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Elihu Root on Keeping the Peace Republican Statesman Was Prophetic In 1918 in Seeing Need for World Peace There’s a tendency nowa days to think that only the present generation of states men have brought forth great principles as a basis for the Attlement of international disputes by peaceful means. Every now and then some comments are heard from Democratic quarters, for ex ample, that the Republican Party historically is the party of "isolation” or that the Re publicans of today "haven’t had a new idea since Mc- Kinley’s day.” Such superficial and obvi ously partisan outbursts are sometimes accepted as gospel by those who don’t know the facts of history. Accordingly, it is interesting to read the text of a letter, recently re vealed. which was written by Elihu Root on August 16, 1918, to Col. House, the personal envoy and confidant of the then President Woodrow Wil son. Mr. Root, a great inter national lawyer, had been Secretary of War in President McKinley’s cabinet. Secretary of State in the cabinet of President Theodore Roosevelt and later a United States Sen ator from New York. He had much to do with the move ment that led to the formation of the League of Nations. He was "Mr. Republican" then. What Mr. Root wrote in 1918 not only is prophetic of the same point In the United Nations Charter of today as written into Article XI by Senator Vandenberg, Repub lican, but, in particular, gives a historic basis for the recent pronouncement by Secretary of State Dulles advocating that Red China renounce the use of force in the Par East, Irrespective of whether it con siders Formosa “an internal matter.” The doctrine expressed by Mr. Dulles holds that a breach of the peace affecting large areas and interests can be of international concern even though considered by the par ties to be limited to them alone. Mr. Root outlined the DORIS FLEESON Egypt Is Suspicious of America Premier Nasser Hates Communism, But Fears U. S. Is Encircling Him CAlßO—American relations with Egypt are definitely sticky as of now. The sus picions that once attached to the British are directed at us. Prime Minister Nasser hates communism but he fears that the United States is encircling him. He feels strangely unap preciated by Americans who were expected to admire his deposing of King Parouk, his “new deal,” his successful struggle for Independence. The oddity is that the Eisen hower administration has defi nitely shifted the emphasis of its Middle East policy from Israel to stability for the whole area. In doing so, however, it has cracked the Arab League, and Nasser, with his admitted phobia against big-power dom ination, is crying foul. United States policy now says that while Israel is here to stay, the oil rich Arab states must be brought into some kind of Western security system, perhaps at arms’ length, but certain. Turkey and Pakistan led the break from the Moslem world to the West. But Iraq’s new alliance with Greece and Turkey was the heart thrust at Arab soli darity and Arab isolationism. This, more than Israel, ails Nasser. American sources be lieve. Os course, we are not THOMAS L. STOKES Time of Decision for Stevenson He Must Move Confidently Toward Another Nomination or Bow Out CHICAGO—A man who is no longer a Governor, In fact holds no public office, and is not a participant in the an nual Governors’ conference here is nevertheless the center of attention and curiosity of those attending this meeting of State Chief Executives. Adlal Stevenson, former Governor of Illinois, interests both Republicans and Demo crats. they want to know whether he is likely to be re nominated as the Democratic candidate for President next year, or whether certain pres sures now discernible will re sult in replacing him. You get the impression that the 1952 Democratic candidate is at this very time, a year be fore the 1956 nominating con ventions, at the critical point where he might either move confidently toward another nomination, or gradually slip out of the picture. This seems to be, in short, a time of decision and action. In that he will have his part, but so will many others. Important among the latter are Democratic State Gover nors. This is because of their control of State organizations. Today, Democrats hold the Governorships in 27 States; Republicans in 21. No one who watched the political story acted out in 1952—and Adlal Stevenson was among those— can ever forget how it was the Republican Governors who really tipped the balance to ward Gen. Eisenhower and against the late Senator Robert A. Taft for the Republican nomination. la an annual conference broader view in his letter, which reads as follows: “The first requisite for any durable concert of peaceable nations to prevent war is a fundamental change in the principle to be applied to in ternational breaches of the peace. “The view now assumed and generally applied is that the use of force by one nation to ward another is a matter in which only the two nations concerned are primarily inter ested, and if any other nation claims a right to be heard on the subject it must show some specific interest of its own in the controversy. That burden of proof rests upon any other nation which seeks to take part if it will relieve itself of the charge of impertinent in terference and avoid the re sentment which always meets impertinent interference in the affairs of an independent sovereign state. This view was illustrated by Germany in July, 1914, when she insisted that the Invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary was a mat ter which solely concerned two states, and upon substantially that ground refused to agree to the conference proposed by Sir Edward Grey. The requi site change is an abandonment of this view and a universal, formal and irrevocable accept ance of the view that an inter national breach of the peace is a matter which concerns every nation of the community of nations—a matter in which every nation has a direct in terest and to which every na tion has a right to object. "These two views correspond to the two kinds of responsibil ity in municipal law which we call civil responsibility and criminal responsibility. If I make a contract with you and break it, it is no business of our neighbor. You can sue me or submit, and he has nothing to say about It. On the other hand, if I assault and batter you, every neigh bor has an interest in having me arrested and punished, be forgiven for Israel. A pro- Israel motive is always looked for in our actions. In the new situation drama tized by Iraq, Egypt's only swift and vocal allies were Saudi Arabia and Yemen, who foresaw their ancient tribal foes of the northern tier be ing strengthened to their detriment. Nasser is grateful to them. But he is a thorough convert to the social and economic progress ideas of the West: he hopes with them to remake Egypt into a leader and beacon light for his part of the world. It is not done by having as principal allies the two most-backward Arab areas, even though King Saud is rich in oil revenues. Nasser’s other foreign policy problem is the Sudan, which controls the headwaters of the Nile and so is literally vital to Egypt. Specifically, Egypt wants to build a high dam on the Nile to take care of its growing population. A TVA style project, the high dam would add 30 per cent to her arable acreage, increase its yields and furnish cheap power for industrialization. Sudan is emerging from British control and will vote next year whether to affiliate with Egypt or be independent. The most intense politicking such as this, held that year at Houston, Tex., on the eve of the Republican National Con vention. 