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With Sunday Morning Edition WASHINGTON, D. C,_ Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Pennsylvania Ave. NEW YORK OFFICE: 420 Lexington Ave. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday. Evening Sunday Monthly -1.50* Monthly -1.10* Monthly _45c Weekly ..35c Weekly _25e Weekly __10c *10c additional for Night Final Edition. Rotes by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in United States Evening and Sunday. Evening Sunday 1 year -18.00 1 year ..11.50 1 year _7.50 6 months- 9.50 6 months _6.00 6 months_4.00 1 month-1.60 1 month _1.10 1 month_70s Telephone STerling 5000 Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C. os second-class moil matter. Member of the Associated Press. JJ»n Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as ail A. P. news dispatches. A—« WEDNESDAY, August E, 1951 Decision at West Point The honor system as known at West Point is retained by a number of colleges and universities which have been able to sustain the tradition which lies behind it. Others have tried it and abandoned it. The reasons for its abandonment are probably connected with growth of a student body, a belief that the code offers unnecessary temptation and depends too much upon what Is often regarded as the breach of another code of conducts—the exposure, by one student, of another’s dereliction. Where the system has been successful, the elements which made it so are hard to define. They involve intangibles—such as loyalty to an Ideal and complete acceptance of its importance; pride in the integrity of a group which makes of the individual a jealous guardian of that Integrity. But a debate over the strength or the weaknesses of an honor system seems irrelevant In connection with what has happened at West Point. For while it is easy to understand the frailties which evidently produced violations of the code, it is also certain that no honor system Is worthy of the name if compromise becomes a part of its enforcement. The authorities, and ap parently the student body at West Point, along with its thousands of alumni, cherish the honor system which is almost as old as the academy Itself. Once it became known that a pattern of violation was asserting itself, involving about half of the outstanding athletes, the issue was whether to retain the honor system or retain those found guilty of its violation. There must have been many considerations which made the decision a difficult one, such as the emphasis on athletics which has developed a system of its own not wholly compatible with the honor system. The athletes were not the originators of the system. They were its victims. While the West Point incident may go far to restore athletics to a proper perspective, it is unfortunate that the price of this reform must be the careers of a number of young men whose great ambition was. to serw their country as soldiers. me puouc aoes not nare au oi me aeiaus of the scandal and may never have them all, for the authorities have been anxious to shield the personal identities of the men involved. But it should be remembered that the decision at West Point was not a hasty one, nor was it the decision of one man. A board of officers investi gated the charges, Secretary Pace obtained the distinguished services of Justice Learned Hand and two retired Army officers, one of them the head of the alumni association, the other the president of a university, in reviewing the cases. Their findings were unanimous. The cadets have available still another opportunity to defend in dividual conduct before a final board, which will decide the degree of guilt and punishment Some of the purely emotional expressions from mem bers of Congress and others, seeking to minimize the offense and blame the authorities, rather than the culprits, can injure rather than help West Point and the cadets who are in trouble. Army Double Talk Senator Hoey of North Carolina has brought to light an incident which, to put it mildly, reflects no credit on the Defense Department. The incident is one of those things that ordinarily would attract little or no attention. Some weeks ago the Army asked a Winston Salem public school official, Dr. Ralph Brimley, to serve as a member of an education commis sion to Japan. Dr. Brimley had not sought that assignment, but he accepted. Then, on July 5, he was informed that his name had been dropped from the list. On its face, this was* a trivial affair, hardly worthy of notice. But Senator Hoey wanted to know why his Winston-Salem con stituent had been dropped from the commission, and he wrote to General Marshall for informa tion. The replies that he received from General Marshall and from Army Secretary Pace were something less than full and forthright. It seems that Dr. Brimley once made a talk to school teachers in his county advising them to use the grievance committee of their own Education Association instead of forming a sep arate union of teachers. According to Senator noey, uie American reueiai/iuu vi j-iauui won exception to this and was able to have Dr. Brim ley dropped from the commission being