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With Sunday Mprning Edition.
WASHING TO N , P . C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. __ B. M. MeKELWAT, Editor. and Pennsylvania Ave. <2° Lexington Ave. ___CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday (*on*k,T .,75* Monthly .1.30* Monthly .... 45c W**klV . <0c Weekly . 30c Weekly .10c *10c additional for Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in the United States. Evening ond Sundoy Evening Sunday I year 21.00 I year ..15.60 1 year ..... 8.00 6 months -10.50 6 months - 7.80 6 months_ 4.00 I month - 1.75 1 month -1.30 1 month _70c Telephone Sterling 5000 Entered at the Post Office. Washington, D. C os second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as all A. P. news dispatches. *—H * FRIDAY. December 14, 1951 Another Wasted Opportunity Mr. Truman has just added another de pressing chapter to the scandal-riddled story of his administration. There had been hope that when he returned to Washington after a month’s vacation at Key West he would do a quick and thorough Job of cleaning house. The chairman of the Democratic National Committee encouraged that hope by saying that the President was angry at those who had sold him down the river and that drastic action was forthcoming. It may still be forthcoming. But there was no evidence of it at Mr. Truman’s press confer ence yesterday. The President was on the defensive. His attitude was that things aren’t bo bad, that the newspapers have been making mountains out of molehills, and that, anyhow, appropriate action had been taken by the execu tive branches of the Government, and that that was the way it should be. But that story won’t hold water. As the President phrased it, he had been on to Mr. Caudle for a long time. If so, why wasn’t that worthy fired long ago? And if the President knew all about Mr. Caudle, why did Attorney General McGrath testify this week- that Mr. Caudle had been fired on the basis of informa tion furnished the President recently by the King subcommittee? Mr. Truman cited as an other example of drastic action taken by him the case of James Finnegan, dismissed St. Louis collector of internal revenue. That is the same Vcase Secretary of the Treasury Snyder testified 'about last October. There was nothing drastic about the handling of the case as Mr. Snyder 'described it. He said he had suggested to Mr. |Finnegan that he resign in August, 1950. But 'Mr. Finnegan stayed on for another seven months, and he testified that he tried to resign three times but was advised by the White House to stay Ih office. From these circumstances, it is difficult to believe that the executive branch of its own volition would ever have taken the kind of action called for by the disgraceful scandals that have been exposed by congressional committees. And It is difficult to believe that appropriate action will be taken now, unless the President changes the tune he was playing yesterday. The President professes to think that the scandals will not be an issue in the 1952 cam . paign, and if he really thinks this he may try jto ride out the storm. If that is to be his attitude, however, he can expect that matters will go }from bad to worse, with very serious consequen tial damage to his own position and to his entire program. And if that happens, he will have no one but himself to blame. Passing of Hybla Valley Airport The passing of Hybla Valley Airport is lamented by Charles Parker, aviation enthusiast, in a letter to The Star published elsewhere on this page. There are many private flyers in the Washington area who .share Mr. Parker’s con cern over the shrinkage of small airport facili ties since the war. Hybla Valley’s field is only one of several privately operated airports which have succumbed to a combination of factors within the past year or so. More will go unless govern mental aid is forthcoming to help private owners of the fields withstand rising costs, dwindling patronage and encroachment by residential or commercial developments Things were booming at the fields scattered around the District just after World War II, thanks largely to the impact of the GI flight training program. But that program has tapered off until little of it remains. Meanwhile inflation and defense production have had de pressing effects on hobby flying. Planes which a few years ago cost $5,000 now cost double that amount, in some cases nearly three times, as much. Parts, too, are higher and harder to get. Several popular-type craft no longer are on the market, as factories are converting to defense production. Airport maintenance costs have risen sharply since the war, along with taxes. And the general outlook is darker still. Against this background the sale of Hybla Valley Airport—largest privately-owned field in this region—to real estate interests is not sur prising. The owner had sought to interest Alex andria in the field as a municipal airport,, but without success. The State of Virginia has no special interest in preserving the airport, al though its,Aviation Commission has recognized its importance in the general pattern of private air facilities in