radio and television broadcast last night defending his action only feeding the flames of their wrath, the Re publican leaders said they would find some means to have Gen. MacArthur present his views to Congress and the world. Wherry Presses for Action. Senate Minority Leader Wherry said he would continue to press for action on a resolution he in troduced yesterday. Consideration of the resolution was blockell in the Senate yester day by Majority Leader McFar land. Senator Wherry acknowl edged that the parliamentary sit uation practically ruled out any possibility of getting any action on it today. The Republicans centered on getting Gen. MacArthur here after a furious round of conferences yesterday during which there was in the heat of the feelings and (Continued on Page A-3, Col. 1.1 Move by MacArthur To Resign Is Denied By the Associated Press The White House said today President Truman had no intima tion of any kind of any plan oi Gen. MacArthur to resign prior tc his removal. This was the reply by Presiden tial Secretary Joseph H. Short who was asked about a broadcast report. Mr. Short was told the report was to the effect that Gen MacArthur had communicated his intentions to resign to Secretary of the Army Pace in Tokyo and that Mr. Pace had relayed the in formation to the President. Mr. Short told a news confer ence Mr. Truman had no intima tion of any kind along that line and added, “the President had no such message from Secretary Pace.” Mr. Short wouldn’t comment on questions as to when the President finally decided on Gen. MacAr thur's removal. Nor would he discuss Republi can proposals for impeachments and for bringing Gen. MacArthur before a joint meeting of Con gress. He withheld comment also on an assertion by a MacArthur spokesman that the general had meticulously followed all direc tives cm foreign policy statements i White House Decision Forced By General's Letter to Martin Truman Delayed Final Move Until After Long Conferences With All Advisers President Makes Strong Bid for Public Support By Cecil Holland A forthright bid by President Truman for support in his dis missal of Gen. MacArthur from his. Pacific commands was before the American people today. Less than 24 hours after issuing the orders relieving Gen. Mac Text of Truman Address on MacArthur and Far East Policy. Page A-18 Messages Pour Into White House; Most Protest MacArthur Ouster. Page A-3 Arthur, Mr. Truman went on; radio and television last night to justify his drastic actions. He! emphasized it was a necessary: step in this country's efforts to avoid a third world war. Mr. Truman said it was the purpose of the United States to keep the fighting in Korea from spreading into another all-out war, and added: “A number of events have made it evident that Gen. MacArthur did not agree with that policy. I have therefore considered it es sential to relieve Gen. MacArthur so that there would be no doubt or confusion as to the real purpose and aim of our policy.” Mr. Truman laid down three conditions for a peaceful settle ment in Korea when the Commu nists are willing to negotiate. These were: 1. Fighting must stop. 2. Concrete steps must be taken to insure that fighting will not break out again. 3. There must be an end to the aggression. Flatly Rejects Proposals. The President flatly and in forceful language rejected the sug gestion of Gen. MacArthur and others that the United Nations forces fighting in Korea should bomb Manchuria and China and should support Chinese National-: ists in invading the mainland of China. "If we were to do Ujiese things,” Mr. Truman declared solemnly, ”we would be running a very grave risk of starting a general war.! If that were to happen, we would: have brought about the exact situation we are trying to pre vent." Mr. Truman said such a course would entangle the United States “in a vast conflict on the con-j tinent of Asia.” This, he added,: would make immeasurably difficult j the task of opposing the threat of communism throughout the world.! The President’s statement with respect to bombing emphasized anew the administration’s deter mination to keep United Nations aircraft away from Manchuria and China at this stage of the fighting lest attacks on Red sup ply bases touch off a general war. But the President left open—as he has done previously—what this: country would do if the Commu-; nists launched an all-out air at tack on the