formed to carry the light to the Japanese. General Marshall, while leaving the burden of the reply to Secretary Pace, denied that the Department of Defense “accepts dictation” from pressure groups. He did not deny, however, that the tilt with the AFL was the reason for Dr. Brimley’s removal. Mr. Pace was more elaborate, but less direct. He pointed out that the individuals selected for the mission to Japan “must be acceptable to the educators, students and citizens” of that country. Dr. Brimley, he went on, “appears to be involved In a controversy which could well make itself felt in Japan,” and therefore- he was removed from the list. If that is not unadulterated nonsense, then nothing is. It could only make sense if one were willing to assume that the people of Japan knew about or would care about the fact that Dr. Brimley had made a talk which irked the AFL. Of course the Japanese people never heard of the matter, and probably would not give It a second thought if they did. In his letter to Senator Hoey, Mr. Pace said the Army believes the Education Commission tc Japan “serves as one of the best means of in doctrinating the people of Japan in the ways oi democracy as understood in the United States. That could be interpreted as meaning that the Army has found another way of wasting tin taxpayers’ money. But if the statement b« #• > taken at lace value there Is certainly room for doubt as to the helpfulness of the indoctrination that the people of Japan are getting in the ways of democracy as understood in the United States. Mr. Pace’s letter is double talk. There is little doubt that Senator Hoey was right in saying that Dr. Brlmley was dropped, not for fear of offending the Japanese, but to appease the AFL. Mr. Pace’s evasiveness does not set a good ex ample for the Japanese of the workings of American democracy. Neither does it set a good example for the boys at West Point who are expected to adhere to the highest standard of candor and forthrightness. The Same Old Line Like an overused phonograph record caught in a groove and wheezing out the same old line over and over again, the Kremlin has done no more than repeat itself in a most tiresome fashion in Its latest “peace” proposal to the United States. As addressed to President Tru man by his figurehead counterpart in Moscow, the proposal—accompanied by a resolution of the “Presidium of the Supreme Soviet”—is just about as fresh as last month’s bread and as truthful as Baron Munchausen. Looked at from any angle, it turns the realities upside down and offers nothing new—nothing whatever—in the form of suggestions designed to ease inter natirmol Thus, in this message to-Mr. Truman, the Kremlin has taken occasion once again—lor the thousandth time—to tell the fairy tale of how the Soviet Union is the most peace-loving and friendliest of nations, how it threatens nobody, how its doors are wide open to free contact among all peoples, and how its only interest in life is to build hydroelectric dams and make humanity happy everywhere. Unfortunately, however, in “some states”—meaning particularly the United States—there are certain “circles” villainously plotting to "unleash” war in order to line their pockets with billions of dollars in profits. These “circles” are responsible', “as is known,” for the nefarious Atlantic Pact, for the development of U. S. bases overseas, for “gi gantic” American rearmament and for other measures aimed at attacking and destroying the U. S. S. R. But the U. S. S. R., ever the white-plumed knight in shining armor, and still devoted to the good-hearted, constructive task of spreading happiness and freedom by building dams and irrigation systems, is determined to keep on leading the fight for a beautiful world liberated from the fear of war. Accordingly, with great fanfare, it has come forward again with its old, old request that all parties concerned adopt its plan for disarmament, for the prohibition of atomic weapons and for a big conference of the United States, Britain, France, Communist China and the Soviet Union to conclude a five-power pact "for the strengthening of peace.” The only thing wrong with this plan, of course, is that the United Nations has long since overwhelm ingly rejected it as completely phony—mere propaganda designed, among other things, to circumvent the U. N. (whose principles the Kremlin has steadily violated), promote a slow down in the West’s rearmament effort,, split up the common defensive front being organized by the free nations, and in general make the way easier for dominance-seeking Red aggression. The nature of this propaganda may best be understood when measured against such ques tions as the following: What country, in flagrant vioiauon oi xne uni tea nations unarter ana solemn pledges made at Yalta and elsewhere, has subverted almost a dozen once-independent lands in Europe? Who has persistently frus trated the will of the overwhelming majority of tiie U. N. in matters like establishing genuinely effective atomic control? While the free world disarmed to the point of virtual defenselessness, which land maintained—and still maintains— tremendous armed