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WASHINGTON, D. C. Published by The Evening Star Newspaper Company. SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MA,J!L9",CE: HA St. and Pennsylvania Avo. NEW YORK OFFICE: 420 Lexington Ave. CHICAGO OFFICE: 435 North Michigan Ave. Evening and Sunday Monthly -1.75* Weekly-40c Delivered by Carrier. Evening Sunday Monthly _1.30* Monthly .45c Weekly_ 30c Weekly_10c *10e additional for Night Final Edition. Fates by Mail—Payable in Advance. Anywhere in the United Statei. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year -21.00 1 year _15.60 1 year .8.00 6 monthi-10.50 6 montht _ 7.80 6 month! _4.00 I month -1.75 1 month _1.30 1 month _70c Telephone Sterling 5000 Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C. __ oi second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press. The Associated Press Is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of oil the local news printed in this newspaper as well as oil A. P. news dispatches. A—12 * WEDNESDAY, January 2, 1952 =^^S3B3=Sa Virginia's Bad Traffic Record It is a shocking truth that Virginia’s fine highway system has become more dangerous as it has been improved. In 1951 the State’s toll of dead almost reached the 1,000 mark for the first time since 1941, when 1,100 persons died on highways that were considered less safe than those in Virginia today. That was a year when traffic fatalities nationally reached an all-time peak of 39,969. This year the national total was approximately 37,500 deaths. It is evident that Virginia’s death rate last year exceeded that for I the Nation generally. There may be more than coincidence in the rise of the accident rate in Virginia along with a highway improvement program that has stressed elimination of hazardous curves, blind «pots ana similar safety engineering. The State’s roads are smoother and straighter than ever—but they also are more enticing to speed ers. And it is the consensus of Virginia’s traffic authorities that speeding is the major cause of fatal accidents on the State’s highways. Gov ernor Battle, who has assumed personal leader ahip in a campaign to reduce highway accidents, blamed the black record of the past year on drivers rather than on mechanical defects or road hazards. He joined with Captain W. L. Groth, safety engineer for the State Police, in denouncing speeders as potential killers. The Governor promised “radical action” if drivers do not show more responsibility. t There is much that Virginia could do in a corrective way that could scarcely be called radical, however. It was brought out at the Governor’s traffic conference several months ago that too many reckless drivers are let off with fines instead of jail sentences. A legisla tive advisory committee has recommended man datory minimum jail terms for drunken driving, operating a car after revocation of permit and other types of recklessness. Trial magistrates have asked for more authority to suspend and revoke drivers’ licenses. Periodic re-examina tion of drivers is another suggestion. But even without additional legislation there could be a State-wide crackdown if judges were less lenient with serious offenders than they have been in the past. The 1951 death toll justifies stern enforcement of available laws and full use of available penalties—supplemented by any new legislation that will help to keep flagrant viola tors of safety rules off the public highways. 'Old Stuff That Bears Repeating What Herbert Hoover said in a recent radio forum about the danger of mixing politics with certain Federal appointments may be “old stuff,” but the warning cannot be repeated too often. The Hoover Commission gave special emphasis to this subject some two and a half years ago, yet Congress has done nothing about it. Meanwhile the Internal Revenue Bureau has been rocked by a series of scandals of unprecedented propor tions and extent, centering, significantly, around politically appointed internal revenue collectors. Congress needs to be reminded of this situation as long as it continues its apathetic attitude to ward curtailment of patronage opportunities. Task forces of the Hoover Commission ex pressed particular concern about the injection of politics into the selection of Internal revenue collectors, postmasters and several other types of Federal employes. The commission recommended that collectors and postmasters be placed under the civil service merit system. The administra tion approved the merit idea for postmasters, but was cool toward changing the system of ap pointing collectors until the recent scandals broke into the headlines. Now President Truman is on record as favoring the plan. Mr. Hoover put his finger on three big defects of the patronage system. First of all, he said, it places the appointee under obligation to “political bosses,” a very risky thing to do in the field of income tax collection, where political influence and pressures are likely to be