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Caldwell Tells Court
He Didn’t Interfere With Snags Lewis Jury Charges that he tried to bribe a juror at a gambling trial were denied from the stand in District Court today by Bennie C. Cald well, 51, owner of the Club Bali at 1901 Fourteenth street N.W. The colored defendant told the Jury in the closing phase of his trial that he had interfered in no way with the trial in January, 1950, of William (Snags) Lewis, and two others. Under cross-examination Mr. Caldwell said he had known Lewis as a customer in his night club since 1940. The testimony of the defendant was interrupted to permit the in troduction of eight character wit nesses led off by Sergt. John F. Ash of No. 13 precinct, who said he had known Mr. Caldwell in his precinct for several years and considered his general reputation “very good.” Witnesses Support Alibi. One count of the indictment accuses him offering money on January 19, 1950, to a member of a jury panel to obtain informa tion from the trial jury. The other count accuses Caldwell of causing a sum of money to be offered a juror on January 23, 1950, to influence her decision. Key defense witnesses have tes tified Caldwell was elsewhere at the times the prosecution con tends the sums were offered. T.Actor P Pailpv assistant field secretary of the National Asso ciation for the Advancement of Colored People, testified yesterday Caldwell was at a membership meeting of the association, be ginning at 10 o’clock, on the night of January 23, 1950. Similar tes timony was given also by Andrew L. Lindsay, campaign director for the local branch of the NAACP. Placed at YMCA. Lawrence P. Hunt, executive secretary of the Twelfth Street Branch of the YMCA, had testi fied previously that, earlier on the same night, he and Caldwell were conferring about a YMJA cam paign. That conference, according to Mr. Hunt’s testimony, was be ing held at the time the Govern ment contends Caldwell was visit ing the home of the woman juror Mr. Hunt’s testimony was cor roborated by W. Burdette Hock aday, chairman of the Member ship Committee of the YMCA. District Sergeant Wounded in Korea Sergt. 1/c Ralph E. Rickenbach er, 30, of 738 Longfellow street N.W., has been seriously wounded In action in Korea, his wife re ported today. Mrs. Rickenbacher said her hus band suffered a compound frac ture of the upper left arm April 25 when a bullet “tore a hole as big as a silver dollar’’ in the arm. Another slug ripped through his chest, she said. He is recupera tion at a hospital in Tokyo, and hopes to be transferred to Walter Reed Hospital soon. Sergt. Rickepbacher suffered wounds in the back and neck in Germany during World War H, according to his wife. He served overseas for three and a half years. After his discharge in 1945, Sergt. Rickenbacher worked for the Sin clair Refining Co. here. He re enlisted in 1948 and was sent over seas again last September with the 7th Regiment of the 3d Division. Sergt. and Mrs. Rickenbacher have a 5-month-old daughter Marlene, whom he has never seen His mother, Mrs. Etta Rickenbach er, and a sister. Miss Marguerite Parker, live at 7436 Georgia ave nue N.W. Wedemeyer to Testify In MacArfhur Hearing ly the Associated Press LINCOLN. Nebr., May 15.—Lt Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer has disclosed that he will join the ranks of generals appearing be fore Senate committees hearing testimony on the firing of Gen MacArthur. Gen. Wedemeyer, 6th Army commander who has asked for retirement, was the author of a report on the Far East which was first suppressed and then released in part. Arriving here last night from his San Francisco headquarters, Gen. Wedemeyer said he would be in New York Thursday night, then go to Washington. The Defense Department had notified him of his appearance before the com mittees. he said, but hadn’t told him when that would be. ■ A t i ^ m jU Men Drag Kiver For 2 Small Girls Playing in Safety Foui'-year-old Jerry Peacock saw some bubbles in the Anacostia River’s eastern branch near Bla densburg road yesterday and within minutes five rescue squads were dragging the stream. Jerry’s sisters, Linda, 5, and Sandra, 3, were missing from theii home at 4300 Newark road. Col mar Manor, but It turned out that the bubbles weren’t made by his sisters as he bad thought. The sisters were playing in s nearby yard, unaware that Prince Georges County police were scour ing the neighborhood Seeking them, and that i>0 men were drag ging the river on the theory thal they had drowned. Rescue squads from the Dis trict, Cottage City, Mount Rainier Bladensburg and Berwyn Height) rushed to the area. The 50 fire men donned hip boats and wadec into the stream. Some of then launched a rubber life raft t< help. More than an hour later Sandr: and Linda came home. “We were just playin’." Linds said. The rescue squadron climbe< out of the river. During the ex citement, the father, Paul A. Pea cock, jr., was at work with a con struction company and could no be'located. His wife is in a Bal tlmore hospital and a maid waj with the children. h ‘ ' T Partial Text of Gen. Bradley's Testimonyj Following is a condensed, cen sored transcript of Gen. Brad ley’s testimony today before combined Senate Foreign Rela tions and Armed Services Com mittees inquiring into the dis missal of Gen. MacArthur: Chairman Russell—Gentlemen, we are glad to welcome here to day General of the Army Omar N. Bradley, who is the third of Amer ica’s greatest military leaders to appear before this committee. . . . Gen. Bradley—Mr. Chairman and members of the committees (from a prepared statement): At the very outset, I want to make it clear that