forces? What government has set up the Iron Curtain to cut off hundreds of millions of oppressed people from the truth? Who has been openly threatening Yugoslavia? Who has been the inspirer of the aggression in Korea? What power is ceaselessly engaged in an unprecedented propaganda campaign of hate inciting lies against the countries it says it wants to be friends with? These questions—which could be added to almost without end—are enough to explain why the Soviet proposal to President Truman must be regarded as a piece of hackneyed fakery. Actually, there can be no true meeting of minds here until the men of the Kremlin show a will ingness to abide by what 53 members of the United Nations have adopted as the “essentials of peace"—essentials that include commitments by every land (1) to refrain from using or threatening to use force in violation of the U. N. Charter, (2) to honor the independence of its neighhors, (3) to live up to its treaty pledges, (4) to remove barriers—the Iron Curtain—to the free exchange of information, (5) to uphold fundamental human rights, and (6) to join in real atomic control. Certainly, as long as Red Russia continues to do violence to these and similar principles, any olive branch it extends will be meaningless, and our world will have to build up the strength it must have to guard itself. A Great Pity It is a very sad thing that often in the' summer a girl’s best friends, the mail and the telephone, seem to let her down. Ask any Madame Butterfly sitting unclaimed in her apartment and she will tell the same story of a seasonal breakdown in these essential services. For some reason or other, when anybody fasci nating is dialing her number, the mechanism fails and he gets the wrong number, to be told only “She’s not here,” which makes him think she has left town or is on vacation. It happens all the time. • Then, too, as she bends discon solately over her ironing board she can hear the telephone in her neighbor’s empty apart ment ringing madly, and she knows that the cables have viciously knotted, the wires have been crossed, and her call will go unanswered. Just when she gets to the point of calling up the telephone company to report this intolerable state of affairs, the telephone does ring, but who is it? A radio survey, an upholsterer want ing to re-cover her couch, a man who wanted the liquor store or some woman friend, equally forlorn, suggesting an improving expedition to the Smithsonian. In time, she has a suspicion that some invisible censor in the telephone com pany is screening her calls, shooing away all the desirables. It goes away in the fall. It is the same way with the postal service, which, too, is ordinarily reliable. As she surveys her empty mailbox, she knows that there is a new postman, a summer substitute, on the route. He has done one of two terrible things with all the invitations that should be there. He has dropped them in a mudpuddle so that her name is obliterated. Or, he has put them in her neigh bor’s box, and there they lay unclaimed, because her neighbor has left town taking her mailbox key and will not return until Labor Day, when all the parties will be over. This is a very sad state of affairs, one which should be called to the attention of the proper authorities. h Relax—the Machine Age Isn't Here Yet Malaria Approaching Extinction in America Yet It Still Is Major Killer In the World at Large By Thomas R. Henry Malaria is rapidly approaching ex tinction in the United States. For the world at large It still remains one of the major killers of the human race. The great change for the better has come about in the past six years, during which there have been more than 6,000, 000 sprayings with DDT in malarial areas. More than 98 per cent of the houses sprayed have been kept free of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. This progress has just been reported by Dr. George H. Bradley, chief of the entomological service of the Public Health Service’s Communicable Disease Center. For the country as a whole, about 2,000 cases were reported in 1950. In 1945, there were 62,763 cases. Even so, the reported cases give an exaggerated picture, the Public Health Service believes. Of 676 recorded cases In the Southeastern United States, only 26 were found, on examination, actually to be malaria. Of these verified cases only six are believed to have been trans _ TT.U.J rn-.J._ •***wwm lit Vliw WU1WU uvo vvo. Only Way of Transmission. With the introduction of DDT during the war it was recognized at once as an extremely powerful insecticide. There was some concern, however, lest the anopheles mosquito, the malaria carrier, would gradually develop an immunity to the poison. Up to now, however, statistics indi cate, no resistance has developed. The control obtained in 1950 was as good as that in 1945. The only possible way in which malaria can be transmitted is through these mosquitoes. With the American success, it is be lieved, the way is open for the elimina tion of malaria throughout the world. This will take some time, however, because its greatest hold is among relai tively primitive populations, difficult