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With Sunday Morning Edition. WASHINGTON 4. D. C. Published by The Evening Ster Newspaper Company SAMUEL H. KAUFFMANN, President. B. M. McKELWAY, Editor. MAIN OFFICE: 11th St. and Ponntlyvania Avo. NEW YORK OFFICE: 420 taxing ton Ava. CHICAGO OFFICE: 43S North Michigan Ava. Delivered by Carrier. Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday Monthly .... IJ5* Weekly .... 30c Monthly ...... 63c Weekly 40c Monthly ... 140* Weekly 15c *loe additional tor Night Final Edition. Rates by Mail—Payable in Advance Anywhere in the United State** Evening and Sunday Evening Sunday 1 year 25.00 1 year ... 17.00 1 year ... 10.00 i month* 13.00 S month* ... 9.00 A month* ... 5.50 1 month .... 2.25 1 month 2.00 1 month 145 Telephone STerllng 3-5000 Entered at the Post Office. Waihington, D. C. as lecond-cla** mail matter. Member of the Associated Press The Aitociated Preu is entitled exclusively to the use' tor republication of all the local news printed In this newspaper as wall at ell A. P. news dispatches. A-20 * Police Pay Raise Outlook Budget Bureau support of a pay raise for the police has brightened the prospects of favorable action by Congress. The proposed raise actually should be considered as a corol lary of President Elsenhower’s recent request for a supplemental police appropriation to bring the police force to authorized strength. Unless some increase is granted, Chief Murray’s recruiting officers will have difficulty in round ing up new members’ for the department. The police-firemen’s pay raise situation is somewhat muddled right now. The Commis sioners had recommended a 10 per cent flat raise for all ranks, to cost about $2.5 million. This had been Chief Murray’s original request, in substance. When the Budget Bureau balked at sending this proposal to Congress, the House took matters in its own hands and passed the Kearns bill, providing for an even larger pay increase for policemen and firemen—one that would cost about $3.7 million. The Budget Bureau was asked to give its views on the Kearns measure, which is similar to the pend ing Beall bill on the Senate side. The bureau responded by submitting its own plan—for an 8 per cent limit on any pay increase. Chairman Case of the Senate District Committee has promised to press for a raise. In the meantime, Chief Murray has come out strongly in favor of the Kearns-Beall plan, which has the in dorsement and vigorous backing of the Police men’s Association. That inadequate police pay has seriously handicapped the department in filling vacan cies cannot be doubted. An intensive recruiting drive in several nearby States last year failed to produce the results hoped for. A number who applied as a result of the recruitment efforts made their applications conditional on a pay raise. Some officers now on the force have been persuaded to ignore offers of more lucrative employment elsewhere. The turnover of policemen that has plagued the department in the past year or two is certain to be stepped up if Congress should reject any pay legislation at this session. With serious crimes registering an alarming increase in Washington, Congress can do two things to materially strengthen police protec tion here: (1) It can grant the half-million dollar supplemental fund asked by the President to enable the department to increase its man power to 2,290 from the present 2,071. (2) It can give the police a well-deserved raise that will stimulate recruitment of officers and reduce the need for overtime assignments under the proposed supplemental fund. Unless Chief Murray gets this two-way support, his plans for putting more patrolmen on the streets to combat the rising crime trend will be severely hampered. U. N. Powers Must Agree The present recess in the Panmunjom armi stice negotiations, requested by the United Nations representatives, provides an opportu nity for a thorough exchange of views among the U. N. powers with troops in Korea on the basic policy issue of repatriation of prisoners. Such an exchange, and an agreement on an official level, are clearly essential at this point In the negotiations. Heretofore, the position taken by the Amer ican negotiators acting for the U. N. at Pan munjom—and reasserted by the State Depart ment in a clarifying announcement here last week—has been that, while we accept many features of the latest Communist proposal, we stand by the principle that force shall not be used to compel repatriation and we do not accept a condition that could result in indefi nite captivity for those who do not wish to be repatriated. The Communist proposal that balky prisoners should be exposed to four months of persuasion, and that the fate of those who might still be unwilling to return to their homes would then become subject to a postarmistice conference of uncertain length, could easily lead to such Indefinite captivity. Spokesmen for some of our U. N. associates have been critical of this position as being too Inflexible and endangering the prospects of agreement with