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THE SUNDAY STAR, Washington, D. C. SUNDAY. BUT 10. 1063 (Continued Prom Page A-25.) will challenge the law in the Supreme Court. They question whether the Federal Govern ment has the legal right to give actual ownership—as op posed to developmental rights —to the States. Investigations THE VERSATILE junior Senator from Wisconsin. Mr. McCarthy, put in about as hard a workweek as anybody on Capitol Hill. Here were his major accomplishments: • Listened to representatives of the State, Defense and Agri culture Departments and the T^^SsSSsasßai gracious Honduras mahogany PRICED! Double Dresser used Mirror, $99.75 Here’s open-stock 18th Century Bedroom Furniture at prices that are truly out Regular Dresser a*A Mirrar, ss9,7s of this world! 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The Senator angrily closed the hearing and directed the men to go back and make another check on their departments’ policies. • Heard Theodore Kaghan, a deputy director of information under the German high com missioner, deny that he had ever been a Communist or that plays he had written as a youth reflected his opinions as an adult. • Closed his investigation of the United States Information Service libraries abroad. He announced that 30,000 to 40.- 000 books by 250 pro-Commu nist authors had been round, and he invited former Secretary of State Dean Acheson to ex plain how the books got there in the first place. • Released testimony of James A. Wechsler, editor of the New York Post, which had been taken at a closed hearing. The transcript showed that the Senator was little interested in Mr. Wechsler’s book, which Senator McCarthy said was in an American overseas library. Senator McCarthy was inter ested in the editorial policy of Mr. Wechsler’s paper. Mr. Wechsler said that as a mem ber of the Young Communist League he had written two Communist-line books, but that as a reformed, militant ex-Communist, he had written two anti-Communist books. (The Senator’s subcommittee did not say which Wechsler book was in which library.) The Senator concluded that the anti-Communist books and Mr. Wechsler's anti-Com munist stands in the New York Post could be just a clever cover-up for a confirmed Com munist. • Assigned Harvey Matusow, former Communist, to compile a list of all Communist writers who have been active in the New York area. Unemployment FOUR DAYS after Joel T. Broyhill attained his 13th birthday, Franklin Delano THOUSANDS OF SENSATIONAL VALUES! Roosevelt was elected Presi dent of the United States. Since then it has been quite gener ally popular to blame the Dem ocrats for everything untoward that has happened in the coun try. Mr. Broyhill, now 33 and a Republican representative from the suburban 10th district of Virginia, last week showed that the old customs were still good enough for him. He blamed the Democrats for a business recession in the Washington area. His reasoning was that busi ness has slumped because a large number of Federal em ployes have lost their jobs in the last few months. Lest any one get the idea that the Re publican administration was responsible for reductions-iri force of this kind, Mr. Broy hill gave Congress a fresh-look at the situation. Lame-duck bureaucrats of the New Deal-Fair Deal per suasion, he said, have resorted to meat-ax tactics to embarass the Eisenhower administration. He asked an investigation by the House Civil Service Com mittee of “indiscriminate fir ing of career employes by de partment heads in contradic tion to statements made by President Eisenhower that such employes need not fear losing their jobs.” Thursday Assistant Secre tary of the Interior Aandahl, a Republican, flew in the face of Mr. Broyhill’s logic with an announcement that the Rec lamation Bureau would be cut 10 per cent by June 30. The economy move will affect 1,222 employes, including many in Washington. Semi-Pros Invading Teacher Ranks The current shortage of qualified teachers appears to be a matter of general knowl edge on the part of our peo ple. Newspaper and magazine articles have focused attention upon the fact that school en rollments have increased more rapidly than teachers have been trained to accept new teaching positions. Not so much attention has been diretced to the fact that teacher shortage has given rise to the employment of many semiprofessionals who cannot qualify for full certi fication as teachers. Certification of teachers is a State function. Local school districts may require some thing more than State certifi cation, but they should not require anything less than the standard established by the State. An Exception Hip re In the matter of the certifi cation of teachers —as in some other matters—the District of Columbia functions as a State. There is this exception: The District of Columbia school system does not issue actual certificates. A list of those persons who are “certified” is maintained by the chief ex aminers. Most of the States actually issue printed or typed certificates which are duly signed and sealed. They are legal documents which fre quently are framed and dis played with a certain degree of professional pride. When teaching positions cannot be filled because fully certified applicants are not available, people with sub standard preparation and cer tification must be secured for the vacancies which exist. Thus, semiprofessionals are in charge of the school work now By Samuel Engle Burr, Jr. Department of Education, American University being done by thousands of American school children. There are various types of semipros in education. Both men and women may fall into the category. Recently, a pleasant, good looking young man sat beside my desk. -“l’d like to know how to get a temporary certi ficate as a teacher,” he said. “What is the least amount of work that I must do in your department?” “Why a temporary certifi cate?” I inquired. “Why not do the job in the proper way and qualify for a standard certificate?” "Oh, I don’t want to teach all my life,” he replied. “I just want to teach for a few years, while I’m studying law in eve ning classes. I want to be come a lawyer.” On another day, another young man sat in the office chair. “I may not get through the seminary and be ordained as a minister.” he told me. “So I figure I’d better take some of your education courses.” On a different occasion, there was a telephone call. “I’m Mrs. Smith.” the lady said, in a quiet, well-modulated voice. “Some years ago, I was a teacher in an elementary school. Since then I’ve been married and have raised three children. Now they have grown up and gone away from home. I’m lonely here, all alone, every day, so I think I’ll go back to teaching again.” “Do you have a college de gree?” I inquired. “Oh, no! I went to a two year normal school. That was all we needed when I was young.” “Almost every one expects a teacher to have a degree now,” I