I would not say anything to discredit the long and illustrious career of Gen. Douglas MacArthur. We may have different views on certain aspects of our Government’s military pol icy, but that is not unusual. , Certainly there have been no personal considerations in our dif ferences of opinion. In matters of such great scope "and of such importance many people have dif ferent ideas and might con sequently recommend different courses of action. As chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. I am one of the military advisers to the President, the Sec retary of Defense, and the Na tional Security Council. I pass on to them the collective advice and recommendations of the Joint Chiefs. When the Joint Chiefs of Staff express their opinion on a siihiprt it. is frnm t.h» milit.orv point of view, and is given with a full realization Vthat considera tions other than military may be overriding in making the final decision. The relative importance of the military aspect varies. In some cases it is greatly over shadowed by other considerations. In other cases, the military as pects may be the decisive ones. When all of these aspects are considered the Government’s pol icy is determined. As military men we then abide by the deci sion. Great Issue at Stake. Before your interrogation on the details of our Government’s poli cies in Korea and the Far East, I would like to lask myself this ques tion: What is the great issue at stake in this hearing? Principally I Would say that you are trying to determine the course we should follow as the best road to peace. There are ; military factors which must be evaluated before a sound decision jean be made. At present the j issue is obscured in the public jmind by many details which do ;not relate to the task of keep ting the peace and making Amer 'ica secure. The fundamental military issue that has arisen is whether to in crease the risk of a global war by taking additional measures that are open to the United States and its Allies. We now have a localized conflict in Korea. Some of the military measures under discus sion might well place the United States in the position of responsi bility for broadening the war and at the same time losing most if not all of our allies. Gen. MacArthur ha$. stated that there are certain additional meas ures which can and should be , taken, and that by so doing no unacceptable increased risk of war will result. The Joint Chiefs of Staff be lieve that these same measures do; increase the risk of global war and i that such a risk should not be taken unnecessarily. At the same1 tim/i nrA _ ^ * vwwbuhiu vmv a*a***i/«,* j i advantages that might accrue to! the United Nations’ position in Korea and to the United States position in the Far East by these measures. While a field com mander very properly estimates his needs from the viewpoint of operations in his own theater or (Sphere of action, those responsible for higher direction must neces sarily base their actions on broader aspects, and on the needs, actual or prospective, of several theaters Global Responsibilities. The Joint Chiefs of Staff, in view of their global responsibilities and their perspective with respect to the worldwide strategic situation, are in a better position than is any single theater commander to assess the risk of general war. Moreover, the Joint Chiefs of Staff are best able to judge our own military resources with which to! meet that risk. In order that all may under stand the strategy which the Joint Chiefs of Staff believe the United States must pursue, I would like to discuss in broad terms this per spective in which we view our security problems. As a background to our con-, sideration of global strategy, we must realize that human beings have invented a great variety of techniques designed to influence other nations. Right now, nations are oemg subjected to persuasion by propaganda, and coercion by force of arms. It is my conviction that broad and comprehensive knowledge of the strength, aims and the policies of nations is basic to understanding the problem of security in a world of tension. We must understand—as we conduct our foreign affairs and jour military affairs—that while power and nationalism prevail, it is up to us to gain strength through co-operative efforts with other nations which have common ideals and objectives with our own. At the same time, we must create and maintain the power essential to persuasion, and to our own se curity in such a world. We must understand the role and nature, including the limitations, of this power if we are to exercise it wisely. One of the great power poten tials of this world is the United States of America, and her Allies. The other great power in this world is Soviet Russia and her 1 satellites. As much as we desire peace, we must realize that we have two centers of power support ing opposing ideologies. 