exploited by un scrupulous taxpayers. Second, political selection paves the way for incompetency, he said. Third, standards of integrity are likely to be subordi nated to political considerations. Where any of these factors are dominant, merit is sure to suffer and the way is paved for inefficiency, waste and corruption. Congress must share responsibility for such evils when it deliberately ignores the warnings of the Hoover Commission and other competent critics of the political-hack system. Another Bay Ferry? Southern Maryland residents have made an interesting suggestion in connection with the State’s problem of disposing of its ferry system when the Chesapeake Bay bridge is completed,, sometime next summer. The State Roads Com mission is considering proposals to use the big boats for a ferry route across the bay at a lower location. The idea has possibilities which ought to be fully explored before taking up any plan to put the vessels up for sale. One proposal is that a ferry line be opened between Crisfield, on the Eastern Shore, and Solomons in Calvert County, a distance of about 40 miles. Another is for a route between Cris field and some point in St. Marys County. This would be about 16 miles shorter than the Solomons trip. The longer run would take about four hours, the shorter route less than three hours. In either case the trip would be through waters usually rougher than those to which the boats have been accustomed on their trips between Sandy Point and Kent Island. Shorter routes might be found between Dorchester County on the Eastern Shore and Calvert or St. Marys Counties. A Smith Island ferry also has been advocated. Meanwhile a number of would-be purchasers •f the ferry boats have offered to buy them at I k what Roads Commission officials regard as “favorable prices.” Chairman McCain of the commission has indicated that he is tempted to take advantage of one of the offers, rather than have the commission continue in the Chesapeake Bay ferry business. The Legislature is likely to consider the problem, as there are indications that bills providing for transfer of the ferry to another point will be introduced. It would be unfortunate if disposition of the ferry should become a political issue. This is a question that should be decided strictly on its merits, with practicability and cost of a transfer weighed against benefits to be derived from the plan. For a Healthier America President Truman, in naming his 15-member Commission on the Health Needs of the Nation, has taken a new approach to what is recognized on all sides as a long-range problem calling for constructive action. His past proposals on the subject have resulted in nothing up to now but acrimonious debate both within and outside the halls of Congress. In a sense, therefore, his latest move may be regarded as a retreat from those proposals in an effort to work out some compro mise plan satisfactory enough to overcome the powerful opposition put up in recent years by such groups as the American Medical Association. What the President has retreated from is his advocacy of the ten-year program based on recommendations made in 1948 by Oscar R. Ewing, Federal Security Administrator. This program, requiring a substantial rise in local, State and Federal expenditures on civilian health, has set forth the following goals, among others: (1) A 40 to 50 per cent increase in medical, dental and nursing manpower through educa tional expansion; (2) construction of enough hospitals and clinics to cover the needs of all parts of the country, rural as well as urban, and *3) a compulsory system of insurance, to be financed by employer-employe contributions, to enable people to meet the heavy costs of sickness without undergoing a personal budgetary crisis. These proposals, however, with major emphasis on the third one, have failed to get anywhere against the stonewall resistance of critics— particularly the AMA—who have hammered away with the charge that the administration has been seeking to impose “socialized” medicine on America. In his statement announcing the new com mission, the President has observed that he has always been ready to welcome counterproposals but that they have not been forthcoming. In effect, he has now issued a kind of challenge to the critics to step forward with affirmative suggestions of their own. Although the doctor chosen to represent the AMA has declined to serve because of a belief that Mr. Truman has acted only for self-serving political reasons, the commission’s membership is distinguished enough to indicate that it should do a good job in carrying out its directive to listen to the advice of all viewpoints, make a searching and objective inquiry into the facts, and report formally on its findings within the next 12 months. Certainly, the chairman of the group deserves the confi dence of those who have been Accusing the administration of wanting to enact “socialized” medicine. He is Dr. Paul B. Magnuson, former