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David Lawrence —
Collective Security for Asia Ratification of SEATO Treaty Will Have an Impact Far Greater Overseas Than Inside This Country Again the United State Sen ate has given a stimulating impetus to United States lead ership in the world—this time by ratifying by an 82-to-l vote the new treaty which calls for the establishment of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organ ization. Just as the Senate and House by overwhelming vote only a few days ago gave a dramatic demonstration of American unity and firmness in passing the resolution to defend For mosa. so the action which lines up the United States behind the defense of Southeast Asia as a whole will have an impact far greater overseas than in side this country. The new treaty commits the United States to an immediate consultation with seven other nations—Australia, New Zea land. Great Britain, France, Thailand. Pakistan and the Philippines whenever there is an attack on any of the Southeast Asia countries named. Even when there is no military action by the en emy but a conspiracy to ac quire control of the countries in the area by subversion, there is an obligation on the part of the signers of the treaty to get together and de termine what is best to do in the circumstances. The treaty reserves to each government that signs it the right to take action only in conformity with its own "con stitutional processes,” which means that Congress alone can declare war or ratify steps taken in an emergency amounting to war. The moral obligation, how ever, is clear. The plain im plication of the treaty’s pro Doris Fleeson — Politics Delays Harlan Action Private Animosities and Shiftless Practices Blamed For Senate Judiciary's Failure to Act on Justice Some of President Eisen hower’s unconfirmed ap pointees may never take the oath of office, but his choice for Associate Justice of the Su preme Court. John Marshall Harlan, is merely bogged down in the private animosities and shiftless practices of the Sen ate Judiciary Committee. The committee's chairman. Senator Kilgore of West Vir ginia. is a likeable liberal who has so far failed to pull him self together and put a firm end to its Pat McCarran era. The late Senator McCarran ran Judiciary with a high hand, punishing his foes and helping his friends as he saw fit. This situation was not materially changed during the fii-st two Eisenhower years when G. O. P. Senator Langer was chairman and Senator Jenner headed the Internal Security Subcommittee. Senators Langer and Jenner kept the McCarran stafl. Sen ator Kilgore had intended to change all that, but since he cannot make up his mind on all subcommittees, he has not been able to settle the staff problems. Mr. Harlan has been caught In this general postponement of anything important or con troversial. There is no real reason for putting off the first hearing on his nomination to February 24; the Republican Dorothy Thompson — Chou Inviting a General War Disposition of Formosa Is Not an 'lnternal Matter'; Red Ultimatum Is Either Hypocrisy or Stupidity The government of the Chi nese People's Republic, sup ported by the Soviet Union, claims that the former Japa nese island of Formosa belongs to China: that its avowed in tention to recover this terri . tory from the counter-revolu tionary leader, Chiang Kai shek, Is a purely internal Chi nese matter; and that any at tempt by American armed forces to prevent the Peiping government from taking the islands would be an act of ag gression. The Peiping government therefore demands as the price of peace that the United States abandon Foimosa and the Pes cadores, and withdraw the 7th Fleet, presently policing the straits. The political status of For mosa and the Pescadores is unsettled. They are governed by the Chinese Republic headed by Chiang Kai-shek, which is seated in the United Nations, claims to be the sole legal government of China, and has, in the past, made re peated declarations of inten tion to "liberate” the whole of China from Peiping, supported in this aim by a section of opinion in the United States Congress. Had the American sup porters of Chiang's ambitions prevailed with the President, with whom rests the decisive responsibility, the claim that the Chiang government and army stationed on Formosa constitute a serious armed threat to the rest of China would be an argument of sub stance But such is not the position taken by President Eisenhower. Without all-out American mili tary support for the recon quest of China. Chiang could not conceivably attempt, let alone realize, such an aim, as i visions is that Communist ag gression in Southeast Asia will be