to reach and to whom modern sanitation is unknown. In order to assure the elimination of the mosquito it is necessary not only to spray dwellings repeatedly but to treat ponds and pools of stagnant water which constitute its breeding grounds. • • • * An unknown disease-causing virus is transmitted in cat scratches. - It causes a specific disease, cat scratch fever. Cases of this curious disease naturally are rare. One of the few known has just been reported to the American Medical Association through the New England Journal of Medicine. Man Infected by Cat. The victim was a 36-year-old man. Two weeks before admission to the hospital he wakened to find a cat licking the left side of his neck where there were two pimples. At about the same time he was scratched on the hand. Shortly after a lymph node on the left side of his neck started to swell. It became the size of a hen’s egg. He fan a temperature of 102. At the same time a pinkish rash developed. The brunt of the infection, according to the report, seems to be borne by the lymph nodes. None of the few cases of the disease reported in the past have been serious. Up to now, however, it has been impossible to isolate the in fecting organism. It is known to be present in the pus from the lymph nodes involved. This can be used to cause a skin reaction. ^ Until the virus can be isolated there will be no specific treatment for the disease. The infective agent appears to have no close relationship to other dis ease-causing viruses—the smallest and among the most deadly of living things. Finding of another virus—that re sponsible for the childhood disease, mumps—has just been found in moth er’s milk, according to a report to the American Medical Association from Dr. Lawrence Kilham of the Public Health Service. It also was detected in the milk of a monkey that had been artificially in fected. The presence of the virus in the milk was accompanied by a swelling of the parotid gland in the side of the face below the ear. Questions Gnd Answers A reader can get the anawer to any question of fact by writing The Evening Star Informa tion Bureau, 1200 Eye gtreet N.W., Washing ton. D. C. Please Inclose three (3> cents for return postage. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. In reference to a recent trial in Czechoslovakia, the statement was made that the prisoner was the victim of a kangaroo court. What is a kangaroo court? L. F. A. A sham court or a mock trial. Origin of the term is unknown, but some authorities have traced it to the early days in Australia, in the sense of an irregularly conducted court in a frontier district The term appears as early as 1853 in reference to Texas. Kangaroo courts have also been associated with inmates of jails and penitentiaries. Q. Did the Indians in the United States participate in the war between the North and South?—I. B. S. A. Some Indians sided with the North, some with the South, and the Indians fought in both the Union and Confederate armies. Some of the In dians were slaveholders and they were affected by the war just as other slave holders. Q. Is there a simple way to carry ice so that picnic food can be kept cold?— G. J. A. Government authorities suggest a large kettle or other cooking vessel with a lid, as an effective picnic “ice chest.” Cover the bottom thickly with crushed ice. Then place the food, in plastic bags or glass jars, in the vessel and pack with more crushed ice. Wyap thick layers of paper or towels around the kettle to act as an insulator. For the sake of safety, any protein food, in sand wiches or packed separately, should be kept cold. Q. Is smoking more injurious to women than to men? O. B. A. There is no scientific proof that such is the case. The Idle Grass The grass has nothing to do but grow, Nothing to do all day Except to practice being green And ripple and surge and sway, Giving the fluent contoured grace Of sea to stubborn sod. Oh, fortunate is the idle grass Exempt from any tod, With nothing to do aU day but be Green in the sunlit weather, Nothing to do but feed mankind And hold the earth together. Jane H. Merchant. <' r By William Hines THE possibility that the cybernetic revolution, as heralded by M. I. T.’s Dr. Norbert Wiener, will come to pass grows daily more remote. In essence, Dr. Wiener professes to be lieve that in time machines will take over all the doing and eventually all the thinking operations now carried out by , man, bringing to reality the Age of the Machine. While there is something frightening about Dr. Wiener’s prediction, there is also something a bit soothing: the day will come, perhaps, when man can stop thinking entirely and sit back with nothing more complex than his tele vision set and his newspaper to occupy his mind. Unfortunately. Dr. Wiener’s prediction isn’t likely to come true—and the fault is not so much Dr. Wiener’s nor the human race’s as that of the machine itself. Until we can develop a machine that can give us an infinity of possible answers to a single question, the devious human mind is certain to remain su preme. The weakness of the machine, for the fruition of a cybernetic revolution, lies in its