Medical Director of the Veterans’ Administration and a leading opponent of the proposal for compulsory health insurance or anything else smacking of the British system. In the circum stances, it is difficult to understand why the AMA’s president has branded the whole study project as “a shocking attempt” to play politics. Dr. Magnuson—who advocates, among other things, the development of privately run local clinics charging patients according to ability to pay—can be counted upoji to deal objectively and ^thoroughly with the problems that the commis sion has been called upon to study. In our steadily growing population, it seems clear that there are too few doctors, dentists, nurses, hospitals, etc., to meet the increasing needs of the Nation—a deficiency that is particularly marked in many rural areas. It seems clear, too, that large numbers of Americans cannot afford regular medical care or the cost of sudden sickness involving major surgery or protracted hospitali zation. As the President has said, these and similar conditions demand attention. After all, wholly apart from the factor of individual human welfare, they are of special importance in this time of world crisis when our security is dependent in significant measure on public health and the productive efficiency affected by that health. As a Nation, it is true, we have made great strides in fighting disease and lengthening the span of life. But it is still a fact that scores of thousands of Americans die unnecessarily every year and that avoidable sickness and partial disability are costing us a heavy annual economic loss in terms of production. Dr. Magnuson be lieves that the new commission will be able to come up with generally acceptable proposals for an appreciable improvement. He and his col leagues should have co-operation from all quar ters. The objective is a healtheir, wealthier, happier and stronger United States. Quite ob^ viously, it is not a partisan political issue. One Law Alien Spies Like Most important of the suggestions made by the House Un-American Activities Committee for strengthening our anti-spy safeguards is the proposal for legalizing wiretapping in espionage investigations. The committee’s report, “The Shameful Years,” reviews the history of Russian espionage in this country since 1919. Nothing in the record is more shameful than the way our counterespionage forces have been handi capped in their vital work by wiretapping re strictions. The Supreme Court has interpreted the am biguous wording of the Federal Communications Act as precluding the use in Federal courts of evidence based on wiretapping. The act outlaws the “interception and divulgence” of information transmitted by telephone or other means of inter state communication by wire or radio. Alien spies do not have to worry about this law. Wire tapping is one of their chief espionage tech niques. They never cease to wonder at the short sightedness of a Nation which knows that spies are at large within its borders, yet refuses to give its counterspies a free hand in meeting the threat to national security. The House committee favors sterner penalties for convicted spies, including discretionary im position of the death penalty in peace time. Capital punishment may be inflicted only in time of war under present laws. But sterner penalties will be of limited advantage as long as an ill advised restriction continues to hamper the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the military intelligence agencies in their efforts to catch spies. Numerous bills to free our counterespio nage forces from this handicap have been intro duced in Congress from time to time, but invari ably they have died a quiet death. Congress is taking a heavy responsibility on itself in thus tying the hands of the FBI in the critical atomic era. If the House committee 4s successful in securing remedial action At the forthcoming ses sion it will have made a major contribution to the security of the country. Do Pedestrians Resent Being Saved? To the Editor of The Star: 1VERY MUCH appreciate Miss Vera Adams taking time to write The Star her views on the use of the microphone loud speaker equipped police cruiser that toured busy shopping areas during the week of December 17 to 24, asking pedestrians and motorists alike to ob serve traffic regulations, thereby hoping to reduce accidents or avoid traffic fatal ities. It is true that the major proportion of the messages broadcast were aimed at pedestrians and justly so. Here is why; In 1951, 68 persons lost their lives in traffic on Washington streets. Of them, 42 were pedestrians; 30 of these pedes trians were negligent. They crossed in the middle of the block, stepped off loading platforms without looking, or were inattentive. Pedestrian fatalities, therefore, are our biggest problem, and that is w'hy our traffic education pro gram is aimed principally at the care less pedestrian. I think Miss Adams will be gratified to learn that