resisted. Ratification of the treaty is in itself another warning that the principle of collective security will be ap plied if the aggressor strikes. The fact that the United States is among the first to ratify will have a favorable effect on the other countries. Both New Zealand and Aus tralia are naturally desirous of lining up American potential help, as they recall how power less they were when the Jap anese swooped down on them in 1942. As for Pakistan and Thailand, they are closer to Communist China geographi cally and are not so easily de fended by seapower as are New Zealand. Australia and the Philippines. Bat the signing of the treaty seals the friend ship of America and the other nations with both Pakistan and Thailand. In a sense, this draws a longer line against Communist aggression, of which both Peiping and Mos cow are bound to take notice. While the Southeast Asia' Treaty Organization, usually called SEATO, is somewhat different from the North At lantic Treaty Organization, known as NATO, the principle of collective security is em bedded in each. Incidentally, there are some academic per sons now writing letters to the newspapers declaring that no nation can take a unilateral step while it is a member of the United Nations and that hence the recent resolution passed by Congress should not have been adopted without first getting the approval of all the members of the U. N. But this wasn't the case with the North Atlantic Treaty Or vacation to laud Lincoln is merely a convenient excuse. It is true that some South erners think it is rather rub bing it in to send to the court now the grandson of the as sociate justice who said “the Constitution is color blind.” The blame for delay is chiefly put on a real Dixiecrat. Sena tor Eastland of Mississippi, but he could not by himself hold it up. More responsible Southern ers—George and Russell of Georgia and Majority Leader Johnson and his whip. Clem ents of Kentucky—must share the blame. The truth is they are playing a game of then own on Judiciary and they don't want to endanger their victory by annoying any mem ber who would be on their side. What they don't want is to see Senator Kefauver head of the Anti-Monopoly Subcom mittee which is bound for the headlines and the magic lan terns. The other Southerners complain Senator Kefauver won’t work except on investi gations and there is merit to their rationalizations. But they have never quite gotten over the ease with which he parlayed the Crime Committee hearings into an effective bid for the presidency. Their nightmare is he might do even better next time. Peiping and Moscow very well know The President and Congress have drawn a line speciricaliy restraining us and Chiang to the defense of the two islands, leaving their future status and disposition to be determined. From any further commit ments we would be curbed not only by the pressure of opinion here but by the certainty of receiving no support whatso ever from any of our allies, or from any neutrals. In such a situation the ques tion of claims and counter claims, and of who is and who is not the "aggressor.” falls into a very minor place. The Chinese People's Republic has, in fact, delivered an ultimatum to the United States, and a demand for unconditional sur render. If a nation or a great power issues such an ultima tum to another great power, and refuses to negotiate, it is simply declaring its readiness to unleash a general war. Therefore, to continue to say. as Chou En-lai does, that the disposition of Formosa is “a purely internal matter” is irresponsible. For whether, in Chou's opinion, it ought to be, it obviously, in reality, is-not. It is a matter involving the great powers, as matters, mi nor if isolated by themselves, have often before involved great powers in mortal com bat. Hitler also claimed that his intention to “unify all Ger mans within one Reich,” and, for that purpose to break up small neighboring states, was a purely Internal German matter, and that any power that intervened was an "ag ressor.” But the disposition of East ern Europe was obviously not an Internal German matter. Beyond the states Immediately concerned Czechoslovakia and Poland—the security and A*. ganization and. indeed. Article 51 of the United Nations Char ter specifically provides for the right of individual members to adopt measures for their own defense. To say that the United States cannot defend Itself without asking permission of the United Nations or that it cannot defend its own vital in terests in the Far Pacific with out the consent of the United Nations is to assume the exist ence already of a world gov ernment in which ihdividual nations have ' yielded their sovereignty. The