relative simplicity. Even the most complex electronic calculator works on a binary system—a system of "yes” or “no” answers. You feed data into the electronic brain and ask it a question. Essentially, it gives you an affirmative or a nega tive answer—or no answer at all. To achieve the happy end of having nothing to do but watch television and read newspapers, we first must develop a* machine that can give us a “yes, but . . reply to our questions. This is necessary because even the simplest of us rarely ask questions that have but one possible answer. Even the reply to. “How far is it to Winston Salem?” must be prefaced by the state ment, “Well, it depends on what route you take .. .” And when a man is asked how much money he makes, his answer is conditioned as much by the nature of the questioner as by the size of his pay cnees. And no machine has yet been devised that will give the obvious answer: “None of your business.” On a higher plane, most of man's thinking is done outside the realm of demonstrable fact. To be sure, we can feed data into a machine and ask whether there will be a solar eclipse next year. There either will be, or will not be. The machine will answer yes or no; plus or minus; black or white— however it is geared to respond. But what of the myriad questions to which there is a maybe, a minus plus, a gray—or a million of these as possible answers? Can a machine be constructed with a built-in ethos? And more important to present-day living, can it be built with an ethical cut-off switch that will enable it to give us the practical solution when such a solution is ethically undesirable? Granting that a code of conduct can be made an integral part of a thinking machine, can the code-assembly be made so elastic that it can be changed rapidly, obviating the threat of obso lescence of the machine? For just as a community’s morals change from year to year, so the code of conduct of the Individual undergoes change. ■froo, the answers a machine can give are only as valid as the sum of the data it receives. To build a machine that would catch tax-evaders, for in stance, it would be necessary to build into it an extremely devious "mind”— on the theory that it takes a thief to catch a thief. But perhaps we would find the machine’s mind so devious that we would be leery of believing it. We would then have come full wheel: we would have built ourselves an electronic liar and would be forced to reject every thing it said. This is the kind of machine to be scared of—the kind that puts a blemish on the bright future of Dr. Wiener’s cybernetic revolution. For this is the kind of machine that might decide to go into politics, establishing itself as an electronic dictator over a mechani cally-minded people that wanted noth ing more from the world than a full stomach and a comfortable seat in front of the television set. | , , , -P I C* j. Pen-names may be used it letters carry Pf I PTC TO I M P iTOT writers’correct names and addresses. t-v- HV/IJ IV 1 1 All letters are subject to condensation. Land Reform to Cure Inflation If the spirit of Jefferson could be in voked to pass upon what is happening to us in this mythical “free world” so much bandied about these days, the verdict might be headlined as "Too Much Government, Mad Taxing for - Mad Spending, Democracy Slipping.” The Greeks may have had a name more apt than any now current, for a government that jails people, not for their crimes, but for holding out in division of their plunder with its treasury. Recourse to graduated income and other so-called soak-the-rich taxes, as further means of covertly soaking the gullible consumer, has added no luster to the moral pretensions of a nation of churchgoers. The pity is so few of them are Quakers. Taxes are climbing, due to the cold war of pot calling kettle black that has come to blows in Korea, with no end in sight save making a lasting enemy of China. Climbing with them are always inflated land prices that are not only a heavy burden to production, but are forcing our farm lands into the hands of a soil-impoverishing ten antry that is taxed with the rest of us to subsidize it and buy up large parts of its produce to enhance the price of what is left to the consumer. Taxing the products and profits of industry brings inflation that grows as the taxes mount. The only other source of public revenue lies in the value given the land by organized society, that in creases with the growth of population. Taking that value for public use, where it rightly belongs, would cheapen land to all who need it for use, and spell the end of inflation in the price of everything produced from it. Walter N. Campbell. Optimistic Taxpayer The best thing for Congress to do with the present tax bill Is to scrap it en tirely and wait until they reconvene in the fall before writing a new one. Not only is it poorly conceived, but the back ground upon which it is based has been changed and the sacrifices for which it calls are no longer necessary. With the ending of hostilities in Ko rea, the whole picture will be altered and the necessity for continuing the present high rate of spending will no