during the week the police cruiser was on the streets warning peo ple to be alert, both the accident and fatality rate dropped. In 1950, during the week of December 16-23, there were 369 accidents and 4 fatalities. In 1951, during a similar period, there were 309 accidents and only 1 fatality. Let me assure Miss Adams, that we are not unmindful of the shortcomings of motorists in obeying traffic regula tions, but that first things come first in traffic education. Julian Brylawski. Chairman, Committee on Public In formation and Education, Commis sioners Traffic Advisory Board. ' * * A great prayer of gratitude went up from my heart when I read Miss Adams’ letter, “The Lowly Pedestrian.” I, too, stood and listened to the scout car “bawling out orders,” and not one word of caution to the drivers of the cars they were warning the pedestrians to beware of. If the scout car people walked in stead of driving safely in a car, they’d know enough then to warn motorists. Miss Adams has said it—drivers are the ones who need warning and watch ing Mrs. J. M. Wooding. * * John J. Schwager in his letter De cember 25 points out that over half of —Star BUS Photo. Do they concentrate too much on the pedestrian? the District’s traffic fatalities the past year were pedestrians and suggests “an educational program for the entire pop ulace with particular emphasis toward those not operating motor vehicles.” Agreed, except on where the empha sis should be placed. A healthy hunk of that education should be reserved for the motorists. But first a sample lesson for pedes trians. You walkers must learn that you have the right of way on cross walks. But don’t be foolish enough to attempt to exercise that right. You will be safer if you are forever con vinced that motor vehicles are your diabolical enemies w’hose sole purpose in life is to run over you. Than you will understand that the rule giving pedestrians the right of way at certain places was concocted only as a decoy to lure you within the range of cars. Beware of the car loitering a half block back of you as you leave the curb to cross the street. When you are two or three steps from the curb, the car will come whizzing by. 11 you imagine It has missed you and you simply stand still, you are lost. Only the front end missed you, deliberately. Jump back, or the rear, turning short, will strike you, and at the inquest the driver will ex plain that you walked right into the side of his car. Do you know why motorists block a crosswalk instead of stopping where the stop sign is? It’s a trap. If you try to pass in front, the car jumps forward. Or it will dart backward if you are at its rear. Nor can you save yourself by standing still, because a car going in the opposite direction will pick you off, and the driver will cut an other notch on his steering wheel. And don’t be fooled by safety zones. They just set you up when cars have failed to catch you in other ways. M# torists who have failed to bag a pedes trian for several days sometimes be come so desperate that they will jump the-curb to get at one. Your only hope of survival is to out wit them. George Frederick Miller, Letters to The Star Pen-names may be used if letters carry writers’ correct names and addresses. All letters are subject to condensation. Betsy Ross Stamp When both The Star and the equally venerable Associated Press give space to a story, definitely it is news. Lika the impudence of one M. B. Schnap per, editor of something called Public Affairs Press of the District of Colum bia, who challenges the Post Office for issuing a Betsy Ross commemorative stamp, I am sure that publicity for him self and his private enterprise was the farthest thing from Mr. Schnapper’i thoughts. I draw attention only to the fact that his self-asserted knowledge of history is equalled only by his ignorance *of philately! Is he possibly unaware that “error stamps” command premiums? Is he, also, so picayunish that he would debunk beautiful, cherished legends? I challenge him to state publicly in your columns that he will refuse to use Betsy Ross stamps on his mail! Thomas Quinn Beesley. Storm's Memory Lingers On George Frederick Miller's letter In The Star December 28 calls attention to the tact that more than 200 persons were seriously Injured by falls on icy streets recently, and gives rather de tailed instructions on how to walk on ice. I think my suggestion is much more practical—a dime’s worth of common table salt, applied by each householder in front of his home (and necessary amounts of loose rock salt or other chemical applied by janitors of apart ment baildings, stores, office buildings, etc.). This would very quickly melt all the ice, and there would be no necessity for any one to fall on slippery streets, or to learn to walk on ice, as suggested by Mr. Miller. Of course, it would be al most Utopia to get people to co-operate to that extent, but the cost and effort involved would certainly be negligible. In fact, isn’t there