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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 09, 1955, Image 21

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David Lawrence —
Internal Weakness in Russia
Food Crisis Could Drive Politburo to War in Effort
To Divert Populace From a Growing Problem
Internal trouble In Soviet
Russia rather than external
policy is back of the forced
resignation of Premier Malen
kov. Every bit of evidence for
many weeks has pointed that
way.
The news was not a surprise
to any of the persons in this
country who constantly study
the trends inside Soviet Rus
sia. The question has not been
whether the Malenkov regime
could last, but how soon it
would be terminated from
within.
The picture presented to the
world is not that of a parlia
ment or an electorate chang
ing rulers but the secret ma
neuvers of a little clique of
men who name a new dictator
from their own number.
The sorry spectacle of a
deposed premier proclaiming
submissively, at the behest of
a clique, that he has been
guilty of inefficiency is one
that could happen only in an
oligarchy, where the people
are not permitted to express
themselves and where death
faces the top man if he doesn’t
do the bidding of the group.
Will it mean peace or war?
This question cannot be an
swered even by the coterie of
men who call themselves rulers
in Moscow. For the fact is
that Soviet Russia isn’t pro
ducing enough food for her
growing population and the
men in command know their*
tenure will be short-lived un
less the food crisis is solved.
In desperation—and in an ef
fort to consolidate the people
by arousing their patriotism—
there could be a move made
that would threaten world
peace. But experience has
shown that during World War
I when the army really got
concerned about internal af
fairs and a revolution occurred,
a separate peace with the
enemy was made despite all
the patriotic appeals.
#
Doris Fleeson —
Federal School Aid Limited
Program Asks Millions, but Billions Are Needed;
Can President See Its Emergency Proportions?
President Eisenhower’s school
aid program does not represent
a serious attempt to deal with
the national emergency in ed
ucation.
It is little more than a
letter of condolence to the
localities and school authori
ties which are struggling
against an enormous and
growing shortage of class
rooms.
The President's own Com
missioner of Education. Sam
uel Brownell, has placed the
current need at 370,000 class
rooms. Federal cost estimates
indicate that the job well done
would cost more than sl2
billion.
The President has suggested
only S2OO million in direct aid
for three years, which is about
$65 million a year. Even if all
went well and exactly as
planned, it would build only a
few thousand of the missing
classrooms.
School authorities are
equally skeptical about the
proposed plans to help school
districts and States. Twenty
States are said to have consti
tutional debt limits which will
prevent any new borrowing. In
both Maine and Wisconsin, the
Dorothy Thompson-
Just What Is an 'Aggressor?
Here Is One Definition: He Who Refuses to Negotiate
In Face of Immediate War Threat Is an Aggressor
The United Nations has
never found a satisafctory
definition of “aggression." Its
concept is that the nation that
first flies or moves troops
across a given line is the ag
gressor. *The manner of deal
ing with an aggressor has been
envisaged as demanding that
he cease and. if he refuses, to
make him the target of united
“military action.”
Whatever may be the merit
of this concept, it vanishes the
moment the world becomes di
vided into political and mili
tary blocs. When the great
powers aligned against each
other in a cold war, the
“United" Nations ceased to
exist. Instead of a standing
peace conference it became a
political battle arena.
No member or group within
it stands as an impartial tri
bunal with the power to en
force a decision. The neutrals,
especially India, might try to
exercise such a function, but
their determination not to be
involved in armed conflicts
rules out any enforcement role.
The present concept of "ag
gressor” falls in almost any
case.
United Nations members vote
according to the side they are
on. But the question of who
fired first does not cover, in
any case, the realities of a war
crisis.
War encompasses other
measures than shooting. An
ultimatum delivered by one
power to another has always
been interpreted as a declara
tion of intention to fight, if it
is not accepted. The organiza
tion of armed guerrillas or
“undergrounds” on foreign ter
ritory is a war measure. So is
economic blockade.