the enemy. The question has been asked as to whether it represents “Ameri can policy and not United Nations policy.” Informally, discussion has veered toward a United Nations General'Assembly resolution of last December which proposed that the fate of balky prisoners should be decided at a post armistice political conference but still provided certain safeguards against indefinite captivity. It suggested that if such a conference did not reach agreement within 30 days the responsi bility for disposition of the prisoners would be transferred to the U. N., “which in all matters relating to them shall act strictly in accordance with International law.” While it is possible that such a formula might be applied successfully, there is room for difficulty in interpreting international law 4n this particular problem. Actually, there are no guiding rules in international law or in the Geneva Convention that meet precisely the question of repatriation of unwilling prisoners: Article 118 of the Convention provides for release and repatriation of prisoners after cessation of hostilities. At the Geneva Con ference in 1949, Austria proposed an amend ment to this article which would set up excep tions to the general rule for war prisoners who no longer wished to go home. The amendment was rejected, with both the Russian and Ameri can delegates being among those opposed to the amendment. As a matter of fact, the Russians had made their position clear on this question in 1945 when the Soviet Government Insisted upon Immediate repatriation, by force if necessary, of its own nationals taken prisoner by Germany. In that same year, the U. S. S. R. forced an agreement with the Swiss government for return of Russian civilian Internees, originally captured in Germany but who later escaped to Switzerland. Some of these objected to repatri ation but eventually they were handed over to the Soviet. on the Geneva Convention and its true intent contend today that the humani tarian spirit of the protocol would be violated by involuntary repatriation. The United States has taken this position in the recent negotia tions, and it was so emphasized in the State Department’s review of the situation last week. If the Uhited Nations is to have jurisdiction, in event of a 30-day postarmistice conference deadlock, it is certainly desirable that there should be advance understanding and agree ment on how it will interpret the applicable international law. -Peril' Defense It is heartening to have President Eisen hower’s assurance that he is trying to build a defense structure that is appropriate to the “age of peril” in which we live—a defense whose cost can be borne by this country for a long—and indefinite—period of time. Defending his defense budget, the Presi dent told the Nation that a choice had been made between dangerous military weakness and an intolerable garrison state. He said that he had given to this phase of our national planning—a phase with which he is excep tionally familiar—“careful personal study and analysis.” And he offered this assurance: “What has been so carefully, so painstakingly evolved is a sound program. It contemplates in each of the armed forces calculated risks which have been prudently reasoned. And it represents, in my judgment, what is best for our Nation’s permanent security.” These words from the President were the more welcome in view of testimony given earlier to a Senate subcommittee by Defense Secretary Wilson. Perhaps there was no real discrepancy between General Eisenhower’s re marks and Mr. Wilson’s statements. But Mr. Wilson’s emphasis on his intent to build an Air Force capable of defending the United States and of “striking back” if forced into war, but without the capability of waging a war of aggression, is disquieting to say the least. Just what kind of an Air Force this would be is not clear to the layman. For our own aviation experts—not laymen—say that there is no such thing as a real defense against sur prise attack in this atomic age. Enough of the enemy’s bombers would get'through to do enor mous damage. And if the attack should come, how useful would an Air Force be that could strike back but could not wage aggressive war? Our objective in that situation would be to destroy the enemy, not merely to strike back, and this means aggressive war. Where, under Mr. Wilson’s concept, are the bombers coming from? If he expects to build them after the enemy has struck, that can only be regarded, in the light of our past experience and our new knowledge, as a fantastically futile hope. Perhaps Mr. Wilson did not really mean what Me seemed to be saying. For when he was pressed by the Senators, he said that this country would have an offensive air arm. And if, for the long pull, he is something less than a long-range-bomber enthusiast, it may be that he has valid reason to believe that new and more effective weapons are in the offing. In any event, Mr. Wilson is not a good pleader for the new administration’s defense program. And since the very life of this Nation is at