a law requiring householders to remove ice and snow in order to eliminate a safety hazard? Bernard R. DeRemer. • ' • Much is being said at this late date about the foul-ups which occur here after a snowfall. But I see nothing at all about a very bad aspect of the whole thing—the criminal negligence of many home and apartment owners and residents in re gard to clearing sidewalks. During a snowfall it does no good to clear a walk, but many persons are in jured, some seriously, each year because of the gross indifference of those who are responsible for clearing a walk after it has stopped snowing. When the snow is left, it most often freezes, leaving a very treacherous and dangerous pas sageway for any one The glazed, slip pery "walk,” as too many of us have found, is highly dangerous. So, too, are the frozen streets, which are not sanded until pressure Is brought. I can cite some true examples of this. One lady threatened to report a post man I know because he would not bring mail up some steep, icy steps to her porch. The postman was not to be blamed, but she most certainly was for not getting the ice off the steps or hav ing it done. It has been said that the owner of a building or a home is legally respon sible for injuries sustained by any one as a result of a fall on an icy walk or steps. I do not know if this is true, nor to what extent, but I do know that it is shamefully and disgracefully wrong to leave walks loaded with ice. If the owner or tenant is physically or finan cially unable to clear the walk, there should be some source to which he or she can turn for aid. As I write this letter, many days after our last snowfall, there is still ice on some walks. Why? It is either gross carelessness and indifference, to a criminal degree, or the responsible per sons are totally unable to clear the walks. Our greatest trouble in the world of today is lack of consideration for others, and this is but one example. What can be done about this? Gene Allen Thomas. (Editor’s Note: The D. C. Code says it is the “duty” of owners, ten ants, occupants, lessees, etc., to clear their sidewalks within the first eight hours of daylight after a snowfall, but the code cautions that this should not be taken to mean that, one who neglects his “duty” is liable to respond to damage suits.) Taxi Drivers Maligned? It was with astonishment that I read In The Star a letter written by Edmund A. Gibson in which he very severely castigates Washington taxicab drivers in general and quotes friends and ac quaintances who agree with him. I am not and never have been a taxi cab driver; I am not personally ac quainted with any taxicab driver in Washington or elsewhere. My experience with Washington taxi cab drivers is just the reverse of Mr. Gibson’s. While I can submit nothing but negative evidence, I wish to say that during the 32 years I was driving an automobile in the streets of Wash ington—up to September 14, 1949—I never once received any insulting or dis courteous treatment from a taxicab driver. Since I stopped driving—on ac count of failing vision—I have had oc casion to make frequent use of taxi cabs and again, as a passenger, I must say I have, not observed one single in stance of the kind of behavior Mr. Gibson complains of. I think the taxicab drivers have a right to have the brighter side of the picture given to the public. Albert D. Rust. Kimche His Dish Hal Boyle, the distinguished Associ ated Press war correspondent, is com pletely out of his element in trying to treat lightly the liking our gallant Gen. William F. Dean—now a prisoner of the Chinese Reds—has developed for Korean kimche. This is no subject for levity. Kimche Is only one gift the Koreans have given mankind. I have known, eaten and profited physically through its consump tion for more than 30 years. Some may declare it an acquired taste, but as a simple American peasant, I happened to like it instantly. Kimche, as I have revealed in it both here and in Korea, is a mystical combination of garlic, cabbage, carrots, turnips, onions, celery, parsnips and perhaps some other ingredients unknown to me. But it makes hair grow on bald heads and old men jump in the air, click their heels and give the equivalent of the wolf cry at the turn of the century. It is sur charged with vitamins, bold, daring, galvanic vitamins! Mr. Boyle speaks of Its odor. The sweetest sound and scent on the Korean countryside in peacetime is the terrifflc explosion of the lid of a large clay jar of kimche and the automatic release of the vapors therein. Mothers and fathers run out with cries of joy and little chil dren join them, for everyone, within miles around, knows the process of fer mentation is complete and the kimche now is ready to be devoured. It is a sin gular thing that the Koreans should know for many centuries that kimche gives them the necessary vitamins when fresh fruit and vegetables are unob tainable. Another quaint custom of that far away country, for perhaps the