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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, July 26, 1951, Image 1

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99th Year. No. 207. Phone ST. 5000 S *★ WASHINGTON, D. C, THURSDAY, JULY 26, 1951-SEVENTY-TWO PAGES. 5 CENTS
” ♦ ' ■« ——! ■ ■■■■ ' ■■ ■ ' —■
Includes Buffer Zone, Prisoner
Exchange and Cease-Fire Plans
Red Official Hails
Armistice Step
By Robert B. Tuckman
Associated Press War Correspondent
TERS, Korea, July 26.—Allied and
Red delegates agreed today on the
exact limits of Korean armistice
United Nations spokesmen said
negotiators approved a five-point
Two Writers Are First Westerners Seen
With Reds in Korea. Page A-32
East European Group of Churchmen Ap
peals for World Peace Pact. Page A-6
program and immediately dis*
posed of the first item. A Com
munist spokesman heralded this
as a “progressive move toward an
But a U. N. announcement cau
tioned: (1) Delegates are far
apart on the remaining four
points: (2) Nobody knows how
long it will take for them to agree,
and (3) shooting will continue
until an armistice is signed.
Five Points Listed.
Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway’s
headquarters announced that the
five-point agenda (list of subjects
to be debated) covers:
1. Adoption of agenda. (They
did that in the first nine minutes
of today’s session.)
2. Deciding where to draw the
truce line and establishing a buffer
zone between opposing armies.
3. Concrete arrangements to
end the shooting and supervise
the truce.
4. Arrangements for exchange
of prisoners.
5. “Recommendations to the
governments of the countries con
cerned on both sides.” (The Com
munist demand for withdrawal of
foreign troops from Korea comes
under this heading.)
Session Very Brief.
Negotiators agreed on the agen
da in the shortest session they
have yet held. It lasted only 68
“Preliminary discussions began
immediately after the agreement
on the agenda,” Gen. Ridgway’s
headquarters announced.
They will go into it more deeply
in the 11th session, scheduled for
10 a.m. tomorrow (8 p.m. EDT
The announcement emphasized
that agreement on the agenda “is
merely the initial step for the final
goal of a military armistice and
resultant cease-fire.”
The second and third points
listed on the agenda offered the
biggest hurdles that negotiators
will have to overcome.
The first point, adoption of the
agenda, is a routine matter similar
to approval of minutes of a pre
ceding session.
Demarcation Line Question Raised.
Setting a buffer zone raises the
question of whether it is to be
along the present lines in North
Korea, as the U. N. wishes, or
along the 38th Parallel as the Reds
These two possible demarcation
lines are 20 or 30 miles apart in
some places.
In settling this single point, ne
gotiators will outline the exact
position to be assumed by each
army “so as to establish a demili
tarized zone as the basic condition
for cessation of hostilities in
The third point is the most
complex and reaches to the heart
of Communist sensitiveness to any
foreign groups acting as supervis
/ (Continued on Page A-8, Col. 3.)
Red Defenses Stiffen
On All Fronts in Korea
By the Associated Press
26. — A Communist battalion
counter-attacked ^United Nations
forces north of Yanggu on the
east-central front today as Red
resistance was reported all along
the battleline.
The 8th Army reported a skir
mish north of Inje, 10 miles east
of Yanggu.
On the central front, U. N
patrols ran into resistance north
east of Kumhwa and southeast
of Kumsong, where the Commu
nists are believed to be building
up their forces.
On the western front, 8th Army
patrols reported light Red re
sistance in the Korangpo area.
Allied field commanders on the
central front were described as
“keeping alert in case the talks
at Kaesong should break down ”
Fifty-seven fighters and bomb
ers plastered railroad yards at
Pyongyang, North Korean capital
today, Far East Air Forces an
nounfiad. U. N. planes flew 140
missions by noon.
In 98 sorties last night, 5th Air
Force planes attacked Communist
airfields, supply centers and troop
concentrations. At least 40 ve
hicles and one Communist tank
Wer* reported destroyed.
4 1
* ^ 4
Ridgway Text on Agreement
# By the Associated Press
26.—Following is the text of Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway’s
announcement that cease-fire negotiators agreed today
on an agenda:
This afternoon the delegations representing the
belligerent forces in Korea in the conference at Kaesong
agreed upon an agenda for the regulation of the military
armistice conference.