spread of such concepts does much harm to the true purposes and op portunities of the United Na tions as a mediator for peace among independent countries. While there is no direct con nection between the defense of Formosa and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, it can be said that the new treaty is supplementary to the de fense of Formosa, which al ready is an integral part of the Western defense line that the United States considers im portant to the defense of the Philippines. What is happening in the world is that the United Na tions, which has not been able to function as the world's po liceman, is performing other duties in the realm of concili ation. But the big tasks of ac tual military defense as a de terrent to aggression have been taken over by a group of me nations which, in both South east Asia and in Europe, are pledged to consult each other about how best to fulfill thru commitment to resist Commu nist aggression (Reproduction Risbts Reserved.) They have other ideas about the presidency and so far Sen ator Kilgore has been co operating. His first thought was he might pay courtesy tribute to Senator Langer and i let him carry on the hearings. Senator Langer began last year with the Dixon-Yates contract as a take-off. But Senator Wiley, not Senator Langer. is now ranking Re publican, so that is out. Senator Kilgore has indi cated he might take the Anti- Monopoly Subcommittee him self. It is obviously too de manding a job for the chair man of the packhorse com mittee of the Senate. Besides, Democrats are depending on the hearings to develop the give-away issue for a presiden tial campaign in 1956 for which good issues for them are in conspicuously short supply. It is not helpful to the Su preme Court to have its nomi nees so cavalierly tossed in the path of political steamrollers. Besides, the court has an im mense load of work for which they need the ninth justice. Possibly the Southerners de rive some satisfaction from de laying the court in its imple mentation of its decision de claring segregation unconsti tutional. But it can .only be a delaying action at best and it could make tempers rise elsewhere with harmful effect. interests of Russia and France were at stake. Involved were treaties and commitments. And Hitler’s determination to be sole judge of Germany's “rights” and "interests” there fore unleased a devastating world war. Any Chinese government has the right of assurance that* Formosa will not be a springboard for armed attack on the mainland. But China, whatever the color of its flag, is not the sole Pacific power, nor are its interests or its security the only ones. And any government in the world as it is today that insists on having its own way in such 1 a situation is inviting general j war. What another great war I would mean to humanity on this planet infinitely tran scends the arguments and con sideration of Chou En-lai. The talk of "easing interna- j tional tensions” while de- j manding the unconditional ■ surrender of a leading world power is either hypocrisy, vainglory, or stupidity. Mightiest Turbo-Jet Engine Is Tested By the Associated Press BRISTOL, England, Feb. 2. A new turbo-iet engine billed as I the world’s mightiest went through its first public paces here yesterday. Capable of 11.000 pounds thrust, it is more power- : ful than seven locomotives. The engine, known as the | Olympus 101, is being built by the Bristol Aircraft Co. for both military and civilian planes. . . Thai to Join Conference BANGKOK, Feb. 2 UP).— The j Thai government today decided to send a 12-man participating delegation to the 30-nation Afro-Asian Conference opening i in Bandung, Indonesia, April 18.1 * i LOUIE —By Harry Hanan Tj WATCH YOUR Cn JW ttm rwww. tut (SSil H (MMIKiN rsjrSTT' * I *j Fletcher Knebel — Potomac Fever Ike. briefs his Republican leaders on the Formosa crisis. Things look so bad they may have to cut the armed forces again. » * * * Arthur Burns, White House economic adviser, warns busi ness against “over-confidence." Yeah, if times get much better, some people may get the idea they can afford the Democrats again. * * * * A Russian general warns that the United States would be the battleground in an atomic war. Point of order 1 It’s Red China’s turn to scare us this week. * * » * - - Oklahoma Republicans urge Ike and Nixon to run again. Vice President Nixon appreciates the compliment. He didn't know anybody thought he had to be urged. * * * * Recruiting offices are jammed as boys beat the deadline on war-time veterans’ benefits. One recruit claims he already has fought for his country—he almost got killed in the rush for a free education. * * * * Senator Williams reveals