U. N. forces fighting in Korea. Military men have said such a development necessarily iwould bring quick and mammoth | retaliatory attacks on Red bases no matter where they were. Mr. Truman was solemn and unsmiling as he faced the micro (See TRUMAN. Page A-3.) Truman Won't Hold Weekly Conference With Press Today By the Associated Press President Truman will omit his weekly news conference today. Announcing this yesterday, the White House gave no ex planation. But it may be that the President wished to let his speech last night on Par Eastern policies stand as his comment on the replace ment of Gen. Mac Arthur. By John M. Hightower Associated Press Staff Writer President Truman personally concluded that Gen. MacArthur had to go as soon as he saw a copy of Gen. MacArthur’s letter I to House Republican Leader Mar tin. That was last Thursday after noon. Mr. Truman’s conclusion Doris Fleeson's Account of Events Leading to Ouster. Page A-23 did not become an official de cision, however, until several days later—after the President had consulted his most trusted ad visers m his own official family and in Congress. These and the related events and decisions were told to this reporter by supporters of Mr. Tru man, close enough to see the whole picture emerge. Their account, which of course reflects adminis tration thinking, follows: Mr. Truman first learned of the MacArthur letter to Mr. Martin when an aide carried a news ticker account of it into the Chief Executive’s oval office and laid it on the President’s desk. The letter was a direct chal lenge of presidential policies on two points—use of Chinese Na tionalist troops and the relative importance of Asia in the con flict with Communism. There had been a long buildup of MacArthur incidents before that and Mr. Truman had become increasingly annoyed. His hope that the general would shut up had given way to irritated wonder at what he would say next. The President and his closest advisers fell the general did not intend to comply with various orders that he stop what the ad ministration considered political talk. Instead, he seemed to be seeking opportunities to assert his independence of administration policy. In short, in the President’* view, Gen. MacArthur had not been playing on the team. Gen. MacArthur was pushing his polity line so hard—advocating expansion of the war beyond Ko rea—that the President wondered whether Gen. MacArthur'wanted to come home in a blaze of con troversy, martyred by his dismis sal. America’s Allies in the Korean ^Continued on Page A-12, Col. 3.) Reds Lose Five Planes In Two Roaring Fights Over Northwest Korea 152 Craft Clash in Biggest Jet Battle in History; All American Return ly th« Astociated Prill TOKYO, April 12.—American warplanes shot down 5 enemy jets, probably destroyed 2 more and damaged 15 today In two roaring air fights over Northwest Korea. All American planes came safely out of the battles. One of the thunderous dashes was the biggest jet fight in history. It involved 152 jet planes—80 Russian-made MIG-15s «td 72 American F-86s and F-84s—and aboaut 49 B-29 medium bombers. On the ground, two Chinese di visions pulled back suddenly and mysteriously on the central front, American troops pushed cautiously National Guard "Long Toms" Go Intc Action in Korea. Page A-23 ahead in their wake against no opposition. Staff officers said they were puzzled by the enemy with drawal. Crossing Bitterly Opposed. The two Red Divisions yesterday bitterly oposed Allied crossings of the Hantan River south of Chor won. They fought from the crag gy hills north of the river. But they broke contact last night. South Korean troops on the east coast stabbed 26 miles into North Korea in the deepest North Ko rean penetration of the current United Nations drive. In history’s biggest jet battle the 80 MIGS swooshed out of Rec Manchuria against 72 Americar jets flying cover for 30 to 40 B-21 Superforts. The B-29s droppec 300 tons of bombs on the vita railroad bridge across the Yali River between Antung, Manchuria and Sinuiju. Korea. me American jets snot dowr two MIGs. probably destroyed tw< others and damaged *13. A B-2! gunner brought down a third Rec jet. B-29s also damaged anothei Red jet. Two B-29s were dam; aged, but landed safely in Korea! The others returned to their Jap anese or Okinawa bases. Battle in “MIG Alley.” The second air battle flaret later today in the center of “MIC