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'THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. MONBAT. Aran. 11, ISAS . %’ -si DOORWAY THROUGH THE SNOW ST. HILAIRE DE DORSET—One of the 285 villagers of this Quebec town stands by a tunnel cut In a pile of snow. It was used Easter Sunday to get through to a church on a road beyond—AP Wirephoto. Czech Demand for Return Os Border Guard Rejected The United States has rejected a demand of Communist Czecho slovakia for the return of a Czech border ruard who fled to West Germany on April 2. In a note delivered Saturday to Czech authorities in Prague, the United States said the guard, Jan Fojtik, requested and has been granted political asylum. The Czechoslovakian Ministry of Foreign Affairs filed two notes asking that the guard be returned allegedly for question ing as to responsibility for the fatal shooting of a second guard at the time Fojtik escaped. The American reply stated in part: "The Embassy (at Prague), has been instructed to inform the Ministry that as a result of an investigation, the United States authorities have ascer tained that the border guard, Jan Fojtik, escaped from Czech oslovakia for political reasons. SEGREGATION Continued From First Page the country set on the road to a uniform amenability to its Constitution. “The right asserted here is not the only one at stake. The fate of other great constitutional freedoms, whether secured by the Fourteenth Amendment or by other provisions, is inevitably bound up in the decision to be made in these cases." Other Main Contentions Other main contentions in the reply brief included charges that: 1. The State briefs do not offer any affirmative plan for desegre gation but merely repeat old arguments in favor of indefinite continuation of racial segrega tion. 2. Opinion polls purporting to reflect public sentiment in vari ous Btates and communities are Immaterial in the current judi cial proceedings and. moreover do not give any real proof that a gradual changeover from segregated school systems is necessary. 3. Asserted average differences In Negro and white student groups also have no relevance to the individual rights under the Constitution. Such differ ences can be handled adminis tratively without reference to race. Disadvantages Described As for some State contentions as to the educational, cultqral or health shortcomings of Negroes, the brief said: “That the Negro is so dis advantaged educationally and culturally in the States where segregation is required is the strongest argument against its continuation for any period of time. "Those who use this argument as a basis for interminable delay in the elimination of segregation in reality are seek ing to utilize the product of their own wrongdoing as a justification for continued mal feasance. State briefs seek to further limit the educational ADVERTISEMENT IS YOUR ENGLISH r HOLDING YOU BACK? "Many intelligent men and women are held back in their jobs and social lives because they use poor English or can’t speak and write effectively,” says Don Bolander, director of English at Career Institute, Chicago. “Adults who realise that their English is holding them back use our new home method to stop making embarrassing mis takes in English, to Improve their writing, to increase their vocabularies, to speed up their reading, to acquire the techni- Jues of fluent conversation, tut the use of eftwttve English pays off in unexpected ways," ■ays Bolander, ’’because lan guage ikia tool of thought as well as # tool of expression. "You use words with which to He has requested and been granted political asylum. "In the circumstances, the Ministry’s demand that he be returned represents a proposal that the United States Govern ment should deny the right of political asylum and violate its traditional practice of refusing to return to a foreign jurisdic tion persons who have ldft it for political reasons. The Ijbited States cannot accept this pro posal and the Ministry's demand for Fojtik’s return is accordingly rejected. “Under a system of political oppression denying its citizens the right to choose freedom, violence and tragedy are bound to occur. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, should, there fore. be aware that the death of either an escapee or a border guard is a tragic event for which only the Czechoslovakian Gov ernment is responsible." rights of Negro students by broad characterization of group Intelligence, group morality and health. The conditions they, complain of can never be remedied as long as segregation in public schools is continued. There •is nothing to indicate that an extended delay in order ing elimination of all segrega tion will improve public atti tudes or eliminate the objec tions presently interposed ” District government officials indicated they will notify the court, as they did in their writ ten brief last fall, that public school integration in this city is well under way in accordance with a detailed plan devised months ago.” They suggest that no detailed compliance order be issued. But that stand is disputed by Attorneys George E. C. Hayes and James M. Nabrit, represent lrig parents of the Negro children who in 1950 originated the legal challenge against the constitu tionality of the dual school sys tem here. Attack Coming Flan Their basic argument is out lined as follows: They charged that the so called Coming Plan, now in effect here and presented months ago by School Bupt. Hobart M. Corning, is based upon an as sumption which is neither justi fied nor supported;:. They hope to show that in several Instances the plan has been attacked as Inadequate and has been changed since it first was devised. They plan to tell the Supreme Court that in view of asserted defects in the plan, various rem edies should be effected or or dered Accordingly, they indi cated that they will suggest that the District case is not “moot” and that the Supreme Court should issue a decree spelling out exactly what—and how soon— the District as well as the four States should do to implement the May 17 decision. The Supreme Court has given no Indication as to when it will make a pronouncement on ADVERTISEMENT think. The more you learn about words and how to ar range them to express your Ideas, the better your thinking becomes. The improvement of your English—including your thinking—can lead to amazing personal achievements.” Write today for free 32 -page booklet. Your English and Your Career. It explains the Import ance of English in your per sonal, social and business life. It shows how the new Career institute Method can help you achieve your special goals quickly In your space time at home. Address ft card or letter to Don Bolander, Dqit. WB-11, Camer Institute. 2» fast Jaek- Tm booklet will be mailed to Careening Car Kills 3 Youths By U>* AMOcliMd Press Thirteen highway deaths were reported to Virginia State Police over the week end. including those of three Wise County teen agers struck by a car careening wildly son the left side of the road. The State traffic toll for the year rose to 178. The three young people, along with two others, were returning from a movie at Coeburn when they were stHkk. One of the other two was Injured. Killed were Beverly Lynn Cooper, 16: Betty Lou Kilgore, 15, and Thurston Hale, 15, all of Coeburn. In a critical condition in a Norton hospital was Peggy Cooper, 14, of Coeburn. Police arrested Charley Leon ard, 21, of Cleveland, Va., and charged him with manslaughter. Police said he rounded a curve, swerved to the left side of the highway, struck an old pickup truck parked off the road, and then plowed Into the teen-agers. A 40-year-old Frederick (Md.) man, Elden Medford Campbell, was crushed to death by the door of his car after he was thrown part way out of the ve hicle as it ran off the road near Strasburg Saturday night. The car door struck a tree. Quake Rocks Philippines MANILA, April 11 m.—Wide spread earthquakes today col lapsed homes, split highways and injured an undetermined num ber of persons in the Southern Philippines—already hard-hit by disastrous tremors April 1. There were no immediate re ports of deaths. The April 1 quake caused at least 432 deaths and left thousands homeless. Quakes of intensity three to six on a scale of ten panicked residents in nine cities, six of them on Mindanao, second larg est island, Philippine News Serv ice reported. The tremors began at 1:40 am. and lasted from 10 to 45 seconds. PNS said many persons were injured in the Lake Lanao area of Mindanao which bore the brunt of the previous earth quakes. Residents in the Marantau district on the west shore of the take reported “a yardwide fissure extending several miles” imme diately after the first shock, said PNS. NEHRU CONSIDERS PROPERTY JUST 'A NUISANCE ‘ NEW DELHI, India, April 11 W. —Prime Minister Neh ru told the Indian Parlia ment today, “Property is a: nuisance and burden, and life’s journey must be light.” Speaking on a bill to pay for expropriated property, which is expected to be passed by the lower house tomorrow and by the upper house next Friday, Mr. Neh ru declared: "Everyone is agreed on the sanctity of private property, but there’s nothing divine about it. Speaking person ally. I have no respect for my own properties, except a few personal belongings.” whether it will order immediate integration in the specific arras, direct a gradual transition, or send the cases back to lower Federal courts with instructions to work out detailed decrees. The tribunal's current term ends In early June. In Decem ber, 1952, and December. 