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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 02, 1955, Image 19

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David Lawrence —
Collective Security for Asia
Ratification of SEATO Treaty Will Have an Impact
Far Greater Overseas Than Inside This Country
Again the United State Sen
ate has given a stimulating
impetus to United States lead
ership in the world—this time
by ratifying by an 82-to-l vote
the new treaty which calls
for the establishment of the
Southeast Asia Treaty Organ
ization.
Just as the Senate and House
by overwhelming vote only a
few days ago gave a dramatic
demonstration of American
unity and firmness in passing
the resolution to defend For
mosa. so the action which lines
up the United States behind
the defense of Southeast Asia
as a whole will have an impact
far greater overseas than in
side this country.
The new treaty commits the
United States to an immediate
consultation with seven other
nations—Australia, New Zea
land. Great Britain, France,
Thailand. Pakistan and the
Philippines whenever there
is an attack on any of the
Southeast Asia countries
named. Even when there is
no military action by the en
emy but a conspiracy to ac
quire control of the countries
in the area by subversion,
there is an obligation on the
part of the signers of the
treaty to get together and de
termine what is best to do in
the circumstances.
The treaty reserves to each
government that signs it the
right to take action only in
conformity with its own "con
stitutional processes,” which
means that Congress alone can
declare war or ratify steps
taken in an emergency
amounting to war.
The moral obligation, how
ever, is clear. The plain im
plication of the treaty’s pro
Doris Fleeson —
Politics Delays Harlan Action
Private Animosities and Shiftless Practices Blamed
For Senate Judiciary's Failure to Act on Justice
Some of President Eisen
hower’s unconfirmed ap
pointees may never take the
oath of office, but his choice
for Associate Justice of the Su
preme Court. John Marshall
Harlan, is merely bogged down
in the private animosities and
shiftless practices of the Sen
ate Judiciary Committee.
The committee's chairman.
Senator Kilgore of West Vir
ginia. is a likeable liberal who
has so far failed to pull him
self together and put a firm
end to its Pat McCarran era.
The late Senator McCarran
ran Judiciary with a high
hand, punishing his foes and
helping his friends as he saw
fit. This situation was not
materially changed during the
fii-st two Eisenhower years
when G. O. P. Senator Langer
was chairman and Senator
Jenner headed the Internal
Security Subcommittee.
Senators Langer and Jenner
kept the McCarran stafl. Sen
ator Kilgore had intended to
change all that, but since he
cannot make up his mind on
all subcommittees, he has not
been able to settle the staff
problems.
Mr. Harlan has been caught
In this general postponement
of anything important or con
troversial. There is no real
reason for putting off the first
hearing on his nomination to
February 24; the Republican
Dorothy Thompson —
Chou Inviting a General War
Disposition of Formosa Is Not an 'lnternal Matter';
Red Ultimatum Is Either Hypocrisy or Stupidity
The government of the Chi
nese People's Republic, sup
ported by the Soviet Union,
claims that the former Japa
nese island of Formosa belongs
to China: that its avowed in
tention to recover this terri
. tory from the counter-revolu
tionary leader, Chiang Kai
shek, Is a purely internal Chi
nese matter; and that any at
tempt by American armed
forces to prevent the Peiping
government from taking the
islands would be an act of ag
gression.
The Peiping government
therefore demands as the price
of peace that the United States
abandon Foimosa and the Pes
cadores, and withdraw the 7th
Fleet, presently policing the
straits.
The political status of For
mosa and the Pescadores is
unsettled. They are governed
by the Chinese Republic
headed by Chiang Kai-shek,
which is seated in the United
Nations, claims to be the sole
legal government of China,
and has, in the past, made re
peated declarations of inten
tion to "liberate” the whole of
China from Peiping, supported
in this aim by a section of
opinion in the United States
Congress.
Had the American sup
porters of Chiang's ambitions
prevailed with the President,
with whom rests the decisive
responsibility, the claim that
the Chiang government and
army stationed on Formosa
constitute a serious armed
threat to the rest of China
would be an argument of sub
stance
But such is not the position
taken by President Eisenhower.
