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David Lawrence —
Internal Weakness in Russia Food Crisis Could Drive Politburo to War in Effort To Divert Populace From a Growing Problem Internal trouble In Soviet Russia rather than external policy is back of the forced resignation of Premier Malen kov. Every bit of evidence for many weeks has pointed that way. The news was not a surprise to any of the persons in this country who constantly study the trends inside Soviet Rus sia. The question has not been whether the Malenkov regime could last, but how soon it would be terminated from within. The picture presented to the world is not that of a parlia ment or an electorate chang ing rulers but the secret ma neuvers of a little clique of men who name a new dictator from their own number. The sorry spectacle of a deposed premier proclaiming submissively, at the behest of a clique, that he has been guilty of inefficiency is one that could happen only in an oligarchy, where the people are not permitted to express themselves and where death faces the top man if he doesn’t do the bidding of the group. Will it mean peace or war? This question cannot be an swered even by the coterie of men who call themselves rulers in Moscow. For the fact is that Soviet Russia isn’t pro ducing enough food for her growing population and the men in command know their* tenure will be short-lived un less the food crisis is solved. In desperation—and in an ef fort to consolidate the people by arousing their patriotism— there could be a move made that would threaten world peace. But experience has shown that during World War I when the army really got concerned about internal af fairs and a revolution occurred, a separate peace with the enemy was made despite all the patriotic appeals. # Doris Fleeson — Federal School Aid Limited Program Asks Millions, but Billions Are Needed; Can President See Its Emergency Proportions? President Eisenhower’s school aid program does not represent a serious attempt to deal with the national emergency in ed ucation. It is little more than a letter of condolence to the localities and school authori ties which are struggling against an enormous and growing shortage of class rooms. The President's own Com missioner of Education. Sam uel Brownell, has placed the current need at 370,000 class rooms. Federal cost estimates indicate that the job well done would cost more than sl2 billion. The President has suggested only S2OO million in direct aid for three years, which is about $65 million a year. Even if all went well and exactly as planned, it would build only a few thousand of the missing classrooms. School authorities are equally skeptical about the proposed plans to help school districts and States. Twenty States are said to have consti tutional debt limits which will prevent any new borrowing. In both Maine and Wisconsin, the Dorothy Thompson- Just What Is an 'Aggressor? Here Is One Definition: He Who Refuses to Negotiate In Face of Immediate War Threat Is an Aggressor The United Nations has never found a satisafctory definition of “aggression." Its concept is that the nation that first flies or moves troops across a given line is the ag gressor. *The manner of deal ing with an aggressor has been envisaged as demanding that he cease and. if he refuses, to make him the target of united “military action.” Whatever may be the merit of this concept, it vanishes the moment the world becomes di vided into political and mili tary blocs. When the great powers aligned against each other in a cold war, the “United" Nations ceased to exist. Instead of a standing peace conference it became a political battle arena. No member or group within it stands as an impartial tri bunal with the power to en force a decision. The neutrals, especially India, might try to exercise such a function, but their determination not to be involved in armed conflicts rules out any enforcement role. The present concept of "ag gressor” falls in almost any case. United Nations members vote according to the side they are on. But the question of who fired first does not cover, in any case, the realities of a war crisis. War encompasses other measures than shooting. An ultimatum delivered by one power to another has always been interpreted as a declara tion of intention to fight, if it is not accepted. The organiza tion of armed guerrillas or “undergrounds” on foreign ter ritory is a war measure. So is economic blockade. The simple definition of ag gression is practically impos sible to apply in a civil war. Partnership always influences