last thousand or two years, is to apply mil dewed bread to an open wound, and somehow or other the patients always recover. Do I hear any one mention penicillin? Strange people, these Koreans! Why, under the inspiring leadership of their great President, Dr. Syngman Rhee, they are even willing to die rather than to submit to communism! Jay Jerome Williams. Favors Flogging The Star of December 26 says that Senator Charles W. Tobey of New Hampshire suggests the penalty of flogging for gross misconduct in Federal office. He has the right idea and §hould be encouraged. Also he should be com mended for his recent article in the January issue of a prominent magazine, pointing out the danger to our Nation of domestic corruption. The attributes of a good President are unswerving honesty and common' sense. Generals Eisenhower and Mac Arthur have those attributes; but so has Senator Tobey. W. Hipping Post. This and That . . . By Charles E. Tracev/ell ARLINGTON, Va. “Dear Sir: “You have often written about the mourning dove. What a beautiful bird i( is. and how nice to have around. “Two peculiar traits of the dove have always interested me. "I have often noticed them drinking at the bird bath. They stick their bills in the water and suck it up like a kid with a straw in an ice cream soda. “All the other birds T have noticed fill their bills and then lift their heads to let it run down. * * “Then they seem to throw their voices. When I hear one in a tree nearby. I find myself searching the trees or wires twice as far away. . “The call seems to be coming from a much greater distance. “Back in Minnesota, where the doves were numerous, we were told that it was their protection from the hawks, which would be looking for the dove in a more distant tree, as I was. “Do these doves stay here all winter? “A day or two ago one came to my bird bath and after drinking, sat at the rim for quite a while. Thcwater was starting to freeze over, and as he sat, his tail was in the water, so I went out and fright ened him away for fear he was trapping himself. < i “This morning I saw him again in the yard. "Do you suppose he missed the boat, or do they sometimes stay over on pur pose? “Very respectfully, R. W. L.” * * The mourning dove, or turtle <Jove, as it is sometimes called (also Carolina dove) is of great interest because it so much resembles the extinct passenger pigeon. Total destruction of the teeming mil lions of the passenger pigeons is one of the greatest arguments for conservation. Not even a pair was left. Now and then somebody comes up with a claim of having seen one of the pigeons, but what they saw was a turtle dove. The difference in size—the pigeon was vastly larger than the dove—would not be easy to tell at some distance. But even such a “guess’ would be useless, for literally there are no more passenger pigeons. They were, destroyed by the greed of man. Occasionally you hear some one say this is not so, and give various reasons for their failure to live as a race. The simple truth is that man alone was responsible for this destruction, the ending of'a beautiful race of creatures. No wonder that, now and then, some sensitive person cannot bear the shame of it, though he, personally had nothing to do with it, and tries to find other reasons. * * v Our mourning dove is, with the ex ception of his head, a beautiful bird. The head, is rather on the pee-wee side, but probably does as well as most bird heads. All doves and pigeons drink in the manner detailed by our correspondent. Our doves also whistle with their wings when they rise from the ground. This is one sure way of identifying them. Many of them remain in this vicinity the year around. Perhaps they have found that they are safer here than farther south, where they are hunted as game birds. They are, truly, nice birds to have around, being much closer to songbrids than pigeons, and having habits much easier to endure. Few birds in the cold look better or seem happier than the mourning doves. Out our way in winter we seldom have more than a pair, but over in nearby Virginia home bird lover* often report as many as 40 at a time. It is possible for a bird to freeze its tail in water, but it does not often hap pen. We have had reports of starlings freezing by their feet to tin roofs, t New Insecticides Saving Farmers Millions Yearly Most Potent Are Variations Of Military Chemicals By Thomas R. Henry New Insecticides end weed killers, some of the most potent of which axe variations of military chemicals devel oped during the last war, are piling up nine-figure savings for American farm ers. At the same time the age-old struggle of man against the weeds and bugs threatening his food supply is growing more intense and demanding more pow erful chemical weapons. Notable is the war-developed weed kil ler, 2,4-D, of which approximately 28 million pounds were used two years ago and the demand for which is believed to have increased even more since then. Its services were