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Red China Can Act for Peace / Latest U. N. Formula on Korea Is Ingenious Compromise And Can Easily Establish Truce if Foe Prefers One If Red China really wants a truce in Korea, this fact will be established in the next few days by her willingness to accept a sensible formula devised by the United Nations countries directly involved in the conflict. The latest peace plan con forms to the basic positions already taken by both sides in previous announcements and offers. It is an ingenious compromise. The essentials of the plan are these: 1. The allies stand together in being willing to accept a decision —to be made after hostilities have ceased—by a “political conference” of five nations as to which prisoners shall be returned to Commu nist custody and which ones shall be released as civilians with the right to go wherever they please. 2. During a period of 90 days —and that’s a stipulated time limit—representatives of the Communists will be permitted to go back of the United Na tions lines and talk with the 48,000 prisoners and present arguments as to why they should return to Communist jurisdiction. 3. At the end of the 90 days, a five-nation commission will examine the individual cases and be asked to certify whether those who say they want to return to the Commu nist side did so voluntarily or under coercion. The commis sion’s decision will be final. 4. Whether, in making a de cision on these cases, the five member commission will vote unanimously or by majority depends on the wording of the document finally agreed upon. The whole plan contem-. plates “voluntary repatria tion” but the Communists have been so confident that they could persuade the 48,- Doris Fleeson: What Price McCarthyism? Britain Could Force Action Over Senator's Charges On China Trade by Revealing All of the Facts The price abroad of Mc- Carthyism began to appear last week end when British news papers demanded that the British government take formal issue with the United States Government over the Mc- Carthy charges against British shipping in the China trade. The British know that their position is understood at the State Department. They know that Secretary of State Dulles supported it in at least two letters to Senator McCarthy. These letters have still to be made public. Vice President Nixon, it is also known, persuaded Sena tor McCarthy to withdraw the letter he threatened to write President Eisenhower in the matter. The Nixon interven tion is defensible on the ground that the President should not be put on the spot in so serious a matter of for eign policy. Actually it helps Senator McCarthy even more. Once the President is involved, he must put his great prestige firmly on one side or the other and it might very well be that the Senator would be the loser. Senator McCarthy’s ready ac Thomas L. Stokes: New Raid by Cattle 'Barons' House Group's Hearings Reveal Public Revulsion in West To Proposal to Revise U. S. Law on Stock Grazing The whole saga of the West, first, the ravishing of its land and its forests and the wasting of its waters by unthinking pioneers, and, then, the re cuperative measures in the last 50 years to restore and build up—all of that unfolds before you as you sit, as this report er has for several days, in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee. It is a dramatic, and in its later episodes, an encouraging story. Except—that the reason it all comes out is because, once again, the spoilers are at it. Yes, even before President Eisenhower signed into law last Saturday the bill to give off shore oil lands to the States, the wheels were in motion, here in this Interior Commit tee room, for another at tempted raid on our public do main, this time chiefly in the West. This concerns grazing of cattle and sheep on our public lands and in our national forests. That has to be done properly and with due care to the grass cover which is needed to hold down the soil, to prevent erosion, to conserve all the water possible for a land that is short of water, to prevent floods, to protect the timber growth. Grazing was once done indiscrimi nately. which explains many of the waste and denuded areas of today. The Forest Service of the Agriculture Department looks after conservation of our national forests and super vises grazing on those public lands. Grazing on other public lands outside the national forests is under supervision and regulation of the Bureau of Land Management of the Interior Department, under terms of the Taylor Act of 1934. The Forest Service has 000 prisoners to go back to them that it now has come down to a question of what is meant by “persuading” or by “presenting the facts” to the prisoners themselves. The way is opened for the Com munists to use a “face