The simple definition of ag
gression is practically impos
sible to apply in a civil war.
Partnership always influences
Judgment.
In Spain world communism
So the present rulers face
the danger that, if they try to
capitalize on the crisis, they
may bring about their own un
doing.
The chances are that the
circumstances which forced
Malenkov out of office have to
do with the long-range plan
ning of the Communist Party
leaders who have been trying
to apply their socialistic doc
trine. They have been de
feated thus far by the work
ings of human nature—the re
fusal of the peasants to pro
duce food for others when they
cannot make a livelihood them
selves.
The frequency with which
the word "agriculture” is used
in the statements and addresses
attending the ouster of Malen
kov and his own emphasis on
his lack of success in that
direction serves to confirm
the belief that internal trou
bles have been growing rather
than diminishing inside Rus
sia.
With such an unrest devel
oping. the efforts of the Polit
buro will be concentrated on
preventing any new problems
from arising—such as a new
war in the Far East—which
could put an extra drain on
the already strained Soviet
economy.
The coincidence of the dis
missal of Malenkov and the
boastful statement by For
eign Minister Molotov that So
viet Russia is far ahead of the
United States in hydrogen
bomb development cannot be
overlooked. The Soviet com
mittee which planned the fir
ing of Malenkov knew it would
be regarded by the world as
a sign of weakness, and they
prepared what might be called
an anticipatory rebuttal.
But this version of the
change which the Politburo
has just made will not be
accepted throughout the world
and least of all in the areas
bordering on the Soviet Union.
courts have declared school
construction authorities uncon
stitutional. i
The school experts say also
that it would be at least a year
before any results would show
from the Eisenhower plan.
Meanwhile, school enrollment
is going up at a rate of more
than a million a year. Tills
year it is 30.8 million—up 22
per cent over 1960.
The President's philosophical
approach provokes as much
gloom in school circles as his
practical suggestions. As they
see it. he has dealt with what
they regard as the gravest in
ternal crisis in this democracy
in the spirit of a Lady Bounti
ful who restricts her gifts to
the worthy poor.
The reference is to the Pres
ident’s ban on outright grants
except to communities too poor
to build their own schools.
There will be no States and
few' communities willing to
take the pauper’s oath on this
or any other proposition. Actu
ally, many of the wealthiest
States which spend propor
tionately the largest share of
their revenues on education are
among the most hard-pressed.
The idea that some parts of
defended the “loyalists,” as the
“legitimate” government as
sailed by Fascist “rebels.”
In China it defended the
Communist rebels on the
ground that the loyalists no
longer represented the people.
Civil wars cease to be con
flicts of internal interests when
either or both parties are
. backed by an external power.
In China the Soviets armed
the Communists from aban
doned Japanese arsenals, while
the Americans supported
Chiang Kai-shek, initially as
the leader of the war against
Japan.
But we went on supporting
him after the war against
Japan had been won and the
civil war lost.
The Chinese National Army,
protected by an American
Fleet, has been perpetually
bombarding Communist-held
islands and mainland. Such
bombardments are shooting
war. They constitute an argu
ment convincing far beyond
the Communist bloc that
America, in supporting them,
is aggressively intervening in
an internal Chinese matter.
As long as the United Na
tions fails to find a better
definition of aggression it can
not be even a strong moral in
strument for peace.
I suggest that there is one:
An aggressor is the party who
in a situation of actual or im
mediately threatening war re
fuses a cease-fire, and refuses
to negotiate. The onus of ag
gression, it seems to me, should
be put. not on the party who
starts the shooting (which is
often hard to determine), but
upon the party who refuses to
stop the shooting and to
negotiate. For this can be
unequivocally determined.
In opposing the cease-fire
both Chiang and Chou are
wrong.
In sitting on the fence on
Inside Poland, Czechoslovakia,
Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary,
and the Baltic countries the
people will know that a pre
mier has been dismissed.