1953. it heard extensive arguments on the issue of racial segregation in public schools. The opinion last May settled the question whether such segregation was constitutional. The court declared unani mously that the system was un constitutional. But because of “additional practical” problems of considerable complexity.” the court invited litigants in the five cases and other interested parties to offer suggestions on the most equitable and effective way of ending public school racial segregation. C'est Magnifique! Muy Delicioso! E' Superiore! in My biigusgs DUKE ZHBERrS Food is tops!. DUKcln? ZEIBERT’S RESTAURANT 1790 l ST., N.W. Twe Am.Wm d Cam. Av«. IllimSlM Srarftof 3.1730 fife W MMbfcM • U»4mr 'M 10 *m. , AwwiMMey'' f WAS A SLAVS LABORER *•>* 100,000 Defy Reds ' And Go on Strike BY JOHN H. NOBLE NEW YORK. April 11—Vor kuta seethed with discontent. We slave laborers were fed up with the inhuman conditions, i the abject monotony, the inces sant work, the MVD Informers, the terrirle cold, the persecution by the murderous blatnoi (pro fessional criminals) and the hopelessness. L-ke myself, most |of the men were serving sen tences of 15 years—or longer. When the discontent was re flected in large coal production Eighth in a Scries of Articles declines, the Soviets took a told step. In April 1952, they began paying us a small salary, 100 rubles a month, with bonuses tor exceeding the norm. How ever, )1 a laborer produced less than his norm—even 1 per cent less—he ntceived no pay at all. The Red plan increased coal production, but it otherwise backfired. As half-starved ani mals we had little strength to protest. Now, with money to buy extra food at the camp store, we seldom went hungry. Thus we gained the courage to com plain and the alertness to think about our fate. In camp, our resentment boiled up occasionally in sabo tage. Prisoners blew up mine shafts with stolen dynamite. All Vortuka was a ticking time bomb, needed only a spark to set it off. News of Stalin Death In 1953, three closely related incidents provided the spark. The first was the death of Josef Stalin in March I was down in Mine No. 16. The news came over the loudspeaker in the hall way. Slave laborers, "free” peo ple, MVD guards gathered to listen. Stalin’s death sent.a wave of hope through Vorkuta. The re lease of the. Jewish doctors sug gested something must be hap pening. Then, on April 14, an amnesty was given all prisoners serving less than five years. In all, 5,000 men were released from Vorkuta. Months passed. Then in June, we heard startling news. Laventrl Beria, the boss of all the slave camps, had been arrested. There * * tow to get your kusband jm/) kome from tke office: J Just between us, lady, your hard-working husband will get' i away from the office a lot earlier after you provide him with work- / ing space at home! And how about you? Have you a convenient I f*—' “headquarters” for running the household? Where do you keep ac- (y — cumulated bills, check stubs and letters you’re going to answer “later”? If yours is a desk-less home, we’ll bet they’re scattered all i over! Yet, you really don’t need an efficiency expert. Just a desk! / And these 3 are so low priced you can buy one with the -y change in your cookie jar. r jP Main Store: Bth fr PENNSYLVANIA AVE. S.E. ' I B Weeknights 'til 9 • Saturdays 'til 5 mmmmmmmrnimmmmmmm lemhhh SMART BLACK METAL DESK WITH WEAR- $10.95 I I RESISTANT "NEVA- ■ TT 9 SLEEK LIMED OAK PEDESTAL / MAR" TOP ( V , ||* EASY PARKING*# BU D GET TE RMJ^AVAiIaI it• f was s rumor that he had disap peared with 17 other members of the government. Shocker for MVD This was shocking news to the MVD who ran Vorkuta. MVD officers nervously waited to fol low Beria into prison. The “free” people—all civilian employes of the MVD—refused to answer my question: “What do you think of Beria’s arrest?" It wasn’t clearly defined im mediately. But from then on, the officials of the camp were split—some loyal to Beria, the others to Malenkov, the new Premier. The MVD officers were visibly shaken. _A few of the guards even asked us slaves: “What do you think will happen now? What did happen surprised even the most astute of my fel low slave laborers in Camp No, 3 One hundred thousand slaves In Vorkuta went on strike—the first mass demonstration against the Communists in 35 years! Someone else made the de cision for us. The first week In July, when the snow was all melted and the sun shone con tinually, I heard from the free people in the washroom that Mines No. 17 and 18 were strik ing. The slaves had simply put down their tools and refused to go into the mine. And strangest of all—the MVD was doing noth ing about it. Then the strike spread to Mines No. 9, 10 and 25, then to Mine No. 7 in our neighboring camp. Now everyone was con vinced that the miracle was hap pening. We could see that for the first time, the wheels on the mine elevator were not turning. Coal cars coming through one camp from Mine No. 7 were three-fourths empty, and chalked across the inside in big, bold Russian letters was written: “To hell with your coal. We want freedom!” Leaflets pasted on the car read: “Comrades from Mines 12. 