saving” device to protect them on the propaganda front. They can, if they like, always accuse the Allies of "coercing” and “in timidating” the prisoners if a majority don’t go back. If by chance a majority do go back to Communist jurisdic tion, neither Moscow nor Peiping needs to be very much concerned about the way the final statistics on the re luctant minority show up— especially since the decision will not be known until at least 90 days after the fighting has ceased. By that time such important questions as “uni fication of Korea” will be in the limelight and neither side is likely to avail itself of technicalities about the re turn of prisoners as an excuse to resume fighting. Instead, the palavering then could go on for years. Such concessions as have been made in the Allied pro posals for a truce have been in the interest of testing the good faith of the Communists. If they don’t want a truce, they can find plenty of things to argue about and on which to deadlock the negotiations further. But it is significant that before the latest plan was sent to Gen. Mark Clark in Tokyo for presentation to the Communists by Gen. Wil liam Harrison, the United States Government entered into full and frank discussions with the governments of Brit ain and France and it may be stated authoritatively that all the Allies are in absolute agreement. Another precaution taken quiescence indicates that he knows this very well and pre ferred to take the headline cash and let the future credit go. Indeed, as of now, the Sena tor is inevitably the major beneficiary of the Vice Presi dent’s repeated peace-making between the White House and Senator McCarthy. In any real contest between the two, the President must and will win for the present. ' It is a favor to the Senator to give him a chance to make an apparently generous ges ture toward Gen. Eisenhower. He will always take it—until he is satisfied the Eisenhower luster is dimmed. The British are offering a series of statements and facts, officially and through shipping concerns which assert the op posite of the McCarthy testi mony. They have no confi dence that they will be allowed by the Senator to clutter up his juicy record. The thorniest point of all. of course, is the charge that British ships transported Chi nese Communist troops along the China coast within the past year. This has very high more discretion, without spe cific statute such as the Taylor Act, because its problem is different, the land it is con serving is much more val uable. This brings us to the new raid on conservation. For a long time, livestock interests—though by no means all of them in the Western public lands—have wanted to shake off the restraining hand of the Forest Service, particularly, but also to loosen the control of the Bureau of Land Management. This would be done in the bill now being considered by the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee. It would weaken the authority of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Forest Service in his department over grazing lands m national forests, and would set up virtually vested rights in now existing grazing per mits, both in the national forests and in other public lands. The national forests are the real goal in this bill, though it is presented in the guise of a measure to get “uniformity” by having the same rules and regulations for them as for other public lands covered by the Taylor Act. Or, as the bill was described by a fighting editor, Robert W. Sawyer, publisher of the Bend (Oreg.) Bulletin, it “has been on the assembly of cer tain livestock interests for many years. “The fact is that this legis lation harks back to the days of land script. The -grazing privilege would become some thing that the holder could sell as he pleased. In other words the present permittee could sell rights to a specific piece of the public land and the public would have prac tically no voice in the transac tion." Expert witnesses before the committee feared that the here by the State Department was to invite the members of subcommittees of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee last week to listen to an explanation of the latest formula and to make sugges tions before the final draft was presented. Most of the dis cussion turned on whether a unanimous vote or a majority vote should prevail in the five nation commission. Since Poland and Czechoslovakia will vote the way the Com munists want them to vote and since Sweden and Switzerland will deal objectively with the issues of fact that may arise— as to whether the prisoners are coerced or really persuaded to go back the vote in many cases could be a tie and then India's representative would have to cast the deciding ballot. If unanimity is required, any of the five nations would have the power