explained. “Can you trans fer your credits to us and do two years of college work to complete a degree program?” “Oh, no! I wouldn’t want to do that. I’d just like to take a Saturday morning class and brush up on what’s new. Then I could start in a teaching po sition next September.” Getting Around the Law A superintendent of schools from a border. State told me a few days ago he cannot secure enough certified teachers to fill his vacancies for next Septem ber. “We’ll hire some of our high school graduates to take care of certain elementary school classes,” he said. These young people aren’t hired as teachers, which would be il legal. They will be hired as “assistants.” Eighty children will be assigned to each cer tified teacher and each teacher will have one of these “as sistants.” They will have two classrooms, next to one an other. The teacher and the assistant can trade places sev eral times each day. Os course, the teaching program will suf fer. “But what elese can we do?” the superintendent asks. Recent increases in public school enrollments are not temporary but permanent changes in school populations. All of our pertinent statistics indicate that the public school enrollment in the United States will not decline in the forsee able future. Some educators have predict ed that movies, radio, television, tape recordings- and other de velopments in the general field of communication will make it possible for any teacher to direct the learning activities of more and more students. No practical results of this sort have been reported in our schools up to this present date. Such methods can and should be used in schools, but they should be used by the class room teachers. If semipros are to barred, however, several steps should be taken, and the sooner the better for our public school children. The most effective step would be making the teaching pro fession more attractive. On a comparative basis, teaching now ranks rather low in tangi ble rewards. Young people soon learn that they can look forward to higher pay, less re sponsibility and better work ing conditions in other occupa tions. Classes Too Large The rate of pay is not the only item to be taken into ac count when choosing a voca tion. In some schools, the classes are too large. Not only do the pupils suffer when the teachers are overloaded with pupils the teachers suffer, too. They have more papers to mark, more records to keep, more adjustments to make for individual students, more par ents to contact, more little odds' and ends of work to accom plish, day after day. And class work is only a part of the modem teacher’s job. The extra-curricular program or co-curricular program of the schools has grown and ex panded in all sorts of ways. Club work, excursions, assem bly programs, home-room pro grams. sports, games, dra matics, and a host of other “extras” have to be planned, directed, guided and super vised. This means that the teacher's job never comes to an end—there always is some lesson or some activity that can profit by more time and more attention. In various communities, teachers feel that they are un "NO FOOT TOO HARD TO FIT" COOL COMFORT ... in NYLON MESH shoes. Available in Wheat or Copper tone mesh and Tan calf; Blue mesh and Blue calf; or White mesh and Black calf. Make your choice now from our com plete range of sizes. 56 Stylet to Suit Your Word rob# 130 Siios to Fit Your Foot Sites 5 to 15, AAAA to ECK BOYC£ fr££W/S Cuitom-FHtini Show. 1 Downtown Store*. 735 Fifteenth St. N.W. 439-441 Seventh St. N.W. Metropolitan 16092 MEtropoliton *-5515 Man'i Shoot Only Men's, Women's and Children's STORE HOURS 9:30 AIM. to 6 FM. ’ :3o ,, A £' f ® • I * M - Thurt. 'til 9 F.M. Thor*. 12:30 F M. to 9 F.M. ■— Fitted by Shoe Men With Years of Experience der constant surveillance by someone. Many small commu nities have their own self-ap pointed Mrs. Grundys and Paul Prys. On a higher level, cer tain members of Congress have conducted investigations in a manner which has brought charges of character assassina tion from some teachers and professors. Many woman teachers have given up their positions when they have married. Indeed, in many school districts, mar riage was the greatest “sin” which a woman teacher could commit: The time should come when marriage and motherhood may be regarded as assets for the woman teacher, rather than liabil ities. On the positive side, if teaching is to be made a more attractive profession, it is sug gested that, in addition to higher pay, teachers should receive better social recogni tion, that teacher retirement systems should be improved, that teacher contracts should include health and accident insurance, and that summer training and travel should be provided for teachers at pub lic expense. Without such benefits, the competition pre sented by other types of life work is too severe. If more young people are attracted to teaching as a ca reer. all of the States should start to clamp down on the issuing of provisional and sub standard certificates. No pro visional certificate ever should be valid for more than a year. In order to secure its renewal, the individual should be re quired to present proof of pro fessional progress and growth. Usually, such proof would con sist of enrollment in evening, Saturday or summer classes in education, professional reading or writing, travel un der desirable conditions, or community service of an ap proved type. These require ments should be raised annu ally until the individuals to whom they apply can qualify for full and regular certifica tion. Better Teacher Training Inherent in any plan de signed to drive the semipros out of education there must b# a plan to bring further im provement in our teacher training institutions. Whether provement in our teacher colleges or departments of edu cation within the universities, they should receive more lib eral financial support. Pro fessors of education should have adequate secretarial as sistance so that their attention can be directed to the business of education rather than to writing letters and keeping records. Both professors and students in education classes should have travel allowances adequate for them to attend professional meetings and to visit outstanding schools— especially experimental and demonstration schools. For the students who wish to become teachers, there should be more scholarships and fellowships. Any program of improve ment, such as that which is suggested in this article, will require time and money. The changes cannot be accom plished overnight and they cannot come about unless the people are willing to pay for them. While decisions are being made and while new teachers are being trained, we shall have to be reasonably content with the fact that the current supply of well-trained and properly certified teachers must be supplemented by thousands of others whosn preparation is substandard and who fall into the category of semipros.