Judgment. In Spain world communism So the present rulers face the danger that, if they try to capitalize on the crisis, they may bring about their own un doing. The chances are that the circumstances which forced Malenkov out of office have to do with the long-range plan ning of the Communist Party leaders who have been trying to apply their socialistic doc trine. They have been de feated thus far by the work ings of human nature—the re fusal of the peasants to pro duce food for others when they cannot make a livelihood them selves. The frequency with which the word "agriculture” is used in the statements and addresses attending the ouster of Malen kov and his own emphasis on his lack of success in that direction serves to confirm the belief that internal trou bles have been growing rather than diminishing inside Rus sia. With such an unrest devel oping. the efforts of the Polit buro will be concentrated on preventing any new problems from arising—such as a new war in the Far East—which could put an extra drain on the already strained Soviet economy. The coincidence of the dis missal of Malenkov and the boastful statement by For eign Minister Molotov that So viet Russia is far ahead of the United States in hydrogen bomb development cannot be overlooked. The Soviet com mittee which planned the fir ing of Malenkov knew it would be regarded by the world as a sign of weakness, and they prepared what might be called an anticipatory rebuttal. But this version of the change which the Politburo has just made will not be accepted throughout the world and least of all in the areas bordering on the Soviet Union. courts have declared school construction authorities uncon stitutional. i The school experts say also that it would be at least a year before any results would show from the Eisenhower plan. Meanwhile, school enrollment is going up at a rate of more than a million a year. Tills year it is 30.8 million—up 22 per cent over 1960. The President's philosophical approach provokes as much gloom in school circles as his practical suggestions. As they see it. he has dealt with what they regard as the gravest in ternal crisis in this democracy in the spirit of a Lady Bounti ful who restricts her gifts to the worthy poor. The reference is to the Pres ident’s ban on outright grants except to communities too poor to build their own schools. There will be no States and few' communities willing to take the pauper’s oath on this or any other proposition. Actu ally, many of the wealthiest States which spend propor tionately the largest share of their revenues on education are among the most hard-pressed. The idea that some parts of defended the “loyalists,” as the “legitimate” government as sailed by Fascist “rebels.” In China it defended the Communist rebels on the ground that the loyalists no longer represented the people. Civil wars cease to be con flicts of internal interests when either or both parties are . backed by an external power. In China the Soviets armed the Communists from aban doned Japanese arsenals, while the Americans supported Chiang Kai-shek, initially as the leader of the war against Japan. But we went on supporting him after the war against Japan had been won and the civil war lost. The Chinese National Army, protected by an American Fleet, has been perpetually bombarding Communist-held islands and mainland. Such bombardments are shooting war. They constitute an argu ment convincing far beyond the Communist bloc that America, in supporting them, is aggressively intervening in an internal Chinese matter. As long as the United Na tions fails to find a better definition of aggression it can not be even a strong moral in strument for peace. I suggest that there is one: An aggressor is the party who in a situation of actual or im mediately threatening war re fuses a cease-fire, and refuses to negotiate. The onus of ag gression, it seems to me, should be put. not on the party who starts the shooting (which is often hard to determine), but upon the party who refuses to stop the shooting and to negotiate. For this can be unequivocally determined. In opposing the cease-fire both Chiang and Chou are wrong. In sitting on the fence on Inside Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and the Baltic countries the people will know that a pre mier has been dismissed. They will suspect weakness. There may even be food riots and uprisings soon in East Germany that could spread to the other satellite states. Chancellor Adenauer points significantly to the futility of trying to do business with the Moscow