This agenda is as follows:
1. Adoption of agenda.
2. Fixing a military demarcation line between both
sides so as to establish a demilitarized zone as a basic
condition for a cessation of hostilities in Korea.
3. Concrete arrangements for the realization of
cease-fire and an armistice in Korea, including the com
position, authority and functions of a supervising
organization for carrying out the terms of a cease-fire
and armistice.
4. Arrangements relating to prisoners of war.
5. Recommendations to the governments of the
countries concerned on both sides.
Having agreed upon an agenda, the way now is
clear for the delegations to enter the area of really
substantive discussion of the terms of a military
armistice. Major problems remain to be solved in these
discussions. It is much too early to predict either the
I success or the rate of progress to be obtained. Prelim
inary discussion began immediately after the agreement
on the agenda in order that the potential for halting
bloodshed in Korea may be realized as soon as possible.
It must be fully realized that mutual acceptance of
an agenda is merely the initial step for the final goal of
a military armistice and resultant cease-fire, which
must be achieved under conditions giving every reason
able assurance against the resumption of hostilities.
There are numerous basic points within the frame
work of the agenda on which agreement must be
reached and on which there is presently wide diversion
i of views.
Firm Action on Korea
Averted World War,
President Believes
U. N. Defense of Nation
Curbed Red Aggressors,
Congress Is Informed
President Truman told Congress!
today that the firm action by the
United Nations against “treacher
ous” aggression in Korea may
have headed off a new world war.
“There is much to indicate that
the resolute resistance of United
Text of Truman Letter to Congress on
U. N. Page A-32
Nations troops has given pause to
those aggressive forces which
cold-bloodedly brought tragedy to
Korea,” he asserted.
“Thousands of men have there
fore sacrificed their lives in Korea
to the end that millions may not
lose their lives in a world war,”
the President said in a letter
transmitting to Congress a report
on United States participation in
the U. N. during 1950
Covering developments only up
to last December 31, the report
and the President’s letter made
no reference to the current efforts
to work out an armistice in Korea.
Record of Solidarity.
Mr. Truman described the re
port as “a record of decision and
action in the face of danger” and
(“for the most part a record of
(solidarity among United Nations
members against aggression.”
He said there was no doubt that
the Communist aggressors against
South Korea believed the U. N.
would not intervene effectively.
It is probable, he added, that one
of the purposes of the attack was
to break down any possibility of
U. N. action against aggression in
the future.
In meeting the assault squarely,
|the President declared, the U. N.
“ elected to act now rather than to
; drift passively once more down
the fatal trail of failure to oppose
(aggression which leads finally to
total war.”
He termed the U. N. action
“truly collective action,” with con
(See TRUMAN. Page A-14.)
Big Foreign Aid Funds
Will Be Needed for
Years, Acheson Says
Truce Negotiations Won't
Affect Basic Facts,
He Says at Hearing
By Cecil Holland
Secretary of State Acheson said
today very large foreign aid ap
propriations will be required “for
at least the next several years”
and warned that the present ar
mistice negotiations in Korea will
not affect “that fundamental
“Day-to-day changes in the
news from Korea do not change
the basic situation,” Mr. Acheson
declared. “The danger is no less
real than it waS a month ago.
The strategy of the Kremlin is
still the same.”
Secretary Acheson testified as
the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee began hearings on the
administration’s request for an
$8.5 billion foreign military and
economic aid program. The pro
posed outlay is a part of this
Government’s program for com
batting communism on a global
For Building Up Forces.
Mr. Acheson said the Commu
nists have been building up their
forces during the peace negotia
tions at Kaesong, in Korea, for a
major assault in the event the
armistice talks should collapse.
“The discussions at Kaesong
thus far,” the Secretary added,
“have not yet produced agreement
as to any points of substance
which are essential to a satis
factory armistice.”
Secretary Acheson made this
statement in his prepared opening
remarks despite the announce
ment from Gen. Matthew B. Ridg
way. the United Nations com
mander in Korea, that an agree
ment had been reached with the
Communists on exactly what
should be discussed in the armis
tice negotiations. Mr. Acheson
told reporters before he began
testifying that he had no comment
on the Ridgway announcement.