of veto and be able to block the return of the prisoners who were proved to have been intimidated either by threats about the safety of their families behind Commu nist lines or by “brain twist ing.” It is probeble the allies will insist on having their own ob servers present when prisoners are being interviewed about their return to Communist territory. Indian troops will be permitted to take charge of the prisoner camps once the armistice machinery is set in motion. It has not been expected here that a Korean truce would come immediately but only after another recess during which the Communists ex amine the counterproposals being made by the allies. The showdown or climax, however, is at hand as the area for negotiation has narrowed. (Reproduction Right* Reserved) emotional content; many Brit ish here are advising it cannot be allowed to rest. Their best information on Senator McCarthy’s "proof” is unofficial. Scuttlebutt at the hearing was that a United States Navy submarine took pictures purporting to show this situation and sent the pic tures to Washington where— like everything else these days —they were leaked to Senator McCarthy. The British say that, (1) several British ships were con fiscated by the Chinese and it could have been one of those, (2) if the United States Navy, gets any such information, the British Navy should be the first to receive it and can be depended upon to act on it. It is argued in some quarters that the best thing to do with these issues officially is to leave them alone as much as possible. But Korea and any thing having to do with it burn in the hearts of Americans, cer tainly those whose families are affected by the actual fighting. Thus advice also given to the British here is to force the China trade issue even against White House reluctance. loosening of authority of the Agriculture and Interior De partments and the provision for court review of the Sec retary of Agriculture’s deci sions—which they saw as ham stringing and perhaps dila tory—might not only inter fere with necessary conserva tion practices, but also open the way for powerful livestock interests to acquire vast hold ings in the public domain through speculation in graz ing permits. There are encouraging signs in the hearings: First, evidence of public revulsion in the West against the bill, which is spon sored in the House by Repre sentative D’Ewart, Republican, of Montana, and in the Sen ate by Senators Butler. Repub lican, of Nebraska, and Bar rett, Republican, of Wyoming; and. second, the seemingly antagonistic attitude, or at least dubious attitude, of the Eisenhower administration. Thus far, both Secretary of Agriculture Benson and Secre tary of Interior McKay have warily refused to make a policy statement about the measure. It was reported that the Agri culture Department actually had prepared an adverse re port, but that this was with held on pressure from the measure’s promoters. Bad rakes r BONDED LININGS 20,000-Mil* Guarantee —FREE ADJUSTMENTS— Installed While Yen Wait AS LOW AS 516.5 Q see CLIFT for BRAKE SERVICE 1909 M St. N.W ST. 3-2066 ill Md. At*. S W ML 8-6232 at 6th A Independence Am LOUIE —By Harry Hanan g * ’ Fletcher Knebel: Potomac Fever Secretary of Defense Wilson faces mounting anger in Con gress over Air Force budget cuts. Some Congressmen want to fire the secretary for defense—and get one for offense. * * * • Americans for Democratic Action resolve to fight “political conformity.” Yeah, let’s all get together and march against conformity—and let’s not have anybody getting out of step, either. •* * • A Senate committee reports the ammunition shortage was still serious last winter. There’ll be plenty of ammunition soon, however—now that we’ve apparently decided to make fewer guns for it. • • • • Gen. Eisenhower’s followers in Congress slash spending for rivers and harbors. Everybody has favored economy in general— at long last we’ve got a general who favors economy in everybody. • * * • The Eisenhower administration refuses to give Government workers a Monday holiday after Decoration Day. Officials can’t afford to relax on a Monday—so many problems accumulate over the week end that need to be pigeon-holed. * * * * The President visited the mountain retreat Shangri-la which he has renamed "Camp David.” He knows by now that nothing connected with Washington can be a Shangri-la. * * * * Gen. Eisenhower lunches with 29 classmates of the West Point class of 1915. He likes to hob-nob with his old military buddies—he doesn’t have to keep a civil tongue in his head. McCarthy Rules U. S. To Big Extent, Aided By Dulles, Davies Says The Rev. A. Powell Davies, pastor of All Souls’ Church, yes- I terday told a Boston meeting | that Senator McCarthy is already ruling the United States “to a great extent” and Secre