Virginia. Neither Virginia nor Maryland has an aid program of the type that exists in some States, where special considera tion has been given to encouraging development of private flying fields. Hybla Valley has done a good job of train ing flyers and providing convenient landing and servicing facilities for thousands of private flyers since it was established in 1924. Some 60 planes have been using the field regularly in recent months. They will have difficulty in finding other accommodations. Nearby Springfield Air port was closed more than a year ago when its owner was recalled to active Reserve duty. Congressional Airport, near Rockville,' is being gobbled up piecemeal by warehouse interests which have bought acreage vthere. Queens Chapel Airport was sold some time ago to a real estate developer. Today there are only eight private fields available in the Metropolitan Area and this number is expected to be reduced before very long. There seems to be no way to halt this pass ing of the small airport, short of governmental aid—and none is in sight. Neither Virginia nor Maryland is particularly concerned with airport problems in the vicinity of Washington. There is no Federal-aid program which touches the privately-owned fields. There is not apt to be an^ new legislation unless Congr^s can be •hewn that the fields have substant^l civil de fense or military value. It Is not easy to make such a showing when there are large Federal air ports here. Thus, the future of private flying in the Capital area is anything but promising. The German Attitude In his quarterly report to the State Depart ment, United States High Commissioner John J. McCloy has drawn a somewhat disturbing but not surprising picture of the West German frame of mind. The picture, more than six years after the end of the war, is one of “occupation fatigue” expressing itself in a “rising tide of dissent” against the Anglo-French-American allies. The dissent, which reflects “a mood of impatient rebellion” against restrictions imposed by the victors, has taken on many forms, and it exists among all groups in tfie population. ThuS, according to Mr. McCloy, the van quished are voicing grave doubt as to the good will and intentions of France, Britain and the United States. They are inclined, further, to ♦exaggerate their grievances, present excessive demands, and display an uncompromising atti tude quite inappropriate to the realities of their position today or their past role in upending their own country along with most of Europe. Above everything, through the opposition Socialist Party headed by Kurt Schumacher, they have been making a domestic political football of the cur rent negotiations between the Anglo-French American occupiers and Konrad Adenauer’s con servative government at Bonn for a “peace contract” designed to convert West Germany into an almost-sovereign nation to be integrated into the defensive system being built up by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, although all this raises' a dis quieting question as regards the future role likely to be played by the West Germans in the NATO alliance, Mr. McCloy—while sharply criti cizing them—has voiced the belief that their present viewpoint does not warrant a great deal of worry. Psychologically and otherwise, their Behavior, in his opinion, is by no means un natural. As he sees it, it does not spring from any “basic antagonism.” Instead, it is “the normal outcome of protracted foreign occupa tion of a country which is rapidly recovering a sense of independent statehood”—a country whose people anticipate an early release from irritating allied control, are aware that they are wanted and needed as partners in the defense of free Europe against the Soviet threat, wish to build up their national ego, and therefore feel disposed to try to drive hard bargains and kick up their heels with increasing vigor (something which the East Germans, of course, cannot do). Actually, in Mr. McCloy’s judgment, there is “good reason to hope” that this mood will have little real bearing on the final decisions resulting from Bonn’s negotiations with France, Britain and the United States. As he has put it, “most Germans have made their choice to identify their lot with that of the West”—a view that has the support even of the anti-Adenauer Socialists, who in their latest statement, although criticizing the Big Three, have made a special point of declaring that they have long since aligned themselves with the principles of the free world, as far back, in fact, as “the time the American Government still saw democratic comrades in the rulers of the Kremlin.” The truth is, after all, that Germany on this side of the Iron Curtain can hardly do otherwise if it wishes to escape Soviet domination and be its own master. Accordingly, Respite the "rising tide of dis sent,” the chance seems considerably better than even that West Germany, with its 50 million people, will in the not-too-distant future —as Mr. McCloy has suggested—become party to a “peace contract” that will strengthen both it self and free Europe as a whole. As for the 19 million East Germans, they live under a tyranny that does