They will suspect weakness.
There may even be food riots
and uprisings soon in East
Germany that could spread
to the other satellite states.
Chancellor Adenauer points
significantly to the futility of
trying to do business with the
Moscow clique. It ought to
be a lesson to those who keep
advocating “international con
ferences" and high-level meet
ings with evil men.
So the setup is not one that
spells strength. Rather it in
dicates an internal weakness
’ which may lead to other
changes in the top-command
group. For always, in a com
mittee form of government,
where the people have no
voice, the struggle for personal
power is never ending.
The situation will not jell
in Moscow for some time, and
it will not be possible to know
what new policies may ensue
to annoy, if not threaten, the
Western world with a new
program of bluff.
Obviously the advocates
here of more rather than less
armament and more inflation
through unbalanced budgets
will continue to try to scare
the Congress into voting big
ger appropriations. But the
trouble in Moscow, if anything,
vindicates the judgment of
President Eisenhower, who is
making the armament budget
fit the realities of today. This
means a firm reliance on nu
clear power to prevent any big
war from happening and a
steady pressure of potential
resistance in areas like the
Far East to keep a local situ
ation from growing into a
major war. Some day the
Politburo itself will be over
thrown and there will be teal
peace in the world.
(Reproduction Riihts Reserved.)
this country should publicly
admit to their poverty and
throw themselves.on the mercy
of richer States or the Federal
Government seems to have
appeal in many quarters. It
emerges regularly at the an
nual conference of the State
Governors and as regularly the
overwhelming majority of the
Governors turn the cold shoul
der.
This quarrel is basic. The
original architects of the wel
fare state—most of which the
President has accepted, at
least in theory—believe in
prompt and ample Federal
action to meet national social
emergencies like that con
fronting the schools. From
their point of view the Pres
ident's approach in the new
message looks back—way back.
Perhaps one trouble with the
present special school problem
is that Washington draws to
it for the most part the suc
cessful, the well-to-do and the
more mature citizens. Their
children are not victims of
the present cruel classroom
shortage and, as a French
philosopher said, one bears
with equanimity the misfor
tunes of others.
this issue the United States
is wrong.
In sending an ultimatum to
the United States Chou was
making a declaration of war.
and in asserting he would only
negotiate on the basis of the
Russian resolution he was de
manding unconditional sur
render and closing every
possibility of negotiation.
But, from the viewpoint of
keeping the peace in the For
mosa area, tha American posi
tion is also untenable.
Defending the island of For
mosa as a link in a Pacific
chain involving Japan, the
Philippines, Okinawa, etc., dur
ing a period of intense strain,
is not the same as defending
Chiang Kai-shek, who is, in
fact, at war with the Chinese
Peoples’ Republic.
And without better clarifica
tion of our definitions and pur
poses we risk a war in which
we will be isolated not only
militarily but morally.
Food-Grain Record
BOMBAY.—During the past
year India raised food grains
on more than 261 million acres,
an all-time record.
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Fletcher Knebel —
Potomac Fever
Russian Premier Georgi Malenkov "resigns.” In special
recognition of past services, the comrades let Malenkov get his
resignation into print ahead of his obituary.
** * *
Ousted Premier Malenkov says his “guilt" was failing to
solve the farm problem. Georgi, porgie, puddin’ and pie, he
raised Cain—but grew no rye.
** * *
Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov says Eisenhower is trying
to turn Communist nations back to capitalism. Conservative
Republicans doubt it. They say Ike can’t even seepi to turn the
United States back to capitalism.
♦** * *
Ike asks Congress for $1 billion in Federal aid for schools.
Local communities are too broke to build schools. They spent
all their money—phoning Washington for help.
** * *
Russia gets its third Premier since World War 11. A French
diplomat was heard to mutter: “That’s the trouble with the Rus
sian government. No stability ”
** * *
A House committee approves a SIO,OOO pay raise for Con
gressmen. Now where are the cynics who say Congressmen don’t
have the. courage to tackle unpopular issues?