1 Prom a global viewpoint—and with the security of our Nation of i prime importance — our- military mission is to support a policy of i preventing communism from 1 gaining the manpower, the re-; sources, the raw materials, and the industrial capacity essential to world domination. If Soviet ; Russia ever controls the entire Eurasian land mass, then the ; Soviet-satellite imperialism may, have the broad base upon which* b to build the military power to rule the world. Redi Thwarted 3 Times. Three times In the past five years the Kremlin-inspired im perialism has been thwarted by direct action. In Berlin, Greece and Korea, the free nations have opposed Communist aggression with a dif ferent type of action. But each time the power of the United States has been called upon and we have become involved. Each incident has cost us money, re sources and some lives. But in each instance we have prevented the domination of one more area, and the absorption, of another source of manpower, raw materials and resources. Korea, in spite of the impor tance of the engagement, must be looked upon with proper perspec tive. It is just on engagement, just one phase of this battle that we are having with the other power center in the world which opposes us and all we stand for. For five years this “guerrilla di plomacy’’ has been going on. In each of the actions in which we have participated to oppose this gangster conduct, we have risked World War III. But each time we bave used methods short of total war. As costly as Berlin and Sreece and Korea may be, they are less expensive than the vast destruction which would be in dicted upon all sides if a total war were to be precipitated. I am under no illusion that our present strategy of using means short of total war to achieve our cuus tmu oppose communism is a guarantee that a world war will not be thrust upon us. But a policy of patience and determina tion without provoking a world war, while we improve our mili tary power, is one which we be lieve we must continue to follow. As long as we keep the conflict within its present scope, we are holding to a minimum the forces we must commit and tie down. The strategic alternative, en largement of the war in Korea to Include Red China, would prob ably delight the Kremlin more than anything else we could do. It would necessarily tie down ad ditional forces, especially our sea power and our Air Force, while the Soviet Union would not be obliged to put a single man into the conflict. Oppose Enlarging the War. Under present circumstances, we have recommended against en larging the war. The course of action often described as a “lim ited war” with Red China would Increase the risk we are taking by engaging too much of our power In an area that is not the critical strategic prize. Red China is not the powerful nation seeking to dominate the world. Frankly, in the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, this strategy would Involve us in the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy. There are some other consid erations which have tended to ob scure this main issue. Some critics Pave not hesitated to state that the policy our Government is fol lowing, and its included strategy, ls not that which has been recom mended by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Statements have been made that the President, as commander in chief, and the Secretary , of State and the Secretary of Defense have a policy all their own, and that the Joint Chiefs of Staff have been overridden. This is just not so. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have continually given their considered opinion— always from a military viewpoint —concerning our global capabili ties and responsibilities and have' recommended our present strat egy in and for Korea. This has been the course of action which the Secretary of Defense and the Commander in Chief have adopted as far as practicable. I pointed out earlier that many times the international policy considerations, including the views of our Allies, are also con sidered and in some instances modify the course of action. In other instances, even after the international considerations and the views of our Allies have been considered, the proposed military strategy has not been al tered. Our overall policy has been one af steadfast patience and determi nation in opposing Communist aggression without provoking un necessarily a total war. There are many critics who have become impatient with this strategy and who would like to sail for a "showdown.” from*a purely military viewpoint, this is not desirable. We are not in the best military position to seek a showdown, even if it were the Nation’s desire to forfeit the chances for peace by precipitating a imai war. Enemy An Apt Military Student. Undoubtedly, this statement will be misconstrued by some critics who will say, “Why are the Joint Chiefs of Staff advertising the fact that we are not militarily in a position to have a show down?” I can assure those critics that with the methods we must pursue in a democracy in order to sup port a military establishment including this present investiga tion of our strategy in the Par East—our capabilities are not un known to the Communists. They are apt students of mili tary power, anc} fully realize that although we are not prepared to deliver any ultimatum, we could hurt them badly if they attacked us or our friends. They also know that with our potential, and the strength of our allies, in the long run they could not win a war with a United States that is alert, and contin uously prepared. I would not be a proponent of any policy which would ignore the military facts and rush us head long into a showdown before we are ready. It is true that this policy of armed resistance to ag gression, which we pursue while we are getting stronger, often risks a world war. But so far ate have taken these risks without disastrous results. I think our global strategy is paying off and I see no reason to let impatience alter it in the Far t East. Certainly the course of ac tion we are pursuing has avoided a total war which could only bring death and destruction to millions of Americans, both in the United States and on the battlefield. Our present course of action has at the same time won us respect and admiration everywhere in the world, both inside and outside the Iron Curtain. Not Decisive Move. There are also those who de plore the present military situa tion in Korea