Alley” between Sinuiju and Sinan ju. In this action 15 Communis jets attacked 12 American Sabrt jets. The Sabres shot down two Ret |jets and probably destroyed an other. The fight raged for 1! minutes from 34,000 down to 4,00( feet altitude. Heavy fighting also swirled neai Yanggu on the southeastern edgt of the great Hwachon reservoir Tight censorship obscured the de tails. South Korean troops on the easl coast swept northward to the towr of Kansong, 26 miles inside Rec Korea. It was the deepest pene tration in the current Allied of fensive. Bulletin Draft Segregation Plan Losei The House tentatively knocked from Us draft bill today a provision to allow white youths to request assignment to military units not containing Negroes. The vote was 178 to 126. (Earlier Story on Fago B-4.) Yoshida Assures U. S. Of Co-operafion and Praises MacArthur General's Benefactions Will Live Forever in Hearts of People, He Says Vy Int Aisotiattd Pren TOKYO, April 12.—Prime Min ister Shigeru Yoshida said today the Japanese government has as sured the United States of its “determination to continue more than ever" its co-operation under Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway, the new supreme commanded of the occupation. At the some tfme. Mr. Yoshida paid tribute to Gen. MacArthur Gen. Whitney Denies MacArthur Violated Any Truman Order. Page A-6 Firing of MacArthur Acclaimed by Both Sides in Europe. Poge A-ll and said “the memory of his bene factions will live forever in the hearts of the Japanese people." Three major Japanese polit ical parties agreed to join in a resolution of thanks to Gen. Mac Arthur. Proposed by Liberals. Prime Minister Yoshida’s Liberal Party proposed the resolution and I the Democrats and Socialists said they would join. The Japanese Communist Party said Gen. MacArthur’s replace ment occurred “because of in | tensified contradiction and conflict among the imperialist nations.” Mr. Yoshida said his govern ment was notified yesterday “that !the retirement of Gen. MacArthur jin no way denotes or implies any change whatsoever in the con sistent United States policy toward Japan or the Par East.” He said the United States as sured the Japanese that the re moval ot Gen. MacArthur will not “affect the United States deter mination to press forward with its efforts to conclude a treaty of , peace as soon as possible on the basis already discussed with Jap . anese leaders.” Assurances Given. Mr. Yoshida said the government replied immediately to the mes sage, which also asked for the same “high degree of co-opera I tion” with Gen. Ridgway as with ■ Gen. MacArthur. He said the Japanese reply “gave assurance of our determination to continue more than ever our co-operation i (See TOKYO, Page A-3.) MacArthur Has Choice of Jobs, From Lecturing to Acting Gen. MacArthur, if he steps into civilian clothes, need have no worries about his earning power. Before the deposed Far Eastern commander had a chance to make known any of his future plans, these offers—ranging from a lec ture tour to an acting job—have been held out: 1. Gridley Adams, head of the United States Flag Foundation, a patriotic organization to foster proper use of the flag, said he has offered the general $1 million for a nationwide lecture tour to build up the soldier as a Republican presidential candidate. 2. If he should resign his five star commission, the North Amer ican Newspaper Alliance reported, he has a standing offer of f 1 mil lion for the publication and syn dication of his memoirs. 3. James Rand, head of Rem ington Rand, Inc., also has offered him an executive post with his company - at a six-digit annual salary, NANA reported. 4. A Hollywood producer offered a $3,000-a-week acting job to play the lead in “The Square Needle,” a stage play which concerns a World War II ofljper whose op erations were hampered by policy directives from Washington. 