not allow them to express themselves, but when their compatriots in the Anglo-French American zones achieve near-sovereignty as allies of the Atlantic community, they will surely take heart in a way that should be much less than helpful to the Kremlin. Justice Clark's Duty Associate Justice Tom Clark has a duty to himself and to the Supreme Court to explain the circumstances under which T. Lamar Caudle was picked for a top job in the Department of Justice. It is not enough to say that Justice Clark will “follow a long-established custom" of the court and make no comment on this matter. In ordinary circumstances that is a sound policy. But it is not sound if, as here, the result will be to leave unexplained an adverse reflection on the Department of Justice, on Mr. Clark himself, and, indirectly, on the Supreme Court. There have been two versions of Mr. Caudle’s appointment as Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division. One—Mr. Caudle’s—is to the effect that “the wheel just stopped on me.” The other, much more dis quieting, has come from James H. Thompson, jr., formerly an FBI agent and now a judge in Richmond, Va. The Thompson version has to do with a report of an FBI investigation of Mr. Caudle prior to his appointment, and of a subsequent interview with the then Attorney General, Mr. Clark. This report was mentioned in the current congressional tax investigation, but has never been made public. The indications are, however, that it enumerated certain alleged indiscretions on Mr. Caudle’s part. Mr. Clark, according to Mr. Thompson, was told about these matters in the interview, and, of course, the Attorney General had the FBI report. But Mr. Clark, again according to Mr. Thompson, seemed to be interested mainly in ascertaining whether Mr. Caudle had really done anything wrong, whether he knew his way arouQd, and whether he would “embarrass me.” ' This may be a garbled or an incomplete version of what actually occurred. But the facts can be established. The report, if released, would reveal some of the facts. And Mr. Clark’s own version of the conversation would reveal the others. Remember that this was no petty appoint ment. Mr. Caudle was being named to the high est law-enforcement post in the Government, excepting that of the Attorney General.' It was a post in which he would be in direct charge of the FBI and the overseer of the enforcement of the criminal laws. It was a post that should have gone to a man of the highest competence and highest integrity. Instead, it went to Mr. Caudle—and after a question had been raised as to his fitness. It is difficult to think of more than two possible explanations. One is that overriding, though unworthy, political pressures dictated the appointment. The other is that Mr. Clark dis played a shocking indifference to his responsi bility, as Attorney General, to exercise great care in choosing a principal subordinate. Whatever the explanation, the people, if they are expected to have any confidence in their Government officials, are entitled to know the truth. And Mr. Clark should not be a party to suppressing the truth by taking refuge in any long-established cu^om of the Supreme Courts It Ma^ Be Nonsense to Congress. But... By Francis P. Douglas PAMPHLETS, brochures and other publications printed by the Federal Government are frequently blanketed as "waste” by economy-minded members of Congress, Yet millions of Americans _ • ,y*f - f ' are willing to pay for the information contained in these same publications. Last year, for instance, 56 million copies of various publications brought from the public $4,152,000. It was taken in by the superintendent of documents, Roy B. Eastin, whose office is a branch of the Government Printing Office and who has charge of the sale of Govern ment publications. Ironically, the demand for a publica tion sometimes is stimulated by refer ence to the publication in Congress. An all-time Government best-seller is "In fant Care,” a Children’s Bureau pam phlet first put out in 1913 and since revised. More than 7 million copies of it have been sold. The late Senator James A. Reed of Missouri used to storm when he talked about the enormity of “an old maid in the Children’s Bureau telling mothers how to bring up children.” But that never stopped mothers from sending in . 15 cents for a copy of "Infant Care,” nor did it deter other members of Congress from sending free copies to young parents in their home districts. More than 800,000 copies were mailed by Congress last year. ✓ Woe to the Senator who tries to make something of the pamphlet titled “This Is Ann . . . She's Dying to Meet You.” This one is not for sale but was dis tributed free by the Army in its fight against malaria. Ann, of course, is the anopheles mosquito? A writer some time ago poked fun at a publication dealing with “Inter action of Sex, Shape and Weight Genes in Watermelon.” Few people up to then had heard of it, but the Agriculture Department immediately started getting requests The current best seller is “Survival Under Atomic Attack” (10 cents). It has been published only a relatively short time but the public has bought 1.741,000 copies. Here