and urge us to engage Red China in a larger war to solve this problem. Tak ing on Red China is not a decisive move, does not guarantee the end of the war in Korea, and may not bring China to her knees. We have only to look back to the five long years when the Japanese, one of the greatest military pow ers of that time, moved into China and had almost full con trol of a large part of China; and yet were never able to conclude that war successfully. I would say that from past history one would only jump from a smaller conflict to a larger deadlock at greater expense. My own feeling is to avoid such an engagement if possible because victory in Korea would not be as sured and victory over Red China would be many years away. We believe that every effort should be made to settle the present con flict without extending it outside Korea. If this proves to be im possible, then other measures may have to be taken. In my consideration of this viewpoint, I am going back to the basic objective of the American —uo uiucn peace as we can gain without appeasement. Some critics of our strategy say if we do not immediately bomb troop concentration points and airfields in Manchuria, it is “ap peasement." If we do not imme diately set up a blockade of Chi nese ports—which to be successful would have to include British and Russian ports in Asia—it is “ap peasement." These same critics would say that if we do not pro vide the logistical support and air and naval assistance to launch Chinese Nationalist troops into China, it is “appeasement." These critics ignore the vital questions: Will these actions, if taken, ac tually assure victory in Korea? Do these actions mean pro longation of the war by bringing Russia into the fight? Will these actions strip us of our allies in Korea and in other parts of the world? / “Appeasement to Aggression." From a military viewpoint, ap peasement occurs when you give up something which is rightfully free to an aggressor without put ting up a struggle, or making him pay a price. Forsaking Korea— withdrawing from the fight unless we are forced out—would be an appeasement to aggression. Re fusing to enlarge the quarrel to the point where our global capa bilities are diminished, is certainly not appeasement but is a mili tarily sound course of action under the present circumstances. It is my sincere hope that these hearings will encourage us as a Nation to follow a steadfast and determined course of action in this world, which would deny any free nation to Soviet imperialism, and at the same time preserve the peace for which so many men died in World War I. World War II, and in Greece. Indochina, Malaya and Korea. (End of statement). U. S.-British-French Conference Opens By tho Associated Press SINGAPORE. # May 15.—High ranking Army, Navy and air com manders of the United States,! Britain and Prance opened talks" here today on overall military strategy in Southeast Asia and what should be done to counter any new Communist aggression. High on their agenda, it is known, is,what disposition should be made of Allied armed forces in the event Communist China inter venes in Indo-China, gateway to rubber and tin-rich Malaya. Ma laya is certain to follow Britain’s lead in banning rubber exports to Red China, and it is felt that this might provoke the much-dis aussed Red assault. The parley is expected to end tomorrow night. A communique probably will be issued then out lining what was discussed, but it is unlikely the conferees will dis close what recommendations they are making to Washington, Lon don and Paris. Prance’s plans to resist Chinese Communist attack have become feasible only in the last six months because of the buildup of Western power strength in Asia. French Likely to Seek Anglo-U. S. Support By the Associated Press SAIGON, Indo-China, May 15 —Prance’s Far Eastern com mander is expected to tell Amer ican and British military leaders today that if the Chinese Com munists attack Indo-China, the French will need Anglo-American support. The French chief. Gen. Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, will submit plans for the defense of Indo China today when he meets with senior American and British com manders in Singapore. i Exclusive KITCHEN CABINETS Only Kitchen Center can sup ply yen with Beautyeraft’s famous, eurr-llne styled kitch en cabinets In Washlnrton. Washington's large ft designers of complete kitchens for the home Opnn 'til 9 sBt. 'fil 6 I 1 HAWAIIAN BEAUTY WINNER—Claire Heen (center), an 18 year-old Hawaiian girl of Irish, Hawaiian and Chinese descent, walks along with her runners-up after winning the right to represent Hawaii at the Miss American contest in Atlantic City this fall. Second was Gloria Kanemura (right), who has Japa nese, English, German and Scotch blood. Blond Joan Scott, a Caucasian of English, Irish and French extraction, was third. —AP Wirephoto. Views Differ on Whether Reds Can Force Decision in Korea By Note Polowetzky Associated Pross War Correspondent UNITED STATES 8th ARMY HEADQUARTERS. Korea. May 15.—Allied officers in Korea have their own version of' America’s “great debate.” The question here is: Have the Chinese Communists finally massed enough strength to force a military decision in Korea— assuming they want to? One group answers with an em phatic "yes.” Their argument: “The Reds have more tanks, more artillery, more reserves and —most important—more airplanes based in North Korea than at any time since they entered the war last December. "The April 22 Communist push was not an all-out offensive. The Chinese attacked only because they were goaded by our incessant air and artillery attacks. That attack wras premature. It was a reflex to our constant stabbing Into their lines, like a swarm of hornets attacking when you prod their nest with a long stick. Ready for Big One. “The Chinese are ready for the big one. They are getting replace ments. Heavy rains are coming and they will hurt the mechanized United Nations army more than the Chinese. Low ceilings are hold ing down tactical air support. “When the Chinese strike again 1,400 Army Veterans Due Back From Korea Today fty the Associated Press SAN FRANCISCO, May 15.