5. The Auditorium Activities Committee offered $10,000 and expenses if Gen. MacArthur would make his first public appearance in Sioux City, Iowa. Even if Gen. MacArthur decides to do nothing, he is entitled to a $15,000 tax-free annual salary for life, plus $3,700 In yearly expenses. I par eastern I COMMAND ’ ' ■ »1 rpW' ' ' THE BOSS COULDN'T I AFFORD To [ KEEP HIM* —CS» President Offers to 'Help' Senator Tobey Impeach Him Legislator, Who Hasn't Joined in Move, Tells of Phone Talk With Truman By Edward Harris A Washington Correspondent of The St. Louis Post-Dispatch Amidst loud partisan demands for the impeachment of President Truman, it was learned today that the President himself, in a fit of pique, telephoned one Sen ator and sarcastically offered to "help” if the Senator wanted to start impeachment proceedings against him. The episode took place late Tuesday afternoon, hours before — G. 0. P. "Impeachment" Outcries Abate in Light of Realities. Page A-4 Andrew Johnson Was Only President Im peached—and He Won. Page A-22 tru—Li-.L.r-ej—^ru-vruor-uru j newsmen were summoned to a post-midnight c inference, where it was announced that Gen. Mac Arthur had been fired. That world-shaking announce ment has led to calls for the Presidents impeachment, voiced! for the most part by his most rock-ribbed political foes. Those who know the President best do not believe he is personally con cerned over these cries for his scalp. But Missouri's first President, who is prone to outspoken run ning feuds when some one he likes appears to turn against him. showed sensitive concern when he heard that Republican Senator! Charles W. Tobey of New Hamp shire had mentioned “impeach ment” and “Truman” in the same breath. What happened was this: As Senator Tobey related in de tail yesterday on the Senate floor, he had appeared last Monday be (See TOBEY, Page A-12.) 1). S. Loses in Fight On Decision Clearing Miners of Contempt Court of Appeals Refuses To Act in Case Involving 1950 Contract Strike By the Associated Press The United States Circuit Court of Appeals today dismissed the Government’s appeal from a Dis trict Court decision which had cleared John L. Lewis’ United Mine Workers of contempt of court in their 1950 contract strike. The Appeals Court split, 2-1, in holding the case was moot, that is, no longer an issue. The effect of today's decision isi to allow Judge Keech’s action to stand. The 18-page opinion dealt only with the issue of civil contempt, since under American safeguards against double jeopardy, the Gov ernment cannot appeal an acquit tal in a criminal case. Decision Written by Stephens. Chief Judge Harold M. Stephens wrote the decision in which As sociate Judge Charles Fahy dis sented. Associate Judge E. Bar rett Prettyman concurred in Chief Judge Stephenes’ views. In finding the contempt ques tion moot, the court declined to act on the merits of the appeal which stemmed from a ruling of District Court Judge Richmond B. Keech absolving the union of both civil and criminal contempt. The Justice Department charged the union's alleged refusal to comply with a temporary court order to restrain the strike was con temptuous. The lower court’s decision, by (See UMW, Page A-20.) U.S. Casualties Now Total $9,306; Up 846 in Week By the Associated Press Announced American casualties in Korea reached 59,306 today, an increase of 846 since last week. The total includes 8,941 killed in action. 39,500 wounded and 10,865 missing. It represents casualties whose next of kin were notified through midnight last Friday. Of the wounded, 1,040, subse quently died and 99 of the missing are known dead, raising the total combat death figure to 10,080. The figure op missing alpo in cludes 1,109 who have since re turned *to American control and 113 known to be prisoners of war, leaving 9,544 currently missing. The Army reported 49,463 total casualties, an increase of 790 over the previous week. The Navy total reached 634, only one more than previously reported. The Marine Corps listed 32 additional casualties, making a current total of 8,826. Air Force casualties in creased 23 during the week, reach ing a total of 473. Steel Firm Got Loans As Well as Tax Benefit, Capehart Charges Patman Defends Company, Says Stockholders Are Putting Up $9 Million By Francis P. Douglas Senator Capehart, Republican, of Indiana, asserted today that the Government has granted tax bene fits to a Texas steel company for a $73.5 million expansion pro gram and then loaned the com pany money for the expansion. His statement, which touched! off a spirited debate with Repre sentative Patman, Democrat, of Texas, was made at a hearing be fore the Joint Committee on De fense Production. Both Senator Capehart and Rep ersentative Patman are members of the committee. The incident arose during testi mony by William H. Harrison, head of the Defense Production Administration. Mr. Harrison dis closed plans to ask authority for the