clique. It ought to be a lesson to those who keep advocating “international con ferences" and high-level meet ings with evil men. So the setup is not one that spells strength. Rather it in dicates an internal weakness ’ which may lead to other changes in the top-command group. For always, in a com mittee form of government, where the people have no voice, the struggle for personal power is never ending. The situation will not jell in Moscow for some time, and it will not be possible to know what new policies may ensue to annoy, if not threaten, the Western world with a new program of bluff. Obviously the advocates here of more rather than less armament and more inflation through unbalanced budgets will continue to try to scare the Congress into voting big ger appropriations. But the trouble in Moscow, if anything, vindicates the judgment of President Eisenhower, who is making the armament budget fit the realities of today. This means a firm reliance on nu clear power to prevent any big war from happening and a steady pressure of potential resistance in areas like the Far East to keep a local situ ation from growing into a major war. Some day the Politburo itself will be over thrown and there will be teal peace in the world. (Reproduction Riihts Reserved.) this country should publicly admit to their poverty and throw themselves.on the mercy of richer States or the Federal Government seems to have appeal in many quarters. It emerges regularly at the an nual conference of the State Governors and as regularly the overwhelming majority of the Governors turn the cold shoul der. This quarrel is basic. The original architects of the wel fare state—most of which the President has accepted, at least in theory—believe in prompt and ample Federal action to meet national social emergencies like that con fronting the schools. From their point of view the Pres ident's approach in the new message looks back—way back. Perhaps one trouble with the present special school problem is that Washington draws to it for the most part the suc cessful, the well-to-do and the more mature citizens. Their children are not victims of the present cruel classroom shortage and, as a French philosopher said, one bears with equanimity the misfor tunes of others. this issue the United States is wrong. In sending an ultimatum to the United States Chou was making a declaration of war. and in asserting he would only negotiate on the basis of the Russian resolution he was de manding unconditional sur render and closing every possibility of negotiation. But, from the viewpoint of keeping the peace in the For mosa area, tha American posi tion is also untenable. Defending the island of For mosa as a link in a Pacific chain involving Japan, the Philippines, Okinawa, etc., dur ing a period of intense strain, is not the same as defending Chiang Kai-shek, who is, in fact, at war with the Chinese Peoples’ Republic. And without better clarifica tion of our definitions and pur poses we risk a war in which we will be isolated not only militarily but morally. Food-Grain Record BOMBAY.—During the past year India raised food grains on more than 261 million acres, an all-time record. —saw— I Leasing Your Business Property? We have clients seeking good locations downtown and in Shopping Centers. List your store with us for a favorable lease. H. G. Smithy Company •11 15th St. N.W. ST. S-SSM Mortgage Representative—Travelers Insurance Co. PROPERTT MANAGEMENT—SALES—-LOANS—INSURANCE LOUIE —By Harry Hanan nm iw. 2. 9-rs Fletcher Knebel — Potomac Fever Russian Premier Georgi Malenkov "resigns.” In special recognition of past services, the comrades let Malenkov get his resignation into print ahead of his obituary. ** * * Ousted Premier Malenkov says his “guilt" was failing to solve the farm problem. Georgi, porgie, puddin’ and pie, he raised Cain—but grew no rye. ** * * Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov says Eisenhower is trying to turn Communist nations back to capitalism. Conservative Republicans doubt it. They say Ike can’t even seepi to turn the United States back to capitalism. ♦** * * Ike asks Congress for $1 billion in Federal aid for schools. Local communities are too broke to build schools. They spent all their money—phoning Washington for help. ** * * Russia gets its third Premier since World War 11. A French diplomat was heard to mutter: “That’s the trouble with the Rus sian government. No stability ” ** * * A House committee approves a SIO,OOO pay raise for Con gressmen. Now where are the cynics who say Congressmen don’t have the. courage to tackle unpopular issues? ** * * Marshal Nikolai Bulganin, new boss of Russia, is a former banker. Khrushchev, Molotov & Co. have adopted the United States Navy anthem for their theme song: "Bankers away, boys, bankers away ...” * Japanese Premier Sees No Change in Red Policy By the Associated Press TOKYO, Feb. 9.