Without all-out American mili
tary support for the recon
quest of China. Chiang could
not conceivably attempt, let
alone realize, such an aim, as
i
visions is that Communist ag
gression in Southeast Asia will
be resisted. Ratification of
the treaty is in itself another
warning that the principle of
collective security will be ap
plied if the aggressor strikes.
The fact that the United
States is among the first to
ratify will have a favorable
effect on the other countries.
Both New Zealand and Aus
tralia are naturally desirous of
lining up American potential
help, as they recall how power
less they were when the Jap
anese swooped down on them
in 1942. As for Pakistan and
Thailand, they are closer to
Communist China geographi
cally and are not so easily de
fended by seapower as are New
Zealand. Australia and the
Philippines. Bat the signing
of the treaty seals the friend
ship of America and the other
nations with both Pakistan
and Thailand. In a sense, this
draws a longer line against
Communist aggression, of
which both Peiping and Mos
cow are bound to take notice.
While the Southeast Asia'
Treaty Organization, usually
called SEATO, is somewhat
different from the North At
lantic Treaty Organization,
known as NATO, the principle
of collective security is em
bedded in each. Incidentally,
there are some academic per
sons now writing letters to the
newspapers declaring that no
nation can take a unilateral
step while it is a member of
the United Nations and that
hence the recent resolution
passed by Congress should not
have been adopted without
first getting the approval of
all the members of the U. N.
But this wasn't the case with
the North Atlantic Treaty Or
vacation to laud Lincoln is
merely a convenient excuse.
It is true that some South
erners think it is rather rub
bing it in to send to the court
now the grandson of the as
sociate justice who said “the
Constitution is color blind.”
The blame for delay is chiefly
put on a real Dixiecrat. Sena
tor Eastland of Mississippi,
but he could not by himself
hold it up.
More responsible Southern
ers—George and Russell of
Georgia and Majority Leader
Johnson and his whip. Clem
ents of Kentucky—must share
the blame. The truth is they
are playing a game of then
own on Judiciary and they
don't want to endanger their
victory by annoying any mem
ber who would be on their
side.
What they don't want is to
see Senator Kefauver head of
the Anti-Monopoly Subcom
mittee which is bound for the
headlines and the magic lan
terns. The other Southerners
complain Senator Kefauver
won’t work except on investi
gations and there is merit to
their rationalizations. But
they have never quite gotten
over the ease with which he
parlayed the Crime Committee
hearings into an effective bid
for the presidency. Their
nightmare is he might do even
better next time.
Peiping and Moscow very well
know
The President and Congress
have drawn a line speciricaliy
restraining us and Chiang to
the defense of the two islands,
leaving their future status and
disposition to be determined.
From any further commit
ments we would be curbed not
only by the pressure of opinion
here but by the certainty of
receiving no support whatso
ever from any of our allies, or
from any neutrals.
In such a situation the ques
tion of claims and counter
claims, and of who is and who
is not the "aggressor.” falls
into a very minor place. The
Chinese People's Republic has,
in fact, delivered an ultimatum
to the United States, and a
demand for unconditional sur
render. If a nation or a great
power issues such an ultima
tum to another great power,
and refuses to negotiate, it is
simply declaring its readiness
to unleash a general war.
Therefore, to continue to
say. as Chou En-lai does, that
the disposition of Formosa is
“a purely internal matter” is
irresponsible. For whether, in
Chou's opinion, it ought to be,
it obviously, in reality, is-not.
It is a matter involving the
great powers, as matters, mi
nor if isolated by themselves,
have often before involved
great powers in mortal com
bat.
Hitler also claimed that his
intention to “unify all Ger
mans within one Reich,” and,
for that purpose to break up
small neighboring states, was
a purely Internal German
matter, and that any power
that intervened was an "ag
ressor.”
But the disposition of East
ern Europe was obviously not
an Internal German matter.
Beyond the states Immediately
concerned Czechoslovakia
and Poland—the security and
A*.
ganization and. indeed. Article
51 of the United Nations Char
ter specifically provides for the
right of individual members to
adopt measures for their own
defense.