a $72,000 shortage in a United States Consulate in Pakistan. What with these bottlenecks in the distribution system, it’s getting harder and harder to give money away to foreigners. *** * . The Senate Judiciary Committee votes to increase Con gressmen's salaries to $22,500. The idea is to put Congressmen in a higher tax bracket—so they’ll be more careful about spend ing our money. Vorys More Hopeful On Viet Nam Future After Collins' Report By the Associated Press Representative Vorys, Repub lican. of Ohio said today a report 1 from Gen. J. Lawton Collins gave him “courage and high hope" , that Southern Viet Nam can be saved from communism. But, Mr. Vorys added in an interview, the administration will have to give Congress “much more explanation” before getting increased foreign aid funds to help Viet Naita and the rest of j Asia. Gen. Collins told newsmen yesterday there is “at least a 50-50 chance” of saving Viet Nam if American economic and military aid is continued, i Briefs House Committee. I Gen. Collins, former Army i Chief of Staff who is serving as President Eisenhower's special Ambassador to the Asian coun try. briefed the House Foreign Affairs Committee secretly for j two hours yesterday. ; Mr. Vorys and Chairman Rich | ards both said they were “great ly encouraged" by the general s : report. Mr. Richards, South Carolina Democrat, declined to predict ! whether the committee would vote increased funds for Viet Nam. Gen. Collins said continued American assistance is essential |to help Viet Nam adding: "In ! view of the stakes, the gamble jis worth it.” Hold First Conference. | It's aim: To dispel any ! American pessimism over the future of Viet Nam Premier Ngo Dinh Diem's struggle against Communist encroachment in In do-China. The Ambassador said "Ameri can aid is the tonic which will make the Viet Nam patient well.” | But he called for “stronger j doses." The Ambassador said Premier Diem has brought about a “mi- I raculous revolution” in Viet Nam —“the so called shaky Premier turns out to be . . . Hercules I cleaning the Augean stables. .. Collie Saves Life Os Maryland Man Attacked by Bull By th« Aiiociafad Prtu ROHRERSVILLE, Md , Feb. 2. —Bozo, a 3-year-old collie owned ! by Frank L. Beard, rushed to the defense of his 57-year-old rnas ter • when the farmer was at ! tacked by a bull yesterday. The bull had knocked Mr. i Beard down and was pawing him when Bozo, nipping at the bull s legs «nd head, distracted him long enough for Mr. Beard to crawl to safety. Mr. Beard was treated for a leg injury, cute, and multiple bruises. Bozo was unhurt. GENERATOR ft FRONT END SPECIAL Limited Time Only Generators as $0.45 Exchanged ” Also Starters. Regulators Repaired & Exchanged Etc. Front Wheels ftift .45 Aligned 'teentrte trpti a fit titj l ’* AKE STEERING fir ELECTRICAL SERVICE l##9 M 91 N.fft ST. I NM AM %fd Aft S.W ME R M 32 ml nth end Independence Ace Japanese Chemists Find Wood Is Sweet By the Associated Press TOKYO. Japanese chemists have perfected a method of ex tracting grape sugar from lum ber as a by-product in the manu facture of pulp. The announcement is con tained in a report of chemists attached to the Asahigawa For-; estry Guidance Section on the northern island of Hokkaido They say they now have a pilot plant in operation. The grape sugar is not as sweet as ordinary sugar, but is in de mand as a medicinal nutrient. Todd's WAREHOUSE 25th and H Streets N.W. Open Thursday, 9 to 9 DOWNTOWN 1008 F STREET N.W. DI. 7-3251 Open Thursday, 9to 9 Famous COLUMBIA 3-Speed Phonograph Plays All Sizes and All Speed Records Reg. j I - 88 ] Yes, .it’s famous Columbia at a low savings price at Todd's. Phonograph comes completely equipped with permanent needle, volume and tone control... features you’d expect to pay much more for. Less than wholesale cost! For Your Sweetheart, Wife or Mother, For Your Dad, Boss or Brother, Sentimental or Fun, We Have Cards for Everyone. Cut-nut designs for children to moke their own fy(m. fflaflan/t/M Books • Greeting Cards • Stationery 1421 F Street N.W. REpublic 7-3646 THURSDAY HOURS: 11:10 A M. ta I PM. Constantine Brown — Will Reds Talk Way to Victory? .Communist Emissary Will Be in Role of Loquacious Prosecutor Before U. N.—With U. S. as Defendant Unless outward signs are deceiving, we are in for a long siege of palavers, attacks and counterattacks in the United Nations Security Council, where Moscow's demand that the United States become a defendant was accepted Mon day by all except Nationalist Chirfa. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge agreed, on instructions from Washington, to the So viet demand to put on the agenda the accusation that America is guilty of an act of aggression against the Chinese People’s Republic by Its “oc cupation of Formosa.” Twice since 1950 the Com munists have made such charges against us and twice they have been rejected as un founded by the Security Coun cil or the Assembly. The first time was in November. 1950, soon after the first Chinese "volunteers” entered the Ko rean fighting. The Peiping Communists, supported by their Moscow brethren, ac cused us of intervening in China’s affairs by our "occu pation” of Formosa. We agreed that they be invited to present their accusations to the inter national tribunal. Gen. Wu appeared, refused to discuss China's intervention in the Korean war, heaped insults on this country and finally left New York with 26 large trunks full of feminine finery, perfumes and clothing. His accusations were found base- , less by the overwhelming ma- j jority of the Security Council. But Gen. Wu appears to have learned something about the future strategy of the U. N. i in Korea and the fact that the Yalu sanctuary would remain immune from attack by the American Air Force and so would the bridges across that river. Soon after Wu's return to China, Peiping ordered the “volunteers” to enter North Korea in division strength in stead of in battalions as they had been sent earlier. Last December the Russians renewed the charges that America occupied Formosa un lawfully. The matter was brought up in the Assembly j jLtdn TRANSFER & STORAGE CO 460 New York Ave N W NA I 1070 LOCAL HAULING OUR SPECIALTY THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. WEDNESDAY. FEMUABT ». IMS and was defeated again over whelmingly. What purpose can be served by the Soviet demand to bring the same charges against us again ' within months after they were rejected? The an swer seems to be simply that Communist China does not wish to appear before the Se curity Council as a defendant. This would hurt Mao Tse tung’s and Chou En-lai’s feel ings, to say nothing of their prestige in the Asiatic world. ♦ They indicated to the Indians, Russians and also to Dag Hammarskjold on his visit to Peiping that they would not mind appearing in the role of prosecutors. Thus, in order to get the aggressors to come to New York, we agreed to play along and accept the maneuver proposed by the Soviet rep resentative. The betting at the U. N. is that a bevy of Peiping dele gates will come to New York to present charges of “Yankee aggression in the China Sea.” Thus we may look forward to long and warmed-over ar guments by the Communist orators. The men in the Kremlin and in Peiping regard us as hope less ideologists and not realists in international and domestic matters. There is no question that they were surprised by the outburst of popular feeling which led the administration to ask and obtain Congress' overwhelming approval of shooting if necessary to repel =] Co-operative Apartment Units We have many calls for this type of residence. If yours is for sale, we can obtain a favorable contract. H. G. Smithy Company *■l IStb St. N.W ST. 3-3300 Mortgage Representatives—Travelers Insurance Co. FROPEXTT MANAGEMENT—SALES—LOANS—INSURANCE | *~*—**—“*— ——— I j |r i J THURSDAY HOURS, 9 A.M. Us 9 P.M. g 1 . » S Unusual Reductions * On Selected Items From «ft a : ft p Our Regular Stocks fX * s I Season-End f I ' \ | Clearance | I Sale I § * | MEN'S. SUITS sllO Sidney West Suits SBB ft $95 Sidney West Suits $76 ifa S7B Westyle Suits $66 S6B Westyle Suits $56 ft 4 : ft § TOPCOATS $195 Cashmere Outercoats $139 | $95 Sidney West Topcoats $76 <ft ij: SBS English Raglan Topcoats ..S6B .<ft S7B Westyle Topcoats $64 ft! 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They undoubtedly feel that Wash ington’s recent firm stand arises from a temporary emo tional wave which will subside under a flood of oratory at the United Nations palace In New York. It is likely that the Com munists believe that a dally diet of threats, Immovable de termination and a word pic ture of the horrors of war will cause the American people to think the situation over and decide that a compromise is worth-while to avoid an armed clash and its discomforts. The Chinese Communists can be “magnanimous” at the 11th hour. They can accept the off shore islands and a seat In the U. N. And they can prom ise or'y peaceful intentions toward Formosa without giv ing up their contention that it is part and parcel of their empire. Peiping already has the blessings of all our Western European allies and India for such a prescription. But the pill must be coated lest the American people refuse to swallow it. And the coating may be represented by long oratory —sometimes dull and sometimes threatening—by the representatives in the Security Council.