longer exist. A tremendous cut can be made in Government expenditures. The innumerable bureaucracy can be cor rected. Many expenses are tolerated in a time of national emergency, but there can be no justification for continuing them when the emergency has passed. Placing an added burden upon business and the taxpayers can only harm the country by checking its prosperity. Conditions have greatly improved in Europe and the fear of war no longer hangs ominously over its people. Com munism has lost ground all over the world and Russia is becoming less of a menace every day. We have done our share in helping the world and it is now time that we think about helping our own people. The place to start is with the poor taxpayer who has been strug gling to keep his head above water for the past several years. Instead of tax ing corporations to death, let us help them make money. The Government will collect more from them in the long run. It would be much wiser to tax less and collect more over a period of time than to stifle all initiative and remove all incentive. Congress would do well to take its time about writing a new tax bill and then come up with one that will en courage business, and it will be amazed at the beneficial results it will have upon the American morale. This Nation leads the world financially and politically, so let us also show the way in wisdom and enlightenment. Herbert G. King. Tarnished Brass On July 27 I observed the most ob vious demonstration of hereditary traits. I, among thousands of people, viewed in reverence the funeral procession of the late Admiral Forrest P. Sherman. The contingents of the commissioned and non-commissioned military person nel on foot conducted and carried out their sincere respect for a lost hero. Be hind the caisson, in motorized vehicles, followed the officers of rank and digni taries Some showed true dignity and proper respect, while others slouched in their seats and smoked cigars and ciga rettes. These are our leaders. H. R. S. / Pensioners Forgotten The House Civil Service Committee has Just approved a $400-a-year perma nent pay increase for all Federal and District government classified employes. Including Washington policemen, fire men and school teachers. Also Included In the bill are employes of the foreign service, the Veterans’ Administration’s departments of medicine and surgery, legislative and judicial employes. I failed to see anything about the Federal annuitant who gave the best years of his life in doing a loyal and conscientious job for Uncle Sam. When we answered some 30 or 40 years ago the call, "Uncle Sam Needs You,” which could be seen on signboards from coast to coast, we did not expect that after we had put forth our best efforts for Uncle Sam as loyal Americans that he would turn his back on us in time of need. We are now paying Federal income tax on our annuities, a District income tax, a District personal tax, a District sales tax, and, as of August 1, 1951, a 20% increase in rent in a city which had already carried among the highest rents of the cities of the country. Annuitant. Discrimination It is encouraging that recently, and within 10 days of each other, two out standing Americans have numbered the days of racial discrimination In our land. On July 22, at Freedom Rally in Uline Arena, Lillian Smith predicted the end of segregation in Dixie and D. C. within 10 years. In Singapore, Gov. Dewey prophesied full citizenship for American Negroes within another 12 years. Paraphrasing a much more ancient leader than these, I pray that the God of our fathers will teach us all to num ber the days of racial discrimination in America, for if we do not the days of our republic are numbered. Charles E. Walden, Jr., Assistant to the Vicar, Atonement Chapel (Episcopal). Military Pay Now that Congress is granting a pay Increase for the civil service employes to help relieve the present-day cost of living, what is to be done for those other Government employes—the military— and their inadequate salaries? Since January there have been at least three bills introduced in regard to pay Increases for military personnel or in creasing allowances for their dependents. Evidently these bills have conveniently been put aside for more important bills, i.e., a bill “authorizing the secretaries of the military departments to provide for trie promotion and maintenance of civilian recreation,” which is before the Armed Services Committee. Due to the injustices in the Career Compensation Act of 1949, a general pay increase or increased allowances for de pendents cannot be authorized for mili tary personnel unless a bill to that effect is passed by Congress. The small increases granted by the Career Compensation Act of 1949 were offset by the repeal of special military deductions from income tax. and since that time the cost of living has increased around 8 per cent. The problem of a general increase in service pay or allowances for dependents to meet the needs of the times can hardly be avoided much longer, for the need is now, not next year. Service Wife. Standard Values May I ask why Congress cannot en act legislation which