stake, one may venture the hope that the President will continue to give close "per sonal study” to the developing program, and that he will keep a close watch on the imple mentation of that program by the Defense Department. Sabres, MIGs and the Kremlin It is not surprising that Red China’s air force has declined to come out and fight during the past few days. Its latest losses over North Korea have been painfully and lopsidedly heavy. Within less than a week, no fewer than 36 of its Russian-made MIG-15 jet fighters have been shot down in flames, plus two others probably destroyed and 16 damaged. So the enemy, understandably enough, needs a little breathing spell in which to lick his wounds and try to devise ways and means of overcoming or reduc ing the great combat superiority of our Ameri can pilots and their deadly Sabres. A striking measure of that superiority has just been supplied by Lieutenant General Glenn O. Barcus, commander of our sth Air Force. All told, according to him, our fighter planes— in addition to probably destroying 126 and damaging 860—have scored certain “kills” (con firmed by photographic and other’ evidence) against 692 MIGs since the start of the Korean war. Os these 692 “kills,” 675 have been credited to our Sabre jets, of which only 55 have been lost in combat thus far. The margin of victory here—better than 12 to 1 in our favor—may seem almost too wide to be credible, but it is none the less a well-documented reality. How account for such superiority? General Barcus has explained it by declaring that the Sabre is a better plane than the MIG and that the enemy’s pilots are inferior to ours, presum ably because of inadequate training and other deficiencies. In any case, whatever the reason for it, the fact is that Red China has been taking a terrible beating in Korea’s skies, and the beating would in all probability be much worse If its airmen (more than a few of whom may actually be Russians) could be pursued across the Yalu River instead of being free to break off combat and flee to safety in the “privileged sanctuary” of Manchuria* Red China has been described as a major air power, but that is at best a very loose description. After all, the country is sorely deficient in the industrial capacity needed to manufacture planes in quantity, and it has been able to fight in the skies only because the Russians have been furnishing them with the essential equipment, particularly MIGs. Con sidering what our Sabres have been doing, however, the men of the Kremlin must find it more and more difficult to see any profit in continuing to provide Mao Tze-tung with such costly supplies. Accordingly, if only to put an end to this indirect drain on their own jet resources, they may well be genuinely anxious for a trqce in Korea. If so, the Communists at Panmunjom may yet yield sufficient ground to make an honorable agreement possible. More an<Tmore television programs have more than one sponsor, and a show advertising beer and aspirin as a cause-and-cure package deal might have possibilities. THURSDAY, May 21, 1953 Letters to The Star.. i U. S.-Britain Relations If British-American relations are to improve, Britons will have to learn a lesson which Americans have had pain fully impressed upon them. And soon. The real policy-makers in government almost certainly have included those of doubtful loyalty. Disclosures, with regard to the character of highly placed persons in our State, Commerce, Treasury and other Departments, the U.N., in our propaganda services such as the USIS, even the staffs of con gressional committees have made this sad truth abundantly clear. If our British cousins would really __ start probing they would likely uncover the opposite numbers in their country of our Alger Hiss, William Remington and a host of others of questionable loyalty. They might well find that, although it was Clement Attlee who ut tered the words, tt was some one else —Tardley, Baltimore Sun. "You TeU Them to Shut Up.” who wrote them or suggested them to him, knowing full well the breach be tween our two countries they would cause. Britons have a long-standing tradi tion of freedom. So have Americans. That is why it has been so easy for traitors to dig themselves in. But Britons surely know that the aim of the Soviet is world domination, the end of freedom, the destruction of all culture, especially the Anglo-Saxon. Drive out the subversives from your government, cousins, or you will invite your own destruction, and perhaps ours too. Veritas. * * There is a certain element in our population which is stridently rep resented in Congress by a few ruthless and shallow Senators and Congressmen who will not view any given Briton’s statements, no matter how moderate end how true, in any other way but as an opportunity to show their “patriot ism” by becoming “insulted” by it. Mr. Attlee is a man with whom I have very little political or economic syupathy. His attitude with regard to Britain’s and particularly to our Far Eastern Policy is, in my view, unbeliev ably wrong and therefore