are some other titles: “Your Federal Income Tax,” “Aircraft Power plant Handbook,” “Care and Repair of the House.” “Family Fare,” “Stain Re moval From Fabrics,” “Growing Annual Flowering Plants,” “Make Cellars Dry” and "Practical Uses for Second-hand Boxes ” The last is one of the “You Can Make It” series which also includes "You Can Make It for Camp and Cot tage” and “You Can Make It for Profit.” Some of the publications are thick, bound volumes. There is "Industrial Mobilization for War,” for example. After the start of the Korean war 547 copies were sold quickly at $3.75 each. Another publication goes by the mys tifying title of “Electric Quadropole Coupling of the Nuclear Spin With the Rotation of a Polar Diatomic Molecule in an External Electric Field.” Nuclear spin is a characteristic of the atom and the paper concerns an important phase of nuclear physics. It was pub lished originally in the Bureau of Standards’ Journal of Research. | , , , -r-i £■» , Pen-names may be used if letters carry TO I HP Ntnr writers’ correct names and addresses. I—I i Jiui . . All letters are subject to condensation. Free World Union Congratulations on your feature edi torial of December 9 on ‘‘Free World Union.” I liked your clear survey of the difficultie^coupled with a thorough re alization * the urgency of finding a solution to the problem. As you so aptly pointed out, an over all solution may succeed where piece meal attempts are doomed to failure. By an extension of this same reasoning, might not a federation of the entire world be the most likely of all to be successful? The nations of Western Europe are reluctant to federate unless Britain is included to balance Germany. Britain cannot regard the idea favorably unless the Commonwealth and the United States are included. The United States is not anxious to join a federation be cause we naturally are reluctant to sub mit the control of our armies and fac tories to an international high com mand, especially since we already pos sess within ourselves such a large por tion of the total fire and productive power. Under a federation of the entire world, however, world disarmament would be possible and this obstacle disappear. Of course, world federation runs into another obstacle which might seem to make all efforts in that direction futile. Since Russia has turned down our pro posal of disarmament based upon real inspection safeguards, how could we ever expect her to accept a proposal of world federation? Since the men in the Krem lin depend upon secrecy and ignorance to maintain their positions of power, how can we even hope for an improve ment in the world situation short of overthrowing the Russian government by all-out war? The answer to these questions lies in the virtue of the proposal itself. If we propose world federation often enough, sincerely enough, loudly enough, and In clear enough terms: if we carry that message to all parts of the earth by every means of communication known to man, the time will come when the Russian rulers will no longer be able to repress the demands of their subjects for an accounting and explanation. John T. Harcourt. A A I congratulate you for your fine Sun day editorial feature December 9 on the subject of world federation in which you said, ‘‘Persons who, a short few years ago, would have scorned such talk as visionary, now agree th^t some way must be found whereby national sov ereignties can yield to the needs of a higher co-operation.” The only complaint I have is that you neglected to mention the organizations for world federation through which in dividuals who want to be sure their ‘‘voices are heard" can become part of a Nation-wide (and world-wide) grass roots movement for peace through a ‘‘higher co-operation.” The two largest of these groups are the Atlantic Union Committee and United World Federalists. The latter organization has branches in almost every State and also maintains liaison with many world groups working for similar goals. Mrs. Ben Hall Lambe, Chairman, D. C. Branch, United World Federalists. * * Your excellent feature, ‘‘Old Idea of Free World Union Takes New Lease on Life," is exceedingly helpful in placing in broad perspective the trend toward union now evident in both Western Europe and the North Atlantic. .The reality of this trend in the North Atlantic has now been shown by a num ber of developments. At the Ottawa meeting of the NATO Council in Sep tember, the possibility of Atlantic union or federation was discussed officially by a conference of foreign ministers. The council declared its intention to con solidate the North Atlantic Community and established a ministerial committee neaded by Lester B. Pearson of Canada to recommend ways of co-ordi nating foreign policies and achieving closer economic, financial, social and cultural co-operation. The report of this committee, expected by February, may lead to some concrete results. Within the United States support for the Atlantic Union Resolution has grown progressively and now comprises 28 Senators and 110 Representatives. This resolution requests the President to in vite Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg to join