** * *
Marshal Nikolai Bulganin, new boss of Russia, is a former
banker. Khrushchev, Molotov & Co. have adopted the United
States Navy anthem for their theme song: "Bankers away, boys,
bankers away ...” *
Japanese Premier Sees
No Change in Red Policy
By the Associated Press
TOKYO, Feb. 9.—Prime Min
ister Ichiro Hatoyama said last
night that despite the Russian
shakeup “there won’t be any
change in the Japanese basic
policy to normalize relations.”
“I cannot think that the Rus
sian attitude will change,” he
i told newsmen in commenting on
the Soviet initiative in seeking an
i end to the technical state of war
I between the two countries.
Foreign Minister Mamoru Shi
i gemitsu also expressed doubt
that the resignation of Premier
Georgi M. Malenkov would affect
plans for opening preliminary
talks, but added:
"The struggle for power among
Soviet high officials is continu
ing."
Mr. Hatoyama indicated that
Russia had tried to get a clear
statement of Japanese policy be
fore the upheaval in Moscow.
He said Russia had asked Japan
to clarify its attitude “before an
important conference from Feb
ruary 3 to February 7.”
j Escaped Slayer of Editor
Is Placed on FBI List
By (hi Asiociated Pr.l,
The escaped slayer of Ohio
Editor Don R. Mellett was added
today to the FBI * list of “10
most wanted men.”
The fugitive is Patrick Eugene
McDermott, 56, described by the
FBI as “a cold-blooded paid as
sassin.”
McDermott was convicted 29
years ago of the ambush slaying
of Mr. Mellett, editor of the j
Canton (Ohio) Daily News, who
was shot down near his home.
The prosecution charged that j
j McDermott had been employed j
to commit the crime by Canton
j underworld characters whose ac- .
I tivities were threatened by Mr 1
Mellett’s militant newspaper ar
ticles concerning an alleged
alliance between hoodlums and
certain police officials.
McDermott got a life sentence.
He had served more than 27
years when he escaped from the
i Ohio Penitentiary at Columbus
last November 28.
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AF Pilot and Civilian
Killed in Bomber Crash
By the Associated Press
APPLE VALLEY, Calif., Feb.
; 9.—An Edwards Air Force Base
( pilot and a civilian were killed
‘ yesterday when their B-57
bomber crashed and exploded
■ five miles north of here, the Air
Force reported.
The pilot was Capt. Anderson
, B. Honts, married and the
’ father of three children. His
parents are Mr. and Mrs. A. B.
1 i Honts of Front Royal, Va.
Identification of his civilian
passenger was withheld pending
.! notification of his family.
, The Air Force said the plane
was on a routine test flight.
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Constantine Brown —
Khrushchev Is Old Foe of U. S.
Russia's New Dictator is Much More Dangerous
Than Stalin; Hopes to See America Crushed
A new, hard taskmaster,
harsher than Stalin himself,
has taken over the unfortu
nate Russian people. Where
he will lead them nobody
knows at present.
The resignation of Premier
Malenkov, who publicly pro
claimed himself a failure, and
his replacement by Marshal
Bulganin—a political officer
who has demonstrated in the
last 10 years that he knows
when and whom to obey—
places one of the most sinister
men in the USSR. Nikhita
Khrushchev, in absolute con
trol of all the USSR and its
satellites.
For the last few weeks there
have been rumbles coming out
of Moscow indicating internal
struggles. Nobody, including
our Embassy staff in the So
viet capital, was able to ob
serve anything concrete.
Outwardly everything was
sunshine and love. Only last
week, Khrushchev denied that
there had been any frictions
within the so-called triumvi
rate In charge of the Soviets’
destinies. This unexpected
declaration caused many eye
brows to be raised in Wash
ington. Then the unexpected
bombshell: With a firm hand
Khrushchev had put on his
shoulders the mantle of Stalin,
which has been hanging in a
closet since his death. It was
not large enough to cover
three men.