— More than 1,400 Army veterans of the Korean war arrive today aboard the transport Lt. Raymond Beaudoin. A noisy and colorful welcome was planned—a 17-gun salute, haroor fireboats cascading streams of water into the air and military planes circling overhead. A speech of welcome was pre pared by a respresentative of Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer, com mander of the 6th Army. Holly wood Actors Dick Powell, Mer cedes McCambridge, Alexis Smith Craig Reynolds and Richard Conte were on hand for the noon arrival (3 p.m., EDT). The 1,422 soldiers represent practically every Army unit fight ing in Korea. They are the first combat troops returned under the Army rotation program to land at San Francisco. A shipload of returning Marines docked here last month. Copra now brings 12 times its 1933-34 depression low in Papua New Guinea. they can mount an all-out drive designed to destroy the United Na tions army or drive it into the sea.” That’s one view. Other officers are just as emphatic in rebuttal. They say: “The Chinese supply system is bad. They haven’t got the means to bring food and other equip ment down from Manchuria. Our Air Force is playing havoc with the little transport the Chinese have. We have pretty well de stroyed their supply routes. “Therefore, the only thing they can do is mount short and shallow offensives, designed to penetrate our positions. Once that penetra tion has been made, the Commu nists hope they can find a new food supply. Then they can go on to exploit the breakthrough.” Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond commander of the United States 10th Corps, seems to agree with the latter view. Last week he said the Chinese armies were “wilting on the vine” ffir lack of supplies Chinese Denied Granaries. “It is a wonder to me how thev are able to feed their mass army.” he said. He added that by tradition the Chinese have always “fought from one rice bowl to another. But we have denied them the granefies of Korea.” The key to the puzzle probably lies in the answer to this ques tion: "Do the Communists actually want to reach a military decision in Korea?” No one knows. Perhaps, as one offier said, “they just want £o keep us here in the hope that we will expend all our energy in a fruitless war and ultimately bleed ourselves to deatfc. After all they have the British tied down in Malaya and the French in Indo-China. All of Europe lies open to the Russians, who haven’t a single soldier com mitted in oattle in any part of the world.” The Allies in Korea can only fight, wait and see. lax Prober Assails G. OP. 'Partisanship' On Protest Over Staff Chiarman King of a House AVays and Means subcommittee investi gating tax law enforcement said today he would not be diverted by a “childish demonstration of partisanship” in Republican pro tests over the selection of a staff. Mr. King referred to a charge by Representative Kean, Repub lican, of New Jersey, who said the minority had been denied the right to choose at least one mem ber of the investigating staff. The Kean blast came Saturday as the chairman announced the appointment of Adrian W. De Wind, New York tax lawyer, as chief counsel of the subcommit tee. The group will begin its work with an investigation of the tax returns of gamblers and rack eteers. “There can be no room for pol itics in the investigation of crime and corruption," Mr. King said “The Kefauver committee set a high standard in this regard. “Every question and every ac tion of our subcommittee in its investigation of the administra tion of Federal tax laws—from the selection of staff to the sub mission of the final report—should be on an equally high plane. That has been my hope and my every effort in setting the most rigid standards for the subcommittee counsel and staff." Mr. King reiterated a previous denial that the Republicans had been promised a minority coun sel. This, he added, would be making “a concession on the basis of politics.” “The minority members.” Mr. King insisted, “would weaken our staff by seeking to organize it along party lines with divided re sponsibilities. This would *be al most without precedent.” Referring to the selection of jMr. De Wind, 37-year-old former Treasury official. Mr. King said it would be his purpose to choose the remainder of the staff “on the same high standards of ability and personal integrity.” Jehovah Witness Jailed For Refusing Army Dufy By the Associated Press ROANOKE. Va.. May 15.—A Federal judge has sentenced to three years in jail a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses who claimed deferment from the armed forces as a “minister of the Gospel.” Lindsey Lee Martin, ir„ of Roanoke was sentenced in District ICourt here yesterday by Judge A. D. Barksdale after he was con victed of refusing to be inducted into the Army. His attorney said the case would be appealed, and Judge Barks dale refused to release Martin on bond. Martin refused to be in ducted March 29 after the Roa noke draft board had considered and denied his claim to a 4£ classification which defers min isters. Sugar Price Increased I BOSTON, May 15. 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