Mr. Acheson emphasized anew
(Continued on Page A-14 Col. 1.)
Kirk to Leave Post in Moscow;
Bunche May Be Named Envoy
Alan G. Kirk, American Ambas-;
sador to Russia for more than two!
years, plans to resign this fall,;
officials said today.
State Department informants
said no decision on his successor
Eight Senior Rank Envoys Shifted in British
Diplomatic Shakeup. Page A-3
has been made. Among those men
tioned for the post is Dr. Ralph
Bunche, prominent Negro diplo
mat, winner of the Nobel Peace
Prize and director of the United
Nations Trusteeship Council.
Admiral Kirk, officials said, has
made it clear that he does not
want to spend another winter in
Moscow. As a matter of general
policy, this Government generally
does not keep its diplomats behind
the iron curtain for much more
than two years at a time. Admiral
Kirk was named Ambassador to
Moscow on May 21, 1949.
On the subject of a successor,
pflicials said they must determine
what type of a man should be sent
to Moscow—a c%.eer diplomat
with previous experience in Russia,
a prominent national figure, or
some one like Dr. Bunche, whose
appointment would have great
psychological value.
A decision is not expected be
fore late fall or early winter.
Dr. Bunche turned down an ap
pointment from President Truman
as an Assistant Secretary of State
:wo years ago, partly because of
acial segregation in Washington.
A former Howard University
professor, Dr. Bunche earned
world-wide acclaim for his work
is a mediator between Israel and
\rab states to bring peace In the
Middle East more than two years
Officials Here
Voice Cautious
By John M. Hightower
Associated Press Staff Writer
Military and diplomatic officials
here consider that United Nations
negotiators got everything they
sought in the first round of the
Korean armistice talks without!
making any concessions on vital;
In fact it was the Communists;
who gave ground by backing down^
twice from positions they had
Yet despite these initial sue-!
cesses, responsible officials here
are only mildly optimistic about
the chances that the negotiations
w ill actually produce an armistice.
Many difficult problems remain to
be solved in the round now start
Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway’s an
nouncement of the agreement on
an agenda noted there are nu
merous basic points on which
there is “presently wide diversion
of views" between the Reds and
the U. N. command. That cau
tionary note is fully indorsed here
by officials familiar with all the
problems facing the negotiators. '
May Take Another Month.
Some authorities believe it may
be as much as a month before the
negotiations are concluded, and
said it must still be determined
how high a price the Reds are
willing to pay in what Washington
considers “real concessions” in
order to end the fighting.
The two most serious problems
now foreseen here are those hav
ing to do with the mapping out
of a buffer zone between the
0/>MM TT _• «
vv».u»v.iHuv uiiu v. ai. amuto, auu
with the arrangements for super
vision, or enforcement, of an
armistice once it is established.
The agreement on an agenda
was possible only because the
Reds abandoned yesterday their
previously insistent demand for
an agreement, prior to an armi
stice, on removal of all foreign
troops from Korea. That broke
the week-long deadlock of the
Kaesong meetings.
The price the United Nations;
paid for this apparently is cov
ered in Point 6 of the agenda.
The point provides that the nego
tiators can later make recom
mendations to the governments
on both sides.
In Line With Basic Policy.
It is understood that in ac
cepting the modified Red proposal
on the troop withdrawal issue, the
United Nations agreed to discuss
arrangements for coming to
grips, after an armistice, with
the whole problem of withdrawal
of outside forces from the Korean
This was in line with the basic
American policy position that
troops would be pulled*out some!
day but no time could be fixed
Previously, the Communists had
given in on a procedural point
when they agreed that the area
where the talks are held at Kae
song should be treated as neutral
territory. They agree, too, that
Gen. Ridgway’s right to send any i
one he wished, including newsmen,
into this area, was beyond ques
When Gen. Ridgway went into
the truce talks, according to in
formants here, he had instructions
to seek in the first instance sub
stantially the agenda now adopted.
This provides for discussion of
the demarcation line, armistice
arrangements and prisoner of war
arrangements without commiting
either side to any particular line
of action. The real arguments
therefore are now to begin.