The new dictator is far more
dangerous than Stalin, who in
his latter years before his
death had become somewhat
more cautious than before.
Khrushchev is an avowed
enemy of the West and par
ticularly of the United States,
which he would like to see
crushed. He went to Peiping
last September to work out
and sign the new treaty with
Communist China. It was then
that the USSR put its
stamp of approval to China’s
plans to remove all remaining
vestiges of Western influence
from Asia and conquer For
mosa before the end of this
year. At the farewell banquet
Khrushchev stated: “The as
pirations of the Chinese Peo
ple’s Republic, the desire of
the entire 600 million Chinese
people to liberate the island of
Taiwan, which is an insepara
ble part of Chinese territory,
are near and understandable to
the Soviet Union. Taiwan will
be liberated soon and reunited
with all its great country—the
Chinese People’s Republic.”
After this speech, Khrush
chev returned to Moscow early
in October. He ordered the So
viet industry, in opposition to
Malenkov's Instructions, to
slow down the production of
THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C.
wpwsspat, rxaacAKT a, lxft
consumers’ goods to a mini
mum and concentrate once
more on heavy war production.
At the same time, some
qualified officials in Washing
ton believe, he gave the green
light to the men in Peiping to
start actively their aggressive
ness against the Nationalist
held offshore islands, and to
speak loudly about taking
Formosa regardless of what
the attitude of the United
States might be.
It is a fair speculation that
the humble visit of the Secre
tary General of the United
Nations. Mr. Dag Hammar
skjold, to beg the Communists
to liberate the ll Americans
jailed for “espionage,’’
strengthened Khrushchev's
conviction that the West’s
backbone bad become jellied
and that this was the time for
the Communist world to assert
itself, not by the coexistence
trap advocated by the “soft”
’ Malenkov, but by actual ac
tions if the West did not sur
render.
This battle between the two
schools of thought brought
about the present showdown,
resulting in Khrushchev's
placing a dummy as prime
minister and keeping all the
power to himself. It* must be
recalled that until the out
break of the last war Stalin
himself was only secretary
general of the Communist
Party. Yet all the power, after
he had disposed of all compet
itors by various purges, rested
in his hands. It was he. and
he alone, who decreed to
throw the world into World
War II by signing a treaty
with Hitler.
What Khrushchev’s actions
will be in the course of the
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next few months is today the
great question in the minds of
the leaders of the free nations.
The fu9e has been lit in Asia
by the Chinese Communist
rulers with Russia’s strong
man approving. They seem at
the time of this writing to re
main discreet in the face of
the massive American naval
and air forces in the straits of
Formosa. But it is hlghjy
doubtful that they will remain
quiet after the evacuation of
the Tachen Islands. In mili
tary quarters in Washington it
is believed that the Commu
nists will attack Quemoy and
Matsu within the next eight
weeks, when the monsoon sea
son will favor operations by
their junks and handicap the
actions of our naval and air
forces. The Chinese Commu
nists also believe that they will
receive the whole-hearted sup
port of the USSR, and
that Khrushchev, more than
Malenkov and the opportunist
Molotov, will take a calculated
risk. Mao Tse-tung and Chou
En-lai must have known some
thing about the pending dra
matic changes in the Soviet
land when they arrogantly re
jected the Security Council’s
invitation to come to New York
and present their case against
the United States.
According to qualified ob
servers in this country and in
Britain, the USSR may not
adopt immediately an aggres
sive attitude toward the West.
But there have been straws in
the wind in the last few weeks
that the Red noose is tighten
ing up in Finland, and Mos
cow has been tough with Swe
den—both countries outside
NATO and incapable of offer
ing more than a token resis
tance to Soviet pressure.

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