14 and 18. Don’t let us down. You know we are striking.” Noble Gets Key Role We formed a strike committee. The leader was Gureyvich, a Rus sian Jew and former diplomat to France. A committee represen tative came to see me in the barracks. “When the time is ready for the camp to strike you will have the most Important job, Noble,” be said. "It is your re sponsibility to convince the Com munist department managers and engineers not to Interfere. The time came July 23. The prisoners needed something to give them extra courage. We went to work that- morning but about noon, new arrivals from the Karaganda slave camp re fused to go into the mine unless they were issued working clothes. The storeroom had none. That set it off. Everyone took the example of the Karaganda reb els and refused to work. The slaves of Camp 3 were on strike. In the washroom one of the department managers seemed pleased. He said: “I see you've finally gotten up enough courage to start.” I convinced him he should leave the camp and take one of the others, a dogmatic Red. with him. A few minutes later the chief engineer and the other "free” people left. I had done my job. MVD Guard Posts Leaflet When I got back to the bar racks I learned that printed strike leaflets with our demands were posted in all the barracks and outhouses—although we had no press. I rushed to our out house to see. I saw an MVD guard pasting a leaflet on thq wall. We had excellent allies I Our demands were simple: Re lease of all prisoners who had served 10 years or more in any Russian prison; for the rest, the authorities should check the rec ords, release all the innocent, and set new, lower sentences accord ing to international law. Other wise, we said, no coal comes out of the mine for Leningrad. Thirty of the Karaganda men SALE THIS WEEK ONLY MOULDINGS We carry o —■ - complete assort merit of mould ings to make every job com- Screen Bead 2 Vie L.F. */*" Quarter Reund .IVicLF. IV*" Moulded Casing -8c L.F. 4" Moulded Bate B«L.F. Phone LAwrence 6-4900 Call or Saa 1600 New York Aveaae N.l. Open 'til 4 p.m. Saturdays who had set off the (trike had been put into the camp prison and immediately 2,000 of us, with Gureyvich and the strike com mittee, stormed down toward the prison. MVD Msj. Tchevchenko, the camp commander, and his political officer, Capt. Buikoff. tried to calm us, but we packed in front of the prison and yelled for the release of the Karagan das. Meanwhile the harsh MVD lieutenant in charge of restric tion pulled up with several po lice cars and trucks. One hun dred MVD and Red Army troops piled out and surrounded the camp fences. Our crowd started cursing and barred their way through the gate. Then suddenly, the Karagan das, who had overcome three drunken guards in the prison, dashed out into the yard. We set up a tremendous yell and immediately the MVD lieutenant ordered: "Open fire." i It lasted 20 seconds. When it was over, 15 men lay on the ground. Two were dead—one prisoner whose time was up-in two months had had the top of his head blown off by an explo sive bullet. A stray bullet had gone threw the hospital window and punctured the lung of a pa tient in bed. Two feet over my bead there were five bullet holes in the wall of the building. Prisoners Seise Camp We became enraged. Immedi ately, Gureyvich and the crowd seised control of the ‘camp. Tchevchenko. Buikoff. the guards - UfITIMS TUASUMS at BROOKS 20% DISCOUNT ... on children photographed alone, 5 years or younger. A variety of Bxlo previews mode for your selection. No appointment necessary on this day devoted to children only. OLIVER 4-1078 7200 WISCONSIN AVENUE, BETHESDA wmmmmmmmmmmmFMt marking mmmmmmmmmmmm I and the ethers In authority were kicked out of the camp. Gurey vich went to the main gate— and looking into the mussles of 100 guns—announced that from that moment on, the camp was under the control of the prison ers. No one was allowed to enter without the permission of the strike committee. If the MVD lieutenant or a hated guard, Mol kof, came in the gate they would be killed immediately. The strike committee organ ized the 4,500 men in the camp thoroughly. Not one lump of coal was taken out of the mine. Per fect discipline was maintained. It worked. n 6 one fired, no one raised a hand to stop us. They were plainly cowed—by us; by the fact that they needed the coal badly; because some of the MVD men were among the con spirators—maybe even Tchevch enko himself; but mostly be cause the time was plainly ripe for rebellion. Red and Black Flags Rise Uprisings like ours, we heard, were taking place in camps throughout the Soviet Union. The Kremlin itself was in the turmoil of a power struggle. It was safer for the men there to wait and see. (Cepyrltht, ISSS, bj North Americas Newspaper Alliance, Inc.) Tomorrow: Communist Mass Murder.