_: it_i_1,_l
vvxxxivvvxuti nun uxiu luvavivll
of the buffer zone, the Reds have
made clear they will insist that
it be precisely on the 38th Parallel.
Gen. Ridgway’s instructions are to
work it out along the present bat
tle line—most north of the paral
lel. Argument on this could go
on for many days.
As to enforcement of armistice
terms, Gen Ridgway has instruc
tions to seek a firm system of in
spection all over Korea by inter
national truce teams. The argu
ment runs that this would make
preparation of a surprise attack
or other truce violations by either
side impossible.
On the third point of sub
stance, arranging for exchange of
prisoners of war, the difficulty will
come over the ratio of exchange.
However, many more Communists
are held prisoner by the U. N.
forces than the other way around.
A one-for-one exchange would
free all U. N. troops held captive
without freeing all Red soldiers.
So it is expected that the Com
munist negotiators will insistently
demand, an agreement for each
side to release all its prisoners.

Jap Bus Fire Kills Three
TOKYO, July 26 (&).—'Three
persons were killed and 35 injured
today when a bus caught fire near
Sapporo, on Hokkaido Island,
Kyodo News'Agency said.
’ MAN 'EM.
MAN 'EM l f
Justice Department Rounds Up
11 Secondary Communists
Arrests Include That of California Chairman
Called to Top Party Post in New York
By the Associated Prest
The Justice Department today
launched a new roundup of sec
ondary Communist Party leaders
in Los Angeles, San Francisco and
New York.
The department announced 11
arrests have been made.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover
said those arrested have been ac
tive in Communist Party work,
largely in California.
The new move against party
leaders followed the arrests of 17
Eastern Seaboard Communists last
All of those taken are accused
of conspiracy to teach and advo
cate the violent overthrow of the
United States Government.
This is the charge on which 11
top officials of the party were
convicted and given sentences
ranging from three to five years.
Four of these top officials are
now listed as fugitivies from jus
tice because they failed to sur
render for imprisonment after
their convictions were upheld by
the Supreme Court. In addition,
the FBI is seeking four others
who slipped through the dragnet
when the 17 arrests were made in
New York City and Pittsburgh on
June 20.
Among those arrested today
was William Schneiderman, chair
man of the California Communist
State Committee and a member
of the party’s Alternate National
The Justice Departmnet said
(See COMMUNISTS. Page A-14.1
U. S. Appoints Board
fo Speed Production
Of Military Planes
General Motors Official
Heads New Group With
Broad Aircraft Powers
By James Y. Newton
The Government today created j
a new, high-level Aircraft Produc
tion Board with authority to set
requirements and direct produc
tion of all military, commercial
and civilian airplanes.
Named chairman of the new
board was Harold R. Boyer, direc
tor of engineering for General
Motors Corp. The board will be
attached to the Defense Produc
tion Administration, and Mr. Boyer
was given the additional title of
deputy administrator of DPA for
aircraft production.
Officials said lagging production
of military planes was the chief
reason for establishing the special
board In some quarters It was
said the output of airplanes was
running as much as 20 per cent
behind schedule, because of vari
ous production bottlenecks, par
ticularly a shortage of machine
Must Get Information.
Manly Fleischmann, defense
oroduction administrator, said
that one of the new board’s first
actions will be to get first-hand
nformation on current bottlenecks
to aircraft production. He said
Mr. Boyer will begin next week
a series of trips to discuss pro
duction problems with aircraft in
dustry leaders.
The new board was given broad
powers, including the authority to
5ay how many military, commer
cial and civilian planes are to be
produced. It will also recommend
allocations of materials for the
program, and work out ways of
meeting needs, including a pos
able expansion of manufacturing
Mr. Fleischmann said aircraft
production will account for 48
cents of every dollar spent for
(See PRODUCTION, Page A-6.)
Late News
Rent Rollbacks Voted
The administration won a
round today when Senate
House conferees on the eco
nomic controls bill voted to per
mit rent rollbacks to the May
24-June 24, 1950, level in newly
declared critical defense areas.
(Earlier story on Pare A-32.)