tary of State Dulles "might well be called his administrative as sistant.” Addressing the annual meet ing of the American Unitarian Association, the minister brought up the report subsequently denied by the State Department —that his books were banned in the department’s overseas in -1 formation service. | He called the State Depart ment “doubtless the most fear ridden of the agencies of gov ernment.” "The fact that I have been against communism all my life | does not count,” he said. “It is the fact that I have criticized the untruths and injustices of i the investigating committees that is given weight. I am what is called a controversial person; that is to say, one who does not : keep quiet in the presence of I evil. “And so it was reported—and for a significantly long length of time was not denied, although the newspapers for hour after hour maintained their inquiries —that my books are banned.” Hand and Gershwin Mentioned. Os far greater importance, he said, was the fact that the books of Judge Learned Hand and George Gershwin also were re ported banned. The report that these books had been banned came in a speech last Wednesday night by Lawrence Wadsworth, former deputy chief of public affairs in the Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs. Dr. Davies said he was not impressed with the State De partment’s denial of the book ban. “Denial is not enough,” he declared. “There should be some explanation.” Dr. Davies also charged that “these men who say that they are not against the church, although they have slandered churchmen of high character and wide reputation . . . really are against the church.” Like all other tyrants, he said, TRANSFER ft STORAGE CO. 460 Ntw York A*e. N.W NA 8-1070 LOCAL HAULING OUR SPECIALTY IMMEDIATE I DELIVERY New '53 Dodge 6-pas senger sedan (no shift), de luxe equip ment. *2,153 - LEO ROOM, Ik. Your Dodgo-Plymouth Doalor 4301 Conn. Ave. N.W. EM. 3-7900 they will see the church as standing in their way. “They want us to believe that if you are against communism, it does not matter whether you are just and truthful, or whether you uphold the decencies of American life.” The United States, he declared, is becoming a nation of fear and Washington “a city of intimi dated people.” “Not only ordinary workers for the Government, but those in high positions—indeed, the Government itself—is now afraid. There is no chance at all, none whatever, that a frightened na tion will survive.” he said. “I do not hesitate to say,” he went on, “that, at present, no major proposal in foreign policy which was disliked by Senator McCarthy would be advanced by the Government. It is no longer a question of whether the Sen ator from Wisconsin will some day rule the United States; to a great extent he is ruling it al ready.” District Minister Asks Investigation of Probers A prominent Methodist minis ter declared yesterday that since every section of American life is being investigated, “we should in vestigate the investigators.” Dr. Edward G. Latch told his congregation in Metropolitan Methodist Church, Nebraska and New Mexico avenues N.W.. we are now a Nation fearful of in vestigations. “We are anxious and afraid and just do not know what is going to happen and when,” he said. “This fear makes us afraid of investigations. “We have nothing—as honest, loyal, Christian people—to fear from investigation. Let them in vestigate the church and the pub lic school. Government workers and labor unions. “If we are going to complete the picture, we should investi gate the investigators.” The minister asserted “the only thing we ought to insist upon is that the investigation be fair and honest, with a constructive end in view. It should not be by lies or slander or half-truths.” / BUTLER-FLYNN \ / PAINT SALE \ y - y / SHOP at our conveniently located, complete paint stores | BUTLKR-nWN S FAIRFAX HOUSE PAINT ft Outside white for long, sparkling appearance. Regularly priced at K Z $5.30 gal. SALE PRICE $4.25 gal. or $3.99 in 25-gal. lots. » 0 butler-hymn s FAIRFAX WHITE CREOSOTE » PAINT Especially formulated for use on all types of wood fences, ift! ft SALE PRICE $3.68 gal. or $3.18 in 50-gal. lots. 2 BUTItR’TITMM S FLOOR & DECK ENAMEL 4® » Here's weather-resistant, quick-drying elastic enamel for wood, con- A Crete, metal and composition floors. In gray and battleship gray, ft SALE PRICE $4.39 gal., $1.29 qt. gg j»| PRATT & LAMBERT EFFECTO NEWPORT TURPENTINE. 