—Prime Min ister Ichiro Hatoyama said last night that despite the Russian shakeup “there won’t be any change in the Japanese basic policy to normalize relations.” “I cannot think that the Rus sian attitude will change,” he i told newsmen in commenting on the Soviet initiative in seeking an i end to the technical state of war I between the two countries. Foreign Minister Mamoru Shi i gemitsu also expressed doubt that the resignation of Premier Georgi M. Malenkov would affect plans for opening preliminary talks, but added: "The struggle for power among Soviet high officials is continu ing." Mr. Hatoyama indicated that Russia had tried to get a clear statement of Japanese policy be fore the upheaval in Moscow. He said Russia had asked Japan to clarify its attitude “before an important conference from Feb ruary 3 to February 7.” j Escaped Slayer of Editor Is Placed on FBI List By (hi Asiociated Pr.l, The escaped slayer of Ohio Editor Don R. Mellett was added today to the FBI * list of “10 most wanted men.” The fugitive is Patrick Eugene McDermott, 56, described by the FBI as “a cold-blooded paid as sassin.” McDermott was convicted 29 years ago of the ambush slaying of Mr. Mellett, editor of the j Canton (Ohio) Daily News, who was shot down near his home. The prosecution charged that j j McDermott had been employed j to commit the crime by Canton j underworld characters whose ac- . I tivities were threatened by Mr 1 Mellett’s militant newspaper ar ticles concerning an alleged alliance between hoodlums and certain police officials. McDermott got a life sentence. He had served more than 27 years when he escaped from the i Ohio Penitentiary at Columbus last November 28. GENERATOR & FRONT END SPECIAL Limited Time Only Generator. $Q.45 Exchanged *■ ' Also Starters, Regulators Repaired & Exchanged. Etc. Front Wheels $4.45 AHaned itp*> ttstitJk ,RAKE xXMv 3 steer,ng » ELECTRICAL SERVICE 1 ■MM M SI N.W ST S-SOtM* li' MS A», 8.0 ME I Ml •I It* Hi luinninw An AF Pilot and Civilian Killed in Bomber Crash By the Associated Press APPLE VALLEY, Calif., Feb. ; 9.—An Edwards Air Force Base ( pilot and a civilian were killed ‘ yesterday when their B-57 bomber crashed and exploded ■ five miles north of here, the Air Force reported. The pilot was Capt. Anderson , B. Honts, married and the ’ father of three children. His parents are Mr. and Mrs. A. B. 1 i Honts of Front Royal, Va. Identification of his civilian passenger was withheld pending .! notification of his family. , The Air Force said the plane was on a routine test flight. : I ’ TT" t \%gEr Is « ft H THURSDAY HOURS, 9 A.M. to 9 P.M. 1 Further j | Reductions J H Bring Greater Savings || In Our Season-End Sale I | j NOW |P OFF | I 5 1 T opcoats I S i $95 Sidney West Topcoats __557.00 | SBS English Raglan Topcoats, $51.00 | is7B Westyle Topcoats $46.80 * 1 / Special Groups— •/? Price! $13.50 Imported Wool Sport Shirts- $625 $5.95 Long-sleeve Knit Sport Shirts $2.98 $2.50 Silk Neckwear $1.25 $3.50 Silk Neckwear $1.75 $5.00 Silk Neckwear $2.50 I j $7.50 Silk Neckwear, $3.75, f. - . No Sale Is Ever Final Until You Are Completely Satisfied | | Fret Forking ot Tht Capitol Gorogo | At | I | EUGENE C. GOTT, President NA. $-7120 Constantine Brown — Khrushchev Is Old Foe of U. S. Russia's New Dictator is Much More Dangerous Than Stalin; Hopes to See America Crushed A new, hard taskmaster, harsher than Stalin himself, has taken over the unfortu nate Russian people. Where he will lead them nobody knows at present. The resignation of Premier Malenkov, who publicly pro claimed himself a failure, and his replacement by Marshal Bulganin—a political officer who has demonstrated in the last 10 years that he knows when and whom to obey— places one of the most sinister men in the USSR. Nikhita Khrushchev, in absolute con trol of all the USSR and its satellites. For the last few weeks there have been rumbles coming out of Moscow indicating internal struggles. Nobody, including our Embassy staff in the So viet capital, was able to ob serve anything concrete. Outwardly everything was sunshine and love. Only last week, Khrushchev denied that there had been any frictions within the so-called triumvi rate In charge of the Soviets’ destinies. This unexpected declaration caused many