Field Refuses to Tell
Senators of His Part
In Bond for Reds
Millionaire Confirms
Carter Story of Trying
To Help Get Army Rost
By t. Edgar Prina
Frederick Vanderbilt Field to
day refused to tell a Senate sub
committee whether he posted
bond for Communist leaders, but
confirmed previous testimony that
Owen Lattimore and a top official
of the Institute of Pacific Rela
tions tried to help him obtain an
Army Intelligence commission m
The wealthy “angel" of Com
munist causes testified before the
Senate Internal Security subcom
mittee in its second day of in
vestigation into alleged subversive
influences on America’s Far East
He was brought here from a
New York jail under custody of
two United States marshals. He
is serving a 90-day term for re
fusing to disclose who contributed
to the Civil Rights Congress bail
fund, which was used in behalf
of the convicted 11 top Commu
nist leaders. Field is a trustee
of the fund.
, Occupation—“Prisoner.”
When Committee Counsel Rob
ert Morris asked the witness
whether he had ever put up bond
for the Reds, Field answered
softly, “I feel that I must decline
to answer that question on the
grounds that it might incrimi
nate me.”
Mr. Morris then asked whether
he had ever posted bond for any
one, and when the witness again
(See SECURITY, Page A-6..)
Pupils' Digestion and Learning
Improved by Swivel Chairs
By the Associated Press
PALO ALTO, Calif., July 26.—
Remember those old folding class
room seats you sat in so many
years ago? They may be one rea
son you’re no smarter than you
are today.
Dr. Darell Harmon, who has
made a study of posture as it af
fects learning, says you probably
put two-thirds of your energy into
the effort to sit up straight. That
left little for studies and play.
Today’s children are getting
swivel chairs to avoid spine curva
tures and stomach aches. Dr.
Harmon is displaying new models
at Stanford University’s school
planning laboratory this week. He I
says they improve posture, diges
tion and the process of education I
itself. He added: i
In experiments at Austin, Tex., !
children were placed in the usual '
school seats. While they slouched, i
X-rays were made showing curv- i
ing spines and muscular tensions h
—even internal gas pockets. When t
they tried to sit up straight the
tensions were increased. 1
They had to boost their energy I
with candy. (Is that bad?) t
The new-type seats eliminated c
the extra-energy needs, Dr. Har- c
mon said, and increased the speed <
of learning 60 per cent. t

Capital Transit Net
5 Times a Year Ago;
Passes to Be Kept
Directors Also Study
Plan for Listing Stock
On New York Exchange
By Donald B. Hadley
Capital Transit Co. today re
ported earnings for the first half
of this year were more than five
times a year ago and its board
of directors decided to continue
the weekly pass as part of the
company’s fare structure.
President J. A. B. Broadwater
announced that directors took
cognizance of the many requests
of its patrons that the pass be
included in any petition to the
Public Utilities Commission for a
rate increase. “The management
will see that the weekly pass Is
continued.” he said.
New York Stock Listing Studied.
Mr. Broadwater also announced
that directors had considered
steps for the listing of the com
pany’s stock on the New York
Stock Exchange and approved
the redemption of another $1 mil
lion of the company’s first and
refunding 4 per cent bonds.
Net income of Capital Transit
itself rose to *925,262 in the first
six months of this year in con
trast to *170.385 in the same 1950
period, Mr. Broadwater an
Including subsidiaries, the
Montgomery buslines and Glen
Echo Park Co., the six months’
consolidated net income was
$960,129 or *4 a share, compares
with $207,916 or 87 cents a year
earlier, an increase of 362 per
Jane income Soars.
June net income of the parent
company soared to $164,704, com
pared with $40,482 in June, 1950,
while the consolidated net was
$202,637 or 84 cents a share was
151 per cent ahead of $80,704 or
34 cents a share in the same 1950
Capital Transit shares already
are listed on the New York Curb
Exchange. A proposed 4-for-l
splitup in the shares, still await
ing approval of the District Pub
lic Utilities Commission, would
increase the present 240,000 shares
to 960,000 and meet requirements
for the new listing which the di
rectors considered today.