stupid. He is, of course, a confirmed Socialist. I believe that a political victory for • socialism in Britain or America or even the continuance of the socialism we now have would result in the negation of most that we have accomplished in hundreds of years toward individual liberty and individual responsibility and therefore toward being really civilized. I believe also that, no matter what Attlee, Churchill or any or all other Britons may say or think, we should carry the war in Korea to a swift and thorough victory. But, I believe that that part of Mr. Attlee’s speech in the House of Com mons which; has' given some of our people the opportunity to become ag grieved was a straightforward, honest, and in most respects, correct state ment. ' C. J. B. Blueprint for Key Bridge Recent published studies of Key Bridge approaches contemplate (1) the removal of streetcar tracks across the bridge, (2) ti e removal of existing side walks and the building of a two-way ramp from :isth and Prospect streets to the center of the bridge in the space vacated by the tracks. I agree witi proposals to remove the car tracks and sidewalks but disagree on making t, central ramp and 35th street a two-way proposition. I think the ramps should be located as follows: Build a ramp from the west side of the bridge to the Whitehurst Freeway to the outside lane vacated by side walk permitting access to the bridge from the west without crossing traffic bound west from the freeway to Canal road. Build a ramp overpassing M street from the east side of the bridge (above the present ramp to the freeway) to 34th street and Prospect street revers ing the flow of traffic on 34th street to northbound and the flow of traffic on 33d street to southbound. Extend Prospect street by a one-way ramp to Canal road to take traffic that now takes a left turn cycle off the bridge. Extend O street car tracks to 36th street and P street car tracks down 35th street to reverse traffic flow making 35th street one way from Wisconsin to Prospect street. At 35th and O streets provide a "his and That . . . When Templeton Jones looked out into th*e yard, and saw both the cat bird and the wood thrush, he knew that spring hid really come at last. Spring is never quite spring to Jones until these two beauties appear. No matter what the calendar says, or the'Government, or the clock. Have you heard about Jones’ plan to. thwart daylight saving? He says that he is just going to let his clocks and watches alone. * * That is, while the rest of the com munity is running on fast time, Jones, the old bore, will be running—or crawl ing—on standard, sun or slow time. Templeton Jones complains that modem life has even got time into a false position. There is no such thing, he says, as slow time, or fast time. It is just a phase of our modern sophistication, according to Jones. Every one loves to sneer at something, and time is as good as the next thing. * * Brand right time "slow,” and every body will jump on the "fast” time bandwagon. Templeton Jones was in a bookstore the other day. when a tall man came in with a small child, age about 5 years. "Wait on me, wait on me!” screamed the lad. switch to form a return loop for cars formerly using the Rosslyn loop moving the transfer point to bus-stops on M street just west of Wisconsin avenue. The above proposed ramps should handle all traffic except eastbound M street across the head of the freeway and the head of the bridge. This can still be controlled by traffic lights with a 20-25 per cent of the cycle in lieu of the present approximately 44 per cent of the cycle now used to get Canal road traffic on and off the "bridge and across its head. Thomas C. Collier. 'Mr. Meany and the I LA' An editorial entitled “Mr. Meany and the ILA” appearing in The Star May 10, has come to my attention. It has moved me to express, with your in dulgence, some of my view’s in this matter. Prior to such views, however, please accept our sincere appreciation for the splendid coverage which your paper has given to hearings of the Investigating Subcommittee of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. I am. deeply concerned about the disclosures of extensive racketeering on the water front in our major port, and particularly by the fact that this con dition is so prevalent among the offi cials and membership of the Interna tional Longshoremen’s Association. It is even more disturbing when one con siders that this racketeering as brought out by the New York State Crime Com mission and this subcommittee, seri ously interferes with, and increases the cost of. interstate and foreign com merce. Frankly, in calling George Meany, president of the American Federation of Labor, before the subcommittee, we were hopeful that as the spokesman for this parent labor group he would take a strong stand on the situation, in line with the directive of the AFL Executive Council issued in February, 1953. That directive, you will recall, called for the ILA to cleanse itself of the criminals and to discontinue the “shape up.” It