Government to build plants where necessary to get production in the defense emergency. Certificate of Necessity. The authority would be request ed in provisions of the Defense Production Act which expires June 30. Mr. Harrison gave as an ex ample of a plant to be built one manufacturing guided missiles, a plant which might have no post emergency use. The Texas steel plant brought up by Senator Cape hart is thft Lone Star Steel Co. of Dallas. me senator sam it naa re ceived a certificate of necessity en abling it to write off 85 per cent of the $73.5 million expansion costs in five years. Such a write off. instead of taking 20 years to depreciate costs, reduces a com pany's taxes in a period of high tax rates. Senator Capehart also brought out that the Reconstruction Fi nance Corp. had made a loan of $15 million to the company and that it had received an additional loan of $23.5 million through the National Production Authority. Patman Backs Company. “It never was the intent of Con gress that a company was to re ceive both oertiflcates of necessity for tax amortization and loans of the money for expansion,” he said. • He declared he merely was using this company as an example. Mr. Patman broke in and said it was “a bad example,” and that (See TAX BENEFITS, Page A-20.) Eisenhower Ends Reich Tour AUGSBURG, Germany. April 12 (#’).—Gen. Eisenhower finished a four-day inspection of Allied forces in West Germany today and said his next fiel<r tour as Atlantic pact commander will be “to the north and Italy." A Screen Writer Names S' Budd Schulberg as Ex-Hollywood Red Collins Tells of Own Membership in Party, Lists Novelist, Others By L. Edgar Prina Screen Writer Richard J. Collins! today admitted he had been a; Communist for 10 years and named several other top film! writers as members of the same! Red group to which he had. be-! longed in Hollywood. He told the House Committee on Un-American Activities that Budd Schulberg, Albert Malta, Ring Lardner, jr„ and John Howard Lawson all had Been fallow mem bers of the Communist Party in the early 1940s. Schulberg hit the top of the best-seller list last fall with “The Disenchanted,” which was closely patterned after the life of F. Scott Fitzgerald, the author-spokesman of the jazz age. The 37-year-old author’s first novel—written when he was 26 —as the story of a “heel” in Holly wood, “What Makes Sammy Run?" Collins testified that Schulberg "left the party right after his book came out.” It was published on March 27, 1941. X CII9 vi Tv 1 IVCl 9 UUUUi Collins testified that he had be come a Communist in 1938 and had quit in late 1947. He said he had attended during that time about 5,000 hours of meetings" of Communist groups. “And I might add,” he said, “that’s enough for a lifetime.” By far the most informed and; willing witness on Communism in the film capital to appear before j the committee so far, Collins gave; these reasons for the Communist: Party’s interest in infiltrating Hollywood: “To influence the content of films where possible; to stop or abate anti-Communist films; to tap what they felt would be a lucrative source for party funds, and because the party throught it would be advantageous and easy to use a concentration of partially frustrated creative people.” The witness described the re organization of the Screen Writers’ Guild in the late 1930s under the guidance of V. J. Jerome, the Communist Party’s cultural com missar. Collins said that, al though non-Communists belonged to the reconstituted Guild, Reds dominated it until the first House Committee hearing on Hollywood in 1947. Three Jailed for Contempt. Lawson, Maltz and Lardneri were members of the so-called “Hollywood Ten,” all of whom were jailed on contempt-of-Con gress charges for refusing to an swer committee questions on Communism in 1947. Lawson was the accepted Com munist leader in Hollywood, Col lins asserted. He said Lawson directed the Guild after Jerome’s organizing work had been completed. Collins, who wrote the lilm “Song of Russia” and “As Thou sands Cheer," said he had joined the Young Communist League in New York in the mid-30s. He said that he was led into the party (See UN-AMERICAN, Pg. A-14.) Corregidor May Get Its Name Changed to MacArthur Island By the Associated Press MANILA, April 12.