Chicago Transit Fares
Increased to 18 Cents
8y the Associated Press
CHICAGO, July 26.—Fares on
Chicago streetcars and elevated
trains, which are among the high
est in the Nation, are going up
The Chicago Transit Authority
Board yesterday approved a fare
of 17 cents for surface lines, an
increase of 2 cents, and 18 cents
for elevated trains, a boost of 1
cent. Children's fares were raised
from 7 to 8 cents. The new fares
will become effective August 1.
Judge Cockrill
Favors Easing
Of Records Ban
Juvenile Court Jurist
At Odds With Other
Witnesses on Methods
By Miriam Ottenberg
Eight witnesses, including Juve
nile Court Judge Edith H. Cockrill,
testified today in favor of legisla
tion to make Juvenile Court rec
ords available to other agencies,
but they differed on how the pres
ent law should be amended.
After an hour-long hearing be
fore the judiciary subcommittee
of the Senate District Committee,
Senator Johnston, Democrat, of
South Carolina, subcommittee
chairman, said he too thought
new legislation was needed. The
details of the new act, he said,
will depend on what comes out
of an executive session of his sub
committee after the other mem
bers read the minutes. He sat
j alone ir today’s hearing.
Judge Urges Ample Study.
Although some of the witnesses
urged immediate action to get a
law that will, in effect, lift Judge
Cockrill's information ban, the
judge herself took this position:
“While I trust that this can be
accomplished promptly, I should
hope that ample study and con
sideration will be given to the
problems and principles involved.
The real facts in the situation
certainly do not warrant emer
gency or hasty, ill-considered
The hearing steered clear of the
controversy that has swirled
around Juvenile Court since Judge
Cockrill shut off information and
her policies brought resignations
from three ranking court officials.
Two of the resigned officers. Miss
Helaine A. Todd, former director
of social work, and Mrs. Grace W.
Bell, former case supervisor, at
tended today’s hearing but did not
jonnston commends witnesses.
Apparently fearing that the
court controversy would get into
the hearing, Senator Johnston
said at the outset that he hoped
; that the witnesses would 6tick to
the facts involved in the question
whether a new law was needed. At
the end of the hearing, he com
mended the witnesses for "staying
on the main issue.”
Judge Cockrill herself came
closest to recognizing orally that
jthe court has been the target of
| considerable criticism. In urging
■that court hearings be opened to
! visitors with “a legitimate interest
in the case or the work of the
j court,” Judge Cockrill said the
court needed community support
iand confidence to operate effec
| tively. She said this was not pos
sible unless the community,
: through responsible channels, can
have direct and accurate' informa
jtion on the court’s operation.
Need for Information Cited.
"Lack of information, misin
| formation, half-truths and specu
lation as to the court’s operation
I has in the past been very detri
Imental to*he court,” she said.
"The court should not and does
not have any reason to shield its
operation beyond that of protect
ing the interests of the children
before it and it should not be sub
jected to criticism before the pub
lic unless the public can have
some intelligent and accurate
means of passing on the validity
of the criticism.”
The bill proposed by the Com
missioners specifically provides
that the Board of Public Welfare
and its employes shall be entitled
to Inspect the social record of tha
court, which includes background
information. The Judge in her
discretion could make social in
formation available to other in
terested persons or agencies.
As for legal records, the bill
would vest discretion in both Dis
(See JUVENILE, Page A-5.)
Average U. S. Income
£1,140; Russia's $310
ly th« Associated Press
26. — Average incomes in the
United States are nearly five times
nore than in Russia and nearly
50 times as high as in Asia, a
United Nations survey stated to
Based on national incomes, the
iverage in the United States of
>1,440 outstrips the Canadian’*
>900, the Swiss” $850, the Swede's
>820, and the Briton’s $775. The
iverage in Russia is $310, in Bul
garia, $100 and in Asia, $50.
The survey goes to the U.N.
economic and Social Council,
neeting next week in Geneva, for
tudy. Figures are interpreted
iraadly, from 1949 statistics. The
eport warns that the figures do
tot take into account levels of
welfare as between developed and
mder-developed countries.
The figures sho\v, however, that
lorth America, with less than 10
er cent of the world’s popula
ion, accounts for nearly 45 per
ent of the world’s national in
ome. Asia, with over half the
world’s population, has only one
enth of the total.


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