To say that the United
States cannot defend Itself
without asking permission of
the United Nations or that it
cannot defend its own vital in
terests in the Far Pacific with
out the consent of the United
Nations is to assume the exist
ence already of a world gov
ernment in which ihdividual
nations have ' yielded their
sovereignty. The spread of
such concepts does much harm
to the true purposes and op
portunities of the United Na
tions as a mediator for peace
among independent countries.
While there is no direct con
nection between the defense
of Formosa and the Southeast
Asia Treaty Organization, it
can be said that the new treaty
is supplementary to the de
fense of Formosa, which al
ready is an integral part of
the Western defense line that
the United States considers im
portant to the defense of the
Philippines.
What is happening in the
world is that the United Na
tions, which has not been able
to function as the world's po
liceman, is performing other
duties in the realm of concili
ation. But the big tasks of ac
tual military defense as a de
terrent to aggression have been
taken over by a group of me
nations which, in both South
east Asia and in Europe, are
pledged to consult each other
about how best to fulfill thru
commitment to resist Commu
nist aggression
(Reproduction Risbts Reserved.)
They have other ideas about
the presidency and so far Sen
ator Kilgore has been co
operating. His first thought
was he might pay courtesy
tribute to Senator Langer and
i let him carry on the hearings.
Senator Langer began last
year with the Dixon-Yates
contract as a take-off. But
Senator Wiley, not Senator
Langer. is now ranking Re
publican, so that is out.
Senator Kilgore has indi
cated he might take the Anti-
Monopoly Subcommittee him
self. It is obviously too de
manding a job for the chair
man of the packhorse com
mittee of the Senate. Besides,
Democrats are depending on
the hearings to develop the
give-away issue for a presiden
tial campaign in 1956 for
which good issues for them are
in conspicuously short supply.
It is not helpful to the Su
preme Court to have its nomi
nees so cavalierly tossed in the
path of political steamrollers.
Besides, the court has an im
mense load of work for which
they need the ninth justice.
Possibly the Southerners de
rive some satisfaction from de
laying the court in its imple
mentation of its decision de
claring segregation unconsti
tutional. But it can .only be
a delaying action at best and
it could make tempers rise
elsewhere with harmful effect.
interests of Russia and France
were at stake. Involved were
treaties and commitments. And
Hitler’s determination to be
sole judge of Germany's
“rights” and "interests” there
fore unleased a devastating
world war.
Any Chinese government
has the right of assurance
that* Formosa will not be a
springboard for armed attack
on the mainland. But China,
whatever the color of its flag,
is not the sole Pacific power,
nor are its interests or its
security the only ones. And
any government in the world
as it is today that insists on
having its own way in such 1
a situation is inviting general j
war.
What another great war I
would mean to humanity on
this planet infinitely tran
scends the arguments and con
sideration of Chou En-lai.
The talk of "easing interna- j
tional tensions” while de- j
manding the unconditional ■
surrender of a leading world
power is either hypocrisy,
vainglory, or stupidity.
Mightiest Turbo-Jet
Engine Is Tested
By the Associated Press
BRISTOL, England, Feb. 2.
A new turbo-iet engine billed as
I the world’s mightiest went
through its first public paces here
yesterday. Capable of 11.000
pounds thrust, it is more power- :
ful than seven locomotives.
The engine, known as the |
Olympus 101, is being built by
the Bristol Aircraft Co. for both
military and civilian planes.
. .
Thai to Join Conference
BANGKOK, Feb. 2 UP).— The j
Thai government today decided
to send a 12-man participating
delegation to the 30-nation
Afro-Asian Conference opening
i in Bandung, Indonesia, April 18.1
* i
LOUIE —By Harry Hanan
Tj WATCH YOUR
Cn JW ttm rwww. tut (SSil H (MMIKiN rsjrSTT' * I *j
Fletcher Knebel —
Potomac Fever
Ike. briefs his Republican leaders on the Formosa crisis.