was, therefore, disap pointing when it became apparent that Mr. Meany was assuming a defensive position and was inclined to fall back on an alleged impotency to deal effec tively with the problem. We are not unmindful of his limitations as imposed by the constitution of the AFL, but at the same time we definitely feel that the situation with the ILA is so repugnant, and of such urgency, as to call for emergency measures by Mr. Meany and the AFL Executive Council. We feel, as undoubtedly do most Americans, that properly administered trade unions constitute an important part of the American way of life. Hav ing this belief in mind, I hope that intimate association of the ILA with this abominable situation on the New York water front will not adversely affect legitimate and honest trade unions. I also sincerely trust that the American people will recognize, as so many of us already do, that the ILA in New York is not a real trade union but is, in fact, a disguise and a front for the operations of predatory crim inals. We attempted to illustrate this fact to Mr. Meany by showing the dom ination of the ILA, at the organiza tional level, by notorious felons. We hope that Mr. Meany’s zeal in pro tecting the interests of the AFL will not inadvertently extend to defending these outlaws. I hope that you will understand the spirit in which these views are of- j sered. May I again express my per- j sonal appreciation for your interest and j coverage of these matters of mutual ■ concern. Senator Charles W. Tobey, Chairman, Senate Investigating Subcommittee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Native Washingtonians For the past 40 years, the writer has been. introduced within the borders of the District of Columbia to many people as a “native Washingtonian.” Im mediately after the preliminaries of introduction, the person to whom he has been introduced has exclaimed suddenly: “Oh! How unusual, a native Washingtonian!” j I submit that being a “native Wash ingtonian” is not “unusual” or even “rare,” particularly in the District of Columbia. Census figures published in The Star of May 16, 1953, disclose that the latest report of the 1950 census in dicates that there are 512,990 natives (who claim the District of Columbia as their birthplacei still living and walk ing around to be introduced here, in Maryland, in Virginia and elsewhere Os this total number, 263,550 still live in the District, while 249,440 natives live in the 48 States and abroad, in cluding 96.320 in Maryland. 48,150 in Virginia and 16,638 in New York. While as a voteless community, we still must be classified in the same cate gory as resident aliens, criminals and lunatics, at least the facts as to our numbers should be repeated from time to time for the benefit of our well meaning but misinformed friends who in the future should be heard to ex claim: “A-h-h! A native Washington ian, one in a half million!” B. 8. Simmons. His father looked a trifle embarrassed, and the poor clerk, of course, didn’t know quite what to say, so she sensibly said nothing. Templeton Jones had his usual lack of Inhibitions, too. “The modem touch,” he grinned, waving a hand at the brat. Templeton Jones believes that the modem children really show what hu man nature is. Man, he claims, despite all his civilization, is at heart a prowling, predatory animal. The sweet little child, going along the sidewalk, shows it when she comes to an impromptu fence put up to keep people off the grass. She looks around, sees no one watch ing—andr tears down the fence. Then she proceeds sweetly along the sidewalk. * * Jones says that this is what every human being alive would like to do, only the older ones have certain rules of action which prevent them. Deep down, according to Jones, the butcher and the baker and the candle stick maker —how that old grouping ought to be revised —would like to do the same thing. The only difference is that the un inhibited child does it. Templeton Jones says everybody who walks into a store and wants to buy Pen-names may be used if letters carry writers’ correct names and addresses. AU letters are subject to condensation. Spook Speaks Jim Berrymkn is just as kind as his father and I think his cartoons are wonderful. Just for curiosity’s sake though. I’d like to know if he was tempted to make his drawing cl the President on board the Williamsburg even more true to reality ... and then put the thought out of his mind. The cartoon shows Mr. Eisenhower writing a speech and having a hard time of it apparently. Peeking through the door is the snickering shade of Harry Truman. The caption: There Are Ghosts in Old Ships! Did Jim conceive the naughty notion of showing the ghosts who were really writing the speech . . . and then put it out of his mind? * As a reformed ghost myself I think we spooks ought to get more credit. I really feel sad about this one. Rathe Mcßathe. 