eye brows to be raised in Wash ington. Then the unexpected bombshell: With a firm hand Khrushchev had put on his shoulders the mantle of Stalin, which has been hanging in a closet since his death. It was not large enough to cover three men. The new dictator is far more dangerous than Stalin, who in his latter years before his death had become somewhat more cautious than before. Khrushchev is an avowed enemy of the West and par ticularly of the United States, which he would like to see crushed. He went to Peiping last September to work out and sign the new treaty with Communist China. It was then that the USSR put its stamp of approval to China’s plans to remove all remaining vestiges of Western influence from Asia and conquer For mosa before the end of this year. At the farewell banquet Khrushchev stated: “The as pirations of the Chinese Peo ple’s Republic, the desire of the entire 600 million Chinese people to liberate the island of Taiwan, which is an insepara ble part of Chinese territory, are near and understandable to the Soviet Union. Taiwan will be liberated soon and reunited with all its great country—the Chinese People’s Republic.” After this speech, Khrush chev returned to Moscow early in October. He ordered the So viet industry, in opposition to Malenkov's Instructions, to slow down the production of THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. wpwsspat, rxaacAKT a, lxft consumers’ goods to a mini mum and concentrate once more on heavy war production. At the same time, some qualified officials in Washing ton believe, he gave the green light to the men in Peiping to start actively their aggressive ness against the Nationalist held offshore islands, and to speak loudly about taking Formosa regardless of what the attitude of the United States might be. It is a fair speculation that the humble visit of the Secre tary General of the United Nations. Mr. Dag Hammar skjold, to beg the Communists to liberate the ll Americans jailed for “espionage,’’ strengthened Khrushchev's conviction that the West’s backbone bad become jellied and that this was the time for the Communist world to assert itself, not by the coexistence trap advocated by the “soft” ’ Malenkov, but by actual ac tions if the West did not sur render. This battle between the two schools of thought brought about the present showdown, resulting in Khrushchev's placing a dummy as prime minister and keeping all the power to himself. It* must be recalled that until the out break of the last war Stalin himself was only secretary general of the Communist Party. Yet all the power, after he had disposed of all compet itors by various purges, rested in his hands. It was he. and he alone, who decreed to throw the world into World War II by signing a treaty with Hitler. What Khrushchev’s actions will be in the course of the Lewis & Thos. Saltz... 1409 G OPEN THURSDAY 9 A.M. TO 9 P.M. SALE S 7B Freeman Flannel Suits In becoming medium gray I ' now S 6B Our current Sale of Suits offers the young men of Washington a wonderful opportunity to build • wardrobe of fine clothes, at prices well within their reach. This offering is especially attractive. The suits arc tailored by one of our fine makers from a soft and aupple flannel full of years and satisfaction. The medium gray shade is flattering and fashionable. In 3-button models, with center vent. Practically all aizes are represented: Regulars, shorts and longs. Wert S7B. 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In mili tary quarters in Washington it is believed that the Commu nists will attack Quemoy and Matsu within the next eight weeks, when the monsoon sea son will favor operations by their junks and handicap the actions of our naval and air forces. The Chinese Commu nists also believe that they will receive the whole-hearted sup port of the USSR, and that Khrushchev, more than Malenkov and the opportunist Molotov, will take a calculated risk. Mao Tse-tung and Chou En-lai must have known some thing about the pending dra matic changes in the Soviet land when they arrogantly re jected the Security Council’s invitation to come to New York and present their case against the United States. According to qualified ob servers in this country and in Britain, the USSR may not adopt immediately an aggres sive attitude toward the West. But there have been straws in the wind in the last few weeks that the Red noose is tighten ing up in Finland, and Mos cow has been tough with Swe den—both countries outside NATO and incapable of offer ing more than a token resis tance to Soviet pressure.