us in sending delegates to a convention to explore how far these countries, and any other democracies they may invite to attend, can apply among them the principles of federal union. Such a convention would be a direct, over-all approach to the "only practical solution to hard, immediate problems, probably of life-or-death urgency.” i Livingston Hartley. Lighted Church Windows A letter from “Midwesterner” Decem ber 6 urged that Washington churches illuminate some of their best stained glass windows during the Christmas season. For the information of this correspond ent, the rose-type window over the en trance to Grace Reformed Church at Fifteenth and O streets N.W., is not only spotlighted- from behind at the Christ mas season, but on every night through out the year. Incidentally, this is the window which is used as a background for this year’s Christmas poster of the United States Marines. Robert W. Olewiler. Minister, Grace Reformed Church. Wants Columnists Classified It amuses me no little that your Fair Deal columnists (need their names be mentioned?) are putting forth such strenuous advice to the Republicans in their choice of a presidential candidate, floor leader, etc. They are so funny that I never look at your comic section any more. -Tire items that appear on the page opposite your editorials supply me with all the laughs that I need. May I suggest that you separate this page into two parts and label them "Right Wing” and "Left Wing”? On second thought, skip it! The by-lines speak for themselves! Harold B. Goode. Hybla Valley Lament The utter lack of planning and fore thought regarding airport development in the greater Washington area for other than airline activities is deplor able. I speak as an aircraft owner and pilot basing his plane at the Hybla Valley Airport in Alexandria. The air ports that were developed by private capital and initiative around Washing ton and which have provided an ideal pattern in the urban area are due to become extinct. Little interest appears to be forthcoming from any adjoining towns or States to try and preserve such facilities. The trend is emphasized in late in formation telling that Hybla Galley has just been sold to a real estate interest with little concern by the town. Beacon Field, in Alexandria, in a choice hous ing location, is now virtually surrounded by housing developments with no op portunity for expansion. How long avia tion operators, offering a facility open to all and serving a public purpose, yet penalized with increased taxes and fighting encroachment of their very safety as at J. D. Benn’s Airport at Bailey’s Crossroads, is problematical. Springfield Airport of course closed nearly a year ago.' The squeeze-play is on. Meanwhile, facilities at the once thriving Congressional Airport are now largely being utilized by trucking con cerns, with aviation just one step from complete disappearance. Rumor also has it that one of the close-in Maryland airports may w>ell be headed for a hous ing development. All this goes on at a time when air port development in the peripheral area of any center is taking on new impor tance. The trend and desire are to re move and segregate smaller aircraft operations away from the concentrated airline terminals, but at the same time provide facilities for them and bring the personal, company and industrial' aircraft owner nearer to his ultimate destination or location around about any city. In addition, such smaller airports are of increasing importance, particu larly in a highly strategic military target area as in Washington, in connection with civil defense. Yet, with such trends in evidence, the District. Virginia and Maryland continue their passive interest toward the recession of such airport facilities. As time goes on, the greater Washington area will need outlying air ports as personal, industrial and business flying continues to increase, which is now giving every indication of being the next great new expansion in the field of aviation. When the adjoining States and towns wake up to the need, it will most likely be too late to find any suitable locations and great expense will be required to establish any such airports. Some timely plans now will do the job. States, counties, or towns, at relatively small expenditures, could now buy or lease certain landing areas (not entire air ports) now in existence, to preserve them and lessen the tax load on the private investor who has been providing this useful public service. Such public action would then help assure the con tinuance of facilities that are becoming as integral part of any aggressive com munity as is a section- of main street or a town dock. . Charles Parker, Washington Director, National Avia tion Trades Association. Pentagon Security For once I am puzzled—completely baffled—by the “security" regulations imposed by the military. In trying to send a letter to a friend stationed at Headquarters of the Far Eastern Command in Tokyo, I called the Pentagon to get the number of the Army Post Office (APO) serving that head quarters. I was told by the duty officer that such information could not be given out over the telephone and that I could