'Beauty' of War The Star of May 17 quotes an Ameri can in Korea, Capt. Manuel Fernandez, as saying of the seventh MIG he shot down: “It was burning ... a beautiful sight.” If any “brain-washing” needs to be done, perhaps it. should be performed on that jet ace who finds beauty in his phase of the Korean war. That kind of talk smacks of the young Mussolini who discovered a peculiar beauty in watching Ethiopians being blasted to bits by bombs dropped from his plane. Our men who engage in war should regard their participation as a distaste ful experience which has as its only justification the deterring of aggres sion, with the goal of ultimately creat ing a real climate of peace in this world. Peace Lover. Lincoln of 1953 As we pay tribute on Memorial Day to our soldier dead, let us resolve to further, by sacrifice and endeavor, the ideals for which they fought, .rnd let us fervently pray that the principles which have made our Nation great may encircle the earth. Great events come to pass because of ideas and earnest endeavor. So let us believe that peace can come to the world if we daily express tolerance, good 'will, and understanding. Several years ago a United States Army general said that if we want permanent peace we must practice the Golden Rule. Let us accept President Eisenhower as our Lincoln of 1953, and thank God for his ability as we work together to bind the wounds of the world with charity, and with malice to ward none. With spiritual light the horizons grows bright. Clara Boynton Hadley. Wanfs Tougher President It is with some hesitation that I attempt to lecture the Chief Executive. But I am one of the many he is work ing for; a guy with a baby and bills oft-times overdue. President Eisenhower was elected mainly because people were fed up with corruption and graft and because of the stalemate in the Korean strife. He was elected not so much because of the Republican Party, but because he stood and still stands for ideals and integrity. We were willing to give the President time to settle down, pitch in and take over the reins. This he has not done. —Paitt, LouliYillt Courier Journal. "Uncle Joe.” We realize that taking over our vast Government is no small chore, but we are still waiting for him to assume leadership. There are some who are taking advantage of the President's lack of leadership. President Truman, in spite of his many faults, was not afraid to an nounce who was,boss and go the limit! A platoon in which the lieutenant does ndt show authority above the sergeant—and the men know it—is not very successful. Perhaps since Mr. Eisenhower is steeped in the endless details of his office, these things are not so evident to him. Whatever it is, let him show us we were not wrong last November when we picked our greatest general for our greatest office. Toby. By Charles E. Tracewell something would love to scream at the clerk. “Wait on me. wait on me!” Only the child does it, and the parent tries to overlook it. or at least pretend that it is all right, that child hood only comes once, and that after all it is just high spirits. Templeton Jones says it really shows the Old Nick in, not only the child, but also in all human beings. * * * A famous French philosopher (was it Descartes?) said that every child is a criminal at heart. It was Schopen hauer who called women children of a larger growth. Perhaps there is 10 pei cent of truth in such phrases, 90 per cent of error, just as there was in the sentence in which a local official branded all taxi drivers as “criminals.' Templeton Jones feels that just as the child is father to the man, as it has been said, so the modem uninhibited vitamin-fed child shows forth rather clearly what grownups would like to do but don’t. The modem human, past 50, can do nothing better than watch the modern spring, and especially those two natrnal charmers, the catbird and the wood thrush. Templeton Jones says these two raisin eaters are his favorite birds, and that there is no meanness in anything they do. The Political Mill Delayed Tax Reduction Can Aid Administration Pre-Election Relief Will Give Political Advantage By Gould Lincoln If the Eisenhower administration, with the aid of Congress, .make* good a balanced budget and accompanying tax reductions by July 1, 1954—the be ginning of fiscal year 1955 —four months before the congressional elections, the politics of the situation should definitely favor the Republicans. President Eisen hower, in his address to the Nation, made no specific promises. His address, however, showed how these ends may be accomplished. And very definite was a promise that the administration would bend every effort to bring about both a balanced budget and tax cuts. The failure of the President to recom mend Immediate tax reductions or to promise an earlier balanced budget is disappointing to many Republicans— some of them in House and Senate who come up for re-election next year. At the same time, Democrats are chortling. The latter comment that the Republi cans are falling down on campaign pledges and that the voters will flock away fro/n the G. O. P. in next year’s elections. This is an immediate reac tion. But if the budget is balanced and tax cuts come in