Things look so bad they may have to cut the armed forces
again.
» * * *
Arthur Burns, White House economic adviser, warns busi
ness against “over-confidence." Yeah, if times get much better,
some people may get the idea they can afford the Democrats
again.
* * * *
A Russian general warns that the United States would be
the battleground in an atomic war. Point of order 1 It’s Red
China’s turn to scare us this week.
* * » * - -
Oklahoma Republicans urge Ike and Nixon to run again.
Vice President Nixon appreciates the compliment. He didn't
know anybody thought he had to be urged.
* * * *
Recruiting offices are jammed as boys beat the deadline on
war-time veterans’ benefits. One recruit claims he already has
fought for his country—he almost got killed in the rush for a
free education.
* * * *
Senator Williams reveals a $72,000 shortage in a United
States Consulate in Pakistan. What with these bottlenecks in
the distribution system, it’s getting harder and harder to give
money away to foreigners.
*** * .
The Senate Judiciary Committee votes to increase Con
gressmen's salaries to $22,500. The idea is to put Congressmen
in a higher tax bracket—so they’ll be more careful about spend
ing our money.
Vorys More Hopeful
On Viet Nam Future
After Collins' Report
By the Associated Press
Representative Vorys, Repub
lican. of Ohio said today a report
1 from Gen. J. Lawton Collins gave
him “courage and high hope"
, that Southern Viet Nam can be
saved from communism.
But, Mr. Vorys added in an
interview, the administration will
have to give Congress “much
more explanation” before getting
increased foreign aid funds to
help Viet Naita and the rest of
j Asia.
Gen. Collins told newsmen
yesterday there is “at least a
50-50 chance” of saving Viet
Nam if American economic and
military aid is continued,
i Briefs House Committee.
I Gen. Collins, former Army
i Chief of Staff who is serving as
President Eisenhower's special
Ambassador to the Asian coun
try. briefed the House Foreign
Affairs Committee secretly for
j two hours yesterday.
; Mr. Vorys and Chairman Rich
| ards both said they were “great
ly encouraged" by the general s
: report.
Mr. Richards, South Carolina
Democrat, declined to predict
! whether the committee would
vote increased funds for Viet
Nam.
Gen. Collins said continued
American assistance is essential
|to help Viet Nam adding: "In
! view of the stakes, the gamble
jis worth it.”
Hold First Conference.
| It's aim: To dispel any
! American pessimism over the
future of Viet Nam Premier Ngo
Dinh Diem's struggle against
Communist encroachment in In
do-China.
The Ambassador said "Ameri
can aid is the tonic which will
make the Viet Nam patient well.”
| But he called for “stronger
j doses."
The Ambassador said Premier
Diem has brought about a “mi-
I raculous revolution” in Viet Nam
—“the so called shaky Premier
turns out to be . . . Hercules
I cleaning the Augean stables. ..
Collie Saves Life
Os Maryland Man
Attacked by Bull
By th« Aiiociafad Prtu
ROHRERSVILLE, Md , Feb. 2.
—Bozo, a 3-year-old collie owned
! by Frank L. Beard, rushed to the
defense of his 57-year-old rnas
ter • when the farmer was at
! tacked by a bull yesterday.
The bull had knocked Mr.
i Beard down and was pawing him
when Bozo, nipping at the bull s
legs «nd head, distracted him
long enough for Mr. Beard to
crawl to safety.
Mr. Beard was treated for a
leg injury, cute, and multiple
bruises. Bozo was unhurt.
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Japanese Chemists
Find Wood Is Sweet
By the Associated Press
TOKYO. Japanese chemists
have perfected a method of ex
tracting grape sugar from lum
ber as a by-product in the manu
facture of pulp.
The announcement is con
tained in a report of chemists
attached to the Asahigawa For-;
estry Guidance Section on the
northern island of Hokkaido
They say they now have a pilot
plant in operation.
The grape sugar is not as sweet
as ordinary sugar, but is in de
mand as a medicinal nutrient.
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Constantine Brown —
Will Reds Talk Way to Victory?