4E f I.T f vjr Mr. *s '■ - - colors. SALE PRICE $2.33 gt. SALE PRICE $1.25 gol. Wt Deliver'TWlCE DAILY* Every Section /07X ft | aunta-nymrmgM $ 609CSt., N.W. Mil-0150 >&$W ft MTHISDA.CHIVY CHASi ft 7029 Wisconsin Ave., Ol 4-9814 ft WHEATON AOmOjy *OO 11812 Old Bladenihurg Rd., 10 5-9852 Constantine Brown: U. S. Money Has Bought Hatred French Friend of This Country Reports Many Europeans Discount Red Threat, Want Yanks to Go Back Home A highly reputable and ex perienced French newspaper man whose business takes him all over Europe writes in a let ter received recently by this reporter that at no time during his long career has he noticed as much annoyance and dis like fringing on hatred toward America and Amer icans. Everywhere in Europe dis trust and antipathy for the United States has reached an unprecedented height. The fact that this country has contrib uted so many billions for the economic recovery of the free countries in the West is re membered by only a handful of politicians, bankers and in dustrialists. But the masses on whom the governments depend have completely forgotten. “Go home, Yankee” is no longer a Communist slogan. It represents actually the gen eral feeling of our friends. “You are like a guest who has overstayed his welcome,” writes this “unattached” newspaper man—a rarity in the European newspaper fraternity. The restoration of European industries helped at first be cause they prevented large scale unemployment. But now the factories cannot sell much of their production because of the lack of markets. Un employment due to overpro duction is staring the Europe ans in the face. This is the main reason why the Russian peace dove has been accepted with such alacrity by the rank and file of the people west of the Rhine. Europeans care little about the lack of freedoms in the U. S. S. R. and satellite coun tries and discount as “not our business” the reports of con 4 centration and forced labor camps. All Europeans west of the Rhine hate the idea of serving in their national armed forces and consider our urging for an increased defense sys Dorothy Thompson: Teaching Opinionated Ignorance High School Students Learn to Take Sides on Issues About Which They Have Not Been Given Facts A survey recently reported by the New York Times reveals that no "climate of fear” exists in New York’s schools, and that few teachers refuse “to discuss the vital issues of the day.”. There is hardly an issue of any importance—foreign or domes tic—that has not been dis cussed in classrooms by some teachers. Topics being taught are: Should the United States continue to support Chiang Kai-shek? Should our foreign policy be changed in Korea? Should Communist China be seated in the U. N.? Should price control be maintained? Should we lower taxes? And so ad-infinitum. I am glad to learn that the much publicized “terrorization of freedom of thought” is practically nonexistent in New York’s public schools. What, however, still needs discussion is the place of such subjects in primary and sec ondary education! We are rearing a genera tion of high-school students, vast numbers of whom cannot solve a simple problem in plane geometry, construct a para graph of intelligible grammat ical prose, spell many words in current use at the newspaper level, or give anything like a coherent account of American history, let alone the history of the rest of the world. Their ignorance of geography is no torious. Yet these adolescents with such pitiable gaps in funda mental education are encour aged to hold forth on ques tions that perplex the minds of trained economists, dis tinguished historians and THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. MONDAY, MAT *6. 1953 tem as an interference in their domestic affairs. The war-weary Europeans believe the Communist charges that "America intends to make her allies into cannon fodder and has fattened them up through the Marshall plan in order to use them later in fighting Russia with the sons of European mothers.” With very rare exceptions, the American propaganda serv ices have done nothing to pre vent this situation and “Amer icans by and large have be haved like boors,” writes this pro-American friend. Even the influx of American tourists has not been welcome in some countries such as France and Italy. Some industries have benefited from the import of dollars, but on the other hand this has also raised the cost of living for people who during the summer season cannot spend money as lavishly as the Americans. Germany, where the anti- American feeling has been felt less in the past, is at the point of following the example of her neighbors. The American troops are well disciplined and behaved. But the presence of an army of occupation on a foreign territory for a long time is necessarily resented by the populace. The fact that this army is a shield against possible aggression from the east makes little impression on the people in towns and vil lages. Until the enemy actually marches in they cannot see the threat of an invasion. The idea that the Russians have no hostile intentions to ward the people of Western Europe is gaining ground daily. It is a matter of in