obtain it only by appearing in person at the Pentagon in regular office hours. If I were searching for classified in formation, I wouldn’t do it over a tele phone—I’d just go and stand in the halls of the Pentagon and listen to the would-be big shots blabber about every thing that happens in their offices. My showing up in person would be no guar antee that I would be authorized to re ceive classified information of any kind, including APO numbers, since any one possessing two legs and the bus fare can enter these hallowed halls. Let's put security where it belongs and stop releasing stories on our newest weapons, and declassify APO numbers and similar “vital” information. B. Wildered. This and That . . . ey Charles E. Tracewell Billie Blue Jay, scion of the well-known Jay family, was ehtering on his first full year of life. He had been at it since June, and now was a fine looking bird, erect, handsome, full of vim and vigor. The question was, Where would he sleep this winter? This is a perennial question with all Jays. They do not like being squarely out in the open. “A little protection,” said Grandfather Jay, “never hurt any one.” * * Billie Blue Jay thought this a perfect sentiment. He culled it over in his mind, and tried saying it the best he could. Human listeners would not have re cognized it, however. To them it would have sounded more like, ‘Toodle, toodle, toodle!” Billie was fond of making this sound. He repeated it day and almost night, and sometimes wound himself up with apparently great effort, but actually it was no work at all for him. He bent his knees, threw back his head, and just went ‘Toodle. toodle, toodle." * * At other times he crecked, “creek, creek, creek,” something on the order of one of those rachet affairs children used to whirl at parades. I Billie Jay had also worked up a very fine scream,, the trade-mark and signal of all the Jays. He was now first at any cat baiting. There was a striped cat living in a vard two doors away from his own. His own yard, of course, was the one in which he had been bom in the big locust tree, just at the crotch. Billie visited it, now and then, to see how it looked. It looked very well. The big yellow cat had been named Amber, but, now, for some reason or other, Billie didn’t exactly know why, everybody called it Asparagus. Or was is Rhubarb? Billie Blue Jay wasn’t quite sure, but he regarded it as a pure scoundrel, any way, by whatever name it was known. * * Rhubarb, indeed! “Cat, cat, cat!” screamed Billie Blue, leading the pack in the attack. Old Asparagus, or Amber, or Rhubarb, whichever it was, looked wickedly out of his green eyes, and tried to run away. But Billie Blue Jay wouldn’t let him. He sailed in at ear level, and pecked the big cat squarely in the middle of the back. Rhubarb snarled and bit backward, but his ugly old neck was too thick, and Billie sailed away with a triumphant scream. Billie the Jay already had saved two or three sparrow babies, and was never so pleased as when he obtild call "Hawk, hawk, hawk,” to the assembled birds at the feeding station. It was a full life he led, and now he was looking for winter quarters. He looked and looked, but could find no place to suit him exactly He was a particular bird. At last he came to the big locust tree in which he had been born. It was the center of the world, wasn’t it? Billie Blue Jay looked the 30-inch trunk over critically. Then, all of a sudden, as the French birds say, he noticed the ivy. It covered the trunk all around, and was at least 4 inches thick. Idea! It all came in a flash to Billie Blue Jay, smartest of the Jays. He poked his head in betwen the leaves, then all his body There he sat, covered by overlapping leaves. He was as snug as the famous bug in a rug, and a thousand times as big, but every last feather of him hidden from the cold, cruel world. “Not so bad,” said Billie the Jay, as he poked his head out between the leaves and screamed again. This sudden movement and sound were too much for old Rhubarb or As paragus treading quietly below. Rhu barb lit out for home as fast as he could go, and as his yellow hide vanished around the house, Billie Blue Jay purred contentedlyyJiToodle, toodle, toodle.” Big Source of Uranium Seen in Farm Fertilizer Process Sought to Extract Element in Phosphate Rock By Thomas R. Henry Theoretically a great untapped source of the now precious element uranium, necessary basic material for any atomic explosive or for atomic energy, is the phosphate rock used in millions of tona annually for fertilizer. In much of this rock, analysis hits shown, there is from two to four tenths of a pound of uranium per ton, says Shelton P. Wimpfen of the Atomic Energy Commission’s raw materials di vision. About 3 million tons of phos phate rock are processed annually by the fertilizer industry. Data on present uranium production in the United States necessarily is re stricted and how much of the phosphate rock contains an appreciable amount of the element is unknown. But even if one-fourth of it would yield two-tenths of a pound per ton the resulting 35 tons of uranium would be an appreciable addition to amounts available. The problem is