would standardize the selling value of all tangibles In the wholesale and retail field in the same manner that weights and measures must conform and be equal to standard weights and measures at the Bureau of Standards? Wouldn’t this put an end for once and all to inflation and depression? T a—1. Postage Rates Your editorial July 24 on postal defi cits and proposed increased postage rates seems to call for a bit of elabora tion. Government should ever be limited to its constitutional functions, but it should never tolerate inroads on these or abdicate its lawful duty. The power and authority of Congress to establish and protect a postal system is found in 10 words in the Consti tution. Faced with competitive practices in the carriage of “letters and packets” more than 100 years ago, which were almost certain to heavily deplete the revenues of the service. Congress passed prohibitory laws, upheld by the courts, which put such private companies out of the business of carrying letters and packages of goods, newspapers, maga zines and other mailable matter. Were these laws presently enforced, there would be no occasion to raise rates on letters to 4 cents, increase the rates on newspapers and magazines, have postal deficits, or need to decrease the service of this most useful item of pub lic service. Every careful study of the subject has confirmed this view. Nathan Boone Williams. This and That .... By Charles E. Tracewell Anent the first automobile: A child of that era, seeing the first steamer going down the street, called out: “Oh, mother, come here quick! The horse has run away, and now the buggy is running away!” Perhaps that word "buggy” needs some explanation for younger readers. It has nothing to do with insects, but was the name of a certain type of horse drawn vehicle. Come to think of it, there are many scores of words no longer in popular usage. There is a constant dropping out of the dictionary, and a constant adding to It. Our beloved tongue never stands still. It moves along with us, whether for good or bad, time will tell, but in the main it must be for good. A sulky was and is a light two-wheeled vehicle. It is best known as a sort of racing machine, very popular at country fairs, and now being revived on the outskirts of large cities. It has two wheels, is very light, prac tically just a seat suspended between shafts, with rubber tired wheels. The name is supposed to come from the adjective, sulky, because when one is by himself, evidently, as one must be in the sulky, he must be moody. The buggy was a light vehicle or car riage, with four wheels, drawn by one horse, usually, but occasionally by two. * k The English buggy was two-wheeled, with one horse. The buggy is most seen today on country roads in Pennsylvania. * it A surrey is a flat-floored carriage with two seats and four wheels, and some times has “the fringe on the top,” as the song said. These and many other vehicles were commonplace in the gay ’90s. It was the thing, then, to have a horse and carriage. The standing of the family in the community was influenced in this man ner. It was not until about 1914 that the cost of hay and other feed began to rise to the point that keeping horses began to be prohibitive for the great average well-to-do family. We recall that in 1915 one of the first stories we wrote for The Star as a cub reporter was about the great increase in cost of feed. In those days there were harness shops just south of Pennsylvania avenue at 10th street, with mounted horse heads outside the door, with a stock of whips upright on the sidewalk. * * Not long ago we were talking to an old-time Washingtonian, who recalled the days when a famous Massachusetts avenue physician was called to his fa ther’s home. The house happened to be on the other side of Rock Creek, which was then at flood. The physician at first said he could not come, since it was then past mid night, but the father insisted, and said he would drive down and get him in the buggy. To this the doctor agreed, and they set out, but when they came to the raging creek, the physician refused to go across. He at last gave in, and the fording was achieved. After the ill one had been attended to, the doctor asked to be driven home again, but by this time the other had enough, and declared, "You are here, and here you are going to stay until daybreak.” And the doctor stayed. There was nothing else he could do. One of the strangest vehicles on the streets of Washington in the old days was the herdic. These ran on 16th street from U street south to 15th and H streets. They were entered by steps at the rear, had straw on the floor, and were drawn by two horses. In the winter the straw was nice 'and warm to snuggle your feet in. The company lost so much money that it finally threw in the sponge, and probably never did know the reason, although here again the cost of feeding the horses was a factor. What really did it was the way the dear old public cheated the com pany. One could ride both ways on the same transfer, and could use the same transfer over and over again. It was said the same persona used the same transfer for rears.