difference to these people to day whether the U. S. S. R. and her satellites want to have a showdown with the United States. That, in the opinion of good Europeans is a matter between those two powers. statesmen, and on which any opinion is dubious unless backed by greater factual knowledge than most adults— including their teachers— possess. The minds of students might profit if consideration of present-day issues took the form of acquiring knowledge, not of uttering opinions. What does an American teen-ager know of the history of Korea? Was it ever a fully independent state, and if so, when? What is the meaning of "suzerainty”? Under whose suzerainty has Korea been in the past? Has this suzerainty changed? If so, when and under what conditions? What was the attitude of the Euro pean powers toward these changes? Os the United States? What role did Korea play in World War II? How did the partition of Korea occur? The answers to such ques tions are matters of fact. Mat ters of fact can be taught. They are not controversial. What do students encour aged to discuss American sup port of Chiang Kai-shek know about him? Can they give an account of the totality of his relations with the Soviet Un ion? What do they know of the history of the Kuomin tang? Os the Chinese Commu nist Party? When, and where, was it organized? What do they know of ear lier Chinese history? How has China been ruled in the last hundred years? At what time did China reach her greatest power and geographic exten I DUEEiA 30-GAL. f***} 1 KfIEEIVI tank g I Completely Installed " I 16 c a day ■ (No Poyment, S.pt.mb,')' lirri DUEEAA HOME (■ ICfIEEIfI HEATING II GAS WINTER AIR CONDITIONER U i ‘385 ■ Ifcir _• EFFICIENT M % m liiv or Free Survey and Estimate M Lincoln 7-4488 I ** A-13 They see no reason whatso ever why they should be sucked into such a maelstrom, too. Even our preferred help to the French who are fighting in Indo-China seems to be mis understood. This war which has been going on for seven years has drained the French treasury of upward of $6 bil lion and is highly unpopular. The prevailing opinion of the man in the street who happens to talk about that far away “colonial” campaign is that by a good understanding with Moscow the war could be called off immediately. America, they say. is throwing a few hundred million dollars into it to keep the kettle boiling for its own purposes. The political men who know better don’t dare contradict this view too loudly. They know that elections may be around the corner and the man in the street holds the life of the politicians In his hand. But where the man in the street and the politician see definitely eye to eye is in the agreement that Europe needs no armed forces and no dollars but only new markets. And the 800 million people who live be hind the Iron Curtain are po tential customers for every thing from shoe-laces to elec trical equipment. There is no need to worry over dollar bal ances. These people are ready to barter as soon as Moscow says the word. Moreover, * .• story is going around Europe that there are “mountains of gold in the U. S. S. R..’’ more than America guards so jeal ously in its caves. “You would be surprised.’* concludes the French news man, “if you came to Europe at the amount of hostility which prevails against your country and your countrymen. You would be equally surprised to find out the esteem in which the Russians are held in many sections of Europe.” sion? What, at that time, wera her frontiers? What, during the last cen tury, have been China’s rela tions with the rest of Asia? Russia? The European pow ers? America? These are only a few of the questions necessary to a judg ment of the China question. But how can such a study be pursued within a public school curriculum? Students are untrained in research. Repeatedly, I get letters from pupils asking me some questions to which they could find the answers in the Encyclopaedia Britannica or the World Almanac, and others that all the statesmen in the world can’t answer. This week a high school pupil wrote (in a letter with four misspelled words): “I am to discuss ‘How can we win permanent peace with na tional and personal free dom?’” Please give me your views. If I knew that answer I would be unique. Last week another pupil wrote: “I am to discuss ‘Brit ish versus American proced ures of justice.’ What do you think?” I could not properly answer this youngster without much research, and some expert knowledge of law. But this does not bother Tom, Dick, Mary, or their teachers. What comes out of all these discussions? Nothing, except a parroting of teachers or par ents’ opinions, or the news papers they read, or the panel discussions they hear, learn ing, out of the process, nothing except how to be superficial, voluble, and opinionated.