to extract the uranium by some process which will be economi cally feasible. Two methods are used in fertilizer manufacture, the wet and dry processes. In the former the method of extracting the uranium now is clear after extensive research carried out for the commission at Massachusetts Tech, the Battelle Memorial Institute and Dow Chemical Co. laboratories. The uranium in the rock is dissolved when the rock is treated with an excess of sulphuric acid. It then can be recovered from the phos phoric acid which is formed. “Dry” Method of Recovery. By far the greater part of the rock, however, is treated by the so-called "dry process” in which the uranium recovery is much more of a problem. Several possible methods have been studied by commission scientists and one has been found which separates the uranium with reasonable efficiency. A fairly large pilot plant, built with the co-operation of a major phosphoric acid producer, now has been in operation for several weeks and results to date have been satisfactory. On the success of this plant largely will depend any decision on erecting a full-scale plant. At the same time a full-scale pro duction plant now is in operation for recovering uranium from the wet process method used by one of th« Nation’s largest producers of phosphate chemicals. The future is complicated by lack of knowledge as to the amounts to be expected. It is known that the large Florida phosphate rock deposits contain respectable amounts of the ele ment. So do some in the West. On the other hand, the extensive Tennessee phosphate beds contain, at the best, only infinitesimal amounts of uranium. The estimate of from two-tenths to four-tenths of a pound per ton is for marine phosphate rocks—that is, beds laid down under ancient seas. Possibly the phosphate formations have had a tendency to attract some of the vast but unrecoverable amounts of the ele ment present in sea water. The source is bound to become more important in the future, Atomic Energy Commission scientists believe, as more and more fertilizer is required to keep up the productivity of American farms. It has been estimated that at least a million more tons of phosphates will be required by 1960. Not Beneficial to Plants. At first there was some question as to ■whether extraction of this uranium might not be robbing Peter to pay Paul —that is, whether uranium itself might not have a definite value in fertilizer. A series of experiments sponsored by the commission apparently has estab lished that uranium is not a plant nu trient nor a trace element in any way beneficial to plant life. There is no difference in the effectiveness of ferti lizer made from the Florida or Tennes see phosphate rock. A project demonstrating this, It is announced, has been carried out by the Aericulture Department in co-operation with more than a dozen State experi ment stations over a two-year period. No plant benefits whatsoever from the uranium could be found. The wet-process method of extraction apparently already is economically feasible and several plants plan to in stall uranium recovery facilities. The uranium obtained from the phosphates will, presumably, be the same mixture of isotopes as in any other uranium. The super-precious U-235, the starting point for any atomic energy process, will be found in a ratio of one atom per thousand. If the various methods of extraction from phosphates prove as feasible as is indicated by the pilot-plan operations. Atomic Energy Commission scientists admit, the additions to the available supply of the exploding element will b« appreciable. Questions and Answers The Star'* reader! can get the answer to any Question of fact by either writing The Evening star Information Bureau, 1200 I street N.W.. Washington 5 D. C.. and inclosing 8 cents return nostage or by telephoning ST 7303. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. Is it dangerous to have a stove that burns bottled gas in one’s sleeping room?—K. A. W. A. The Bureau of Mines says that the use of bottled gas, also known as liquified petroleum gas, in the home is just as safe as the use of natural gas or manufactured gas, and many thou sands of homes are using bottled-gas appliances safely. The appliances should be those recommended for use with the bottled gas, should be installed by a competent serviceman, and should be maintained in the proper working condition throughout the time of use. Q. How much profit do the producers expect to obtain from an average feature-length motion picture?—D. R. A. A profit of 100 per cent is con sidered normal, and returns as high as 300 per cent have occurred. The Prisoner There is no way that we can now release From crystal bonds of ice the winter brook. Winter, white jailer, keeps his prisoner Tightly locked up where all may come and look. Accept this sentence of the frosty year And beg no pardon for the shackled stream, Confined, so still, between its snowy banks Where silver chains do not disturb its dream. The day will come when, running free once more. The winding brook will flow upon its way. Released to glide where greening wil lows bend, • Babbling to catkins on a sunlit day. ? Louise Darcy >