summarized in a recent symposium before the Chemical Engi neers’ Club by Dr. S. A. Rohwer. assistant chief of the Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar antine: “In 1948 it is estimated that farmers in the south-central part of Canada used 2,4-D on 7 million acres and in creased the yield of wheat 21 million bushels. Pasture Values Rise 20%. “The value of pastures In Oklahoma is estimated to be Increased 20 per cent. In North Dakota the yield of durum wheat Is reported to have been increased from 15 to 53 per cent by controlling mustard. “One county in Kentucky reported an increase in yield of com worth $2 million. From Oregon there is reported an in crease of 50 per cent in the carrying capacity of pasture for beef cattle. In 1948 Kansas farmers saved much of their com and small grain by controlling weeds which would have robbed these crops of moisture. Corn production was increased in parts of Iowa by as much as 15 per cent.” But even these advances are small compared to some achieved with the newer insecticides, notably DDT. Some of the accomplishments listed by Dr. Rohwer: Control of wireworms in one year in Louisiana Increased the per acre yield of sugar cane by 20 tons and the per acre Increase in sugar by 3,500 pounds. By using 16 million pounds of a DDT sulphur mixture on 375,000 acres in Arizona the yield of cotton lint was increased 145 pounds per acre. Value of the harvest was increased $9,350,000. In one year alfaifa seed growers in California increased the seed yield 600 per cent—from 275 to 1,128 pounds an acre. Use of one gallon of a DDT prepara tion per acre on 413,000 acres controlled a tussock moth infestation in Idaho and protected 1.5 million board feet of spruce and fir valued at $4.6 million. By spending $3 to $5 per acre to treat sweet corn with DDT, South Texas farmers increased the per acre value of the crop by $125. In one recent year, 1 million acres were treated to control the European corn borer. The yield was increased by 10 million bushels. Even then the pest caused a loss of more than 300 million bushels. Spraying From Planes. In 1950 insecticides, mostly a new on# known as parathion, were sprayed on 654,000 acres in Oklahoma to control the pest of wheat known as "greenbug*' Most of the spraying was from planes. The cost was $1,307,000. The result was 2,615,000 bushels of wheat worth $2 a bushel. Even so, it is estimated, the pest caused Oklahoma farmers a loss of almost 30 million bushels. Use of DDT insecticides to control th# cattle pest known as homfly is estimated to have increased milk and meat pro duction throughout the country by th# value of $45 million. In a specific area the weight of a herd of beef cattle in creased over the average by 1,500 pounds of meat. In another area milk produc tion increased 20 per cent. During 1950, 68 million pounds of insecticides as dust and 9 million gallons as sprays were used to treat 75 per cent of the cotton acreage of Mississippi. That year cotton insect pests were un usually abundant. Without the insecti cides the crop would have been nearly a total loss. Without grasshopper control by appli cation of insecticidal baits to range lands of Montana and Wyoming in 1949 it is estimated that 11 million pounds of beef would have been unmarketable. There are about 7,500 species of in sects now known, Dr. Rohwer said, which cause important losses to fanners. New ones constantly are appearing as man further upsets the balance of na ture. Questions and Answers The Star-* readera can get the answer *v JniSS'aVf? b* either writing Th! return onstage or hr telephoning ST. By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. To whom did Thomas Jefferson address his remark, “I read with delight everything that comes from your pen”? —B. B. L. A. Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia was thus addressed by Jefferson. Dr. Rush was not only a physician, but a prolific author and pamphleteer, psy chiatrist, chemistry professor, great hu manitarian. Q. How much farther into space hav# astronomers penetrated with the 200 inch telescope than with the 100-inch instrument?—E. F. Z. A. Fifty per cent farther. The limit of penetration with the 200-inch tele scope so far is a distance of 360 million light years. Mount Wilson’s 100-inch telescope is limited to 250 million light years. Memorial for 1951 If we are poorer, and we are, we are, By those who no more wear their many crowns Nor grace their far-flung villages and towns, We are still richer than we were, by far. If we may no more see in vital grace Nor touch again the many who have gone, We hold the work their minds, hearts, hands have won: The bright achievement time cannot erase. StUl in his sphere each glimmers like a star That if unseen save in a darkened sky, Is there for those to come, wherever they are, To navigate and set their courses by Far they have left us stores that richly gleam In the legacy, the memory and the dream. ._ 1 Ethel Barnett da Vito <