—Change the name of historic Corregi dor to MacArthur Island? That’s what three members of the Philippines Congress want to do. They introduced a bill last night to rename the island in Manila Bay where Gen- MacArthur had his head quarters during the defense of Bataan in 1942. i Supreme Court Holds Ober Law Constitutional Decision Expedited On Loyalty Oaths for Political Candidates The Supreme Court today gave approval to Maryland’s anti subversive Ober law oath, which requires candidates for State and city offices to swear they are not engaged in any attempt to over throw the Government by force and violence. The law had been attacked by Thelma Gerende of Baltimore, who sought to run for the Balti more City Council on the Progres sive Party ticket, but refused to sign a loyalty oath. The court’s opinion was un signed and was limited to only about 200 words. i ii expiainea me nign iriounai i understood Maryland courts as \ deciding that to obtain a place on a Maryland ballot a candidate need only make oath that he is not a person who is engaged “in one way or another in the attempt to overthrow by force and vio lence” and that he is not know ingly a member of an organization engaged in such an attempt. Refused To Sign Oath. The opinion added that during argument Attorney General Hall Hammond of Maryland informed the court that he would advise the proper authorities of Maryland to accept an affidavit from candi dates “in these terms as satisfying in full the statutory requirement.” “Under these circumstances and with this understanding.” the Su preme Court’s opinion said, “the judgment of the Maryland Court of Appeals is affirmed.” Maryland State courts held that to become a candidate for the Baltimore Council Miss Gerende was obliged to sign a loyalty oath. She refused to do so on grounds that such an oath was an unlaw ful interference with freedom of speech and thought. Justice Reed concurred in the opinion today. Baltimore’s election day is May t and because of the time limit, the Supreme Court took the un usual step of taking up the cast out of the regular order. It alia departed from precedent in hand ing down the decision on a Thurs day, rather than the customary Monday. . Decision Expedited. Counsel for Miss Gerende had asked the court to rule speedily, so that its decision could be in the hands of the Board of Super visors of Elections of Baltimore City well befort election. Oral arguments were heard only on Monday and the Supreme Court acted with unusual speed in rendering its decision so soon. Mr. Hammond told the Supreme Court, in arguing for upholding the validity of the oath and this part of the Ober Law under at tack, that the law was carefully irawn. Deputy Attorney General I. Edgar Harvest told the highest :ourt that the law was over whelmingly approved by the voters. Counsel for Miss Gerende had argued that both the Ober Law and the Maryland Court of Ap peals decision upholding its pro visions were vague and uncertain. They maintained that the law at tacked beliefs and ideas and that It violated the First Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Danish-U. S. Treaty Drafted For Defense of Greenland ly th« Asiociated Press COPENHAGEN. April 12.—A Danish-American treaty on the defense of Denmark’s huge Arctic island of Greenland has been drafted and is now being studied by the two governments, it was re liably learned today. According to the draft, the new treaty will be valid for 20 years. It will succeed the treaty of 1941, which gave the United States rights to establish naval and air bases in Greenland. It was learned that Denmark will undertake the naval defense of the island. For this purpose Denmark will take over the Amer ican-built naval base in Arsuk fiord on the southwest coast. The air defense will remain in the hands of the Americans. For this reason the United States will be given back some of the air bases, including Bluie West One and Eight, handed over to the Danes in the summer of 1950. • Here Is a Tip For Job Hunters If you need o job, don't just dream about getting one. Tell 230,000 people you need work. Tell them about your qualifications. Do it through a classi fied ad in The Star. More than 15,000 employ ment ads appear in The Star classified ad sec tion each month. This is more than the three other Washington newspapers com bined. The thou of people who subscribe to Star turn to the classified section when they have geode or services to buy or sell. Call Sterling 5000. Advertise in Washington’s Num ber 1 classified medium.