.Communist Emissary Will Be in Role of Loquacious
Prosecutor Before U. N.—With U. S. as Defendant
Unless outward signs are
deceiving, we are in for a long
siege of palavers, attacks and
counterattacks in the United
Nations Security Council,
where Moscow's demand that
the United States become a
defendant was accepted Mon
day by all except Nationalist
Chirfa.
Ambassador Henry Cabot
Lodge agreed, on instructions
from Washington, to the So
viet demand to put on the
agenda the accusation that
America is guilty of an act of
aggression against the Chinese
People’s Republic by Its “oc
cupation of Formosa.”
Twice since 1950 the Com
munists have made such
charges against us and twice
they have been rejected as un
founded by the Security Coun
cil or the Assembly. The first
time was in November. 1950,
soon after the first Chinese
"volunteers” entered the Ko
rean fighting. The Peiping
Communists, supported by
their Moscow brethren, ac
cused us of intervening in
China’s affairs by our "occu
pation” of Formosa. We agreed
that they be invited to present
their accusations to the inter
national tribunal. Gen. Wu
appeared, refused to discuss
China's intervention in the
Korean war, heaped insults
on this country and finally
left New York with 26 large
trunks full of feminine finery,
perfumes and clothing. His
accusations were found base- ,
less by the overwhelming ma- j
jority of the Security Council.
But Gen. Wu appears to
have learned something about
the future strategy of the U. N. i
in Korea and the fact that the
Yalu sanctuary would remain
immune from attack by the
American Air Force and so
would the bridges across that
river.
Soon after Wu's return to
China, Peiping ordered the
“volunteers” to enter North
Korea in division strength in
stead of in battalions as they
had been sent earlier.
Last December the Russians
renewed the charges that
America occupied Formosa un
lawfully. The matter was
brought up in the Assembly j
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and was defeated again over
whelmingly.
What purpose can be served
by the Soviet demand to bring
the same charges against us
again ' within months after
they were rejected? The an
swer seems to be simply that
Communist China does not
wish to appear before the Se
curity Council as a defendant.
This would hurt Mao Tse
tung’s and Chou En-lai’s feel
ings, to say nothing of their
prestige in the Asiatic world.
♦ They indicated to the Indians,
Russians and also to Dag
Hammarskjold on his visit to
Peiping that they would not
mind appearing in the role of
prosecutors. Thus, in order to
get the aggressors to come to
New York, we agreed to play
along and accept the maneuver
proposed by the Soviet rep
resentative.
The betting at the U. N. is
that a bevy of Peiping dele
gates will come to New York
to present charges of “Yankee
aggression in the China Sea.”
Thus we may look forward to
long and warmed-over ar
guments by the Communist
orators.
The men in the Kremlin and
in Peiping regard us as hope
less ideologists and not realists
in international and domestic
matters. There is no question
that they were surprised by the
outburst of popular feeling
which led the administration
to ask and obtain Congress'
overwhelming approval of
shooting if necessary to repel
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** A-19
intruders from Formosan
waters.
The Communists learned
after the war that the Ameri
can people were long-suffering
and answered insults and ag
gression with kind deeds. They
undoubtedly feel that Wash
ington’s recent firm stand
arises from a temporary emo
tional wave which will subside
under a flood of oratory at the
United Nations palace In New
York.
It is likely that the Com
munists believe that a dally
diet of threats, Immovable de
termination and a word pic
ture of the horrors of war will
cause the American people to
think the situation over and
decide that a compromise is
worth-while to avoid an armed
clash and its discomforts. The
Chinese Communists can be
“magnanimous” at the 11th
hour. They can accept the off
shore islands and a seat In
the U. N. And they can prom
ise or'y peaceful intentions
toward Formosa without giv
ing up their contention that it
is part and parcel of their
empire.
Peiping already has the
blessings of all our Western
European allies and India for
such a prescription. But the
pill must be coated lest the
American people refuse to
swallow it. And the coating
may be represented by long
oratory —sometimes dull and
sometimes threatening—by the
representatives in the Security
Council.

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