the session of Congress that begins January 3, 1954. the last chortle is likely to be with the Republicans. Defense Is Reason. The impelling reason given by Presi dent Eisenhower for the continuation of the present high taxes on individuals and business is national defense. The Chief Executive sees no reason to be lieve, up to this moment, that Soviet Russia has abandoned its announced purpose, “the destruction of freedom everywhere.” Because of the inter national situation, huge expenditures must be made for military purposes. This, the President believes, the Ameri can people will understand. Even if the fighting is concluded in Korea, these, expenditures must continue. There will be no assurance fighting will not break out in other parts of Asia, Europe or . the Middle East. President Eisenhower, ever since he. entered the White House, has em phasized the need of balancing the budget, to prevent further inflation and further devaluation of the dollar and a finally disastrous inflation. He is still sticking to this procedure, and he will have the support of most of the Republicans and many of the Democrats. From 1917 until 1953 * 36 years—the Federal budget has been in balance 14 years. It has been un balanced—with the Treasury in the red—24 years. A Republican admin istration sat in Washington 11 of the years the budget was in balance, and a Republican Congress was responsible V for two of the years in which the budget was balanced. In only one year, 1947, was a Democratic administration in control with a balanced budget. Re publican administrations controlled in only three of the unbalanced-budget years. War and depression knocked the Federal budget out of balance. The wars have been fought with the Dcr.c crats in control of the Government. The depression struck during a Re publican administration. The national debt—brought about by excess spend ing over revenues—has risen to nearly $265 billioh. The American people are paying taxes so high that earlier gen erations would have considered them. , impossible. The value of the dollar has been depreciated many times. One Promise Kept. One promise the Republicans made during the 1952 campaign—to cut gov ernmental expenditures—the adminis tration and Congress are keeping. The Truman budget for the fiscal year 1954 is being reduced by approximately $8.5 billion, and the reductions may go still further. These reductions in spend ing will make the prospective deficit for 1954 lower than estimated by Presi dent Truman. The factor which is making it impossible to balance the budget for 1954 is the SBO-billion hangover of unexpended appropriations and authorizations, which have been almost entirely allocated and con- I tracted for, coming over from the Tru- I man administration. President Eisenhower, in his recom -1 mendations for continuation of the present high- taxes, has taken the cou- ' rageous way. Had he yielded to the ’ pleas for immediate tax reduction, popular acclaim might have followed. But he would almost certainly have brought the budget more out of balance with larger deficits. It is argued by some that the reduction of taxes would have increased incentives and put spending money in the pockets of millions and so increased the reve nues. That, however, is speculation. The Eisenhower leadership is now at stake in a big way. The President has asked for legislation continuing the excess-profits tax, due to expire June 30. Strong and bitter opposition to this tax extension has developed im mediately. However, the Republican leaders in both houses of Congress have rallied to the President's support. He can count, too, on some Democratic support. Much will depend upon the reaction of the people to the President’s program. His popularity throughout the country, which gave him election by a huge majority last November, has continued, the polls show —and even increased. If the public rallies to him, Congres# will go along. Questions and Answers The Star’* reader* can cet the answer to any question of fact by either wrnlne The Kvenlna Star Inlormatlon Bureau. 1200 1 *treet W W.. Wasblncton 3. O. C.. and inclosing 3 cent* re turn noitaie. or bt telephonic* Sterlln* 3-7363 By THE HASKIN SERVICE. Q. What was the original name of the Israeli ship, now called the Jerusa lem? —E. D. M. A. Originally the Bergensfjord of the Norwegian-America Line, the ship was later known as the Argentina. Today she is the only transatlantic liner with a synagogue, kosher galley and mashgiach. Q. Did Thomas Mott Osborne serve a term in Sing Sing in order to learn firsthand of conditions there?—F. McC. A. When he was appointed chairman of the State Commission on Prison Reform, Osborne served a short volun tary term in Auburn Prison as “Tom Brown, No. 33333 X.” Afterward he de voted all his energies to prison reform. Q. Is it possible to shatter a diamond with a hammer?—R. B. M. A. Although the diamond is the hardest substance known, it is possible to smash it with an ordinary hammer, providing it is hit at the proper cleavage with a great amount of force.