24 Republican Gover nors adopted a resolution for support of Gen. Eisenhower which was engineered by Her bert Brownell. That spoke with authority to the delegates for they knew that it came close to representing the sentiment at the grass roots. No one expects any such resolution from Democratic Governors, of course, from this conference. But there was feeling out on both sides—between Adlai Stevenson and the Democratic Governors—and among the Governors themselves. He set aside his law business for the time being here in Chi cago, to which he commutes from his home at Libertyville, and made himself available to Democratic Governors when overtures came from them to see him. One he had taken pains to invite several days before the conference began, and for a private dinner. This was Gov. Harriman of New York. Gov. Harriman has come to be regarded as a candidate for the nomination himself, as he was, in fact, in 1952; but on just what terms it is not yet clear, nor is it possible to foresee whether there might be an eventual break and an open clash between\ the two. This might depend on the activity of Carmine DeSapio, the astute leader of Tammany Hall, the man who managed Averell Harriman into the Governor's chair at Albany. When he came here for his n cause his own safety requires that violence shall be re strained. At the basis of every community lies the idea of organization to preserve the peace. Without that idea really active and controlling there can be no community of individuals or of nations. It is the gradual growth and sub stitution of this idea of com munity interest in preventing and punishing breaches of the peace which has done away with private war among civil ized peoples. "The Monroe Doctrine as serted a specific interest on the part of the United States in preventing certain breaches of the peace on the American continent; and when Presi dent Wilson suggested an en largement of the Monroe Doc trine to take in the whole _ world, his proposal carried by necessary implications the m change of doctrine which I am discussing. The change may seem so natural as to be un important, but it is really crucial, for the old doctrine is asserted and the broader m doctrine is denied by approxi mately half the military powers of the world, and the question between the two is one of the things about which the war is being fought. The change in volves a limitation of sover eignty making every sover eign state subject to the su perior right of a community of sovereign states to have the peace preserved. The accept ance of any such principle would be fatal to the whole Prussian theory of the state and of government. “When you have got this principle accepted openly, ex pressly. distinctly, unequivo cally by the whole civilized world, you will for the first time have a community of na tions, and the practical re sults which win naturally de velop will be as different from those which have come from the old view of national re sponsibility as are the results which flow from the American . Declaration of Independence compared with the results which flow from the divine right of kings.” (Reproduction Rlihta Rmrred.) Is going on and Sudanese were courted guests of the anni versary celebration here. As of now the International Bank has refused Egypt a loan to build the high dam on the ground that the Sudan ne gotiations were too hazy. In this area, too. Nasser is sus picious of outside pressure, In cluding ours. No overt incidents occurred in the recent celebrations to show whether the Nasser re gime is or Is not strong and popular. He certainly is not a crowd pleaser as was the deposed Gen. Naguib, now under house arrest. Naguib is described here as a Jimmy Walker type, shallow and gregarious. Perhaps Nasser's trouble is that life to him is too real, too earnest. The Cromwellian moralist is not the stuff of mass popularity. He has learned, however, that bread and circuses make the sweat and tears more pala table to the masses. Three German technicians were im ported to stage fireworks dis plays for the celebration. They made the Fourth of July show on the Ellipse in Washington look plain tacky. It is probable that the army “new deal” is a police state in Important respects. They are not made obvious and there are no offensive salutes or slogans. Nasser’s main aupport still is the army. dinner and talk with Adlai Stevenson, the Oovernor of New York was disarmed and without his bodyguard. That is, the Tammany leader was left home on this expedition. But the Stevenson entourage is aware of Carmine DeSapio’a negotiations with State Dem ocratic leaders here, there and yonder in behalf of his protege. Restiveness among Demo cratic State leaders about 1956, which is accentuated by fears that no Democrat could beat President Eisenhower, be came apparent in their private conversations here and in their sessions with the 1952 candi date and titular party leader. The uncertainty was re flected in what one of them, an early arrival, Gov. Abraham A. RibicofT of Connecticut, said publicly at a news conference —that Adlai Stevenson can’t be "drafted” another time but must come out and seek the nomination; that there is, at the moment, a political vac uum in the party, with leader ship lacking; that It might be difficult for any Democrat to beat President Elsenhower in Connecticut; that there are so far very few issues against the President, and that Averell Harriman is definitely a can didate for the nomination. Another bothersome factor, a psychological hazard, that frets Democrats is the fact that Adlai Stevenson was once defeated. They were reminded of this bluntly by a Repub lican, Gov. Goodwin J. Knight of California. He said he thought Gov. Harriman would run better than Adlal Steven son in California because the New York Governor had not been defeated for national of fice. A * LOUIE —By Horry Honan —~~~—~ POTOMAC FEVER FLETCHER KNEBEL Governors of 48 States convene in Chicago. The con ference is good for a Governor's ego. He sees 47 reasons why he’d make the best President. * * * * Soviet Premier Bulganin tosses a country picnic for foreign diplomats. This big Russian thaw is the real thing. Comrades who make a mistake are no longer sent to Siberia. They just melt away. • * • • Happy Chandler scores a comeback for Governor of Kentucky. Chandler is one of those two-party statesmen. Whenever he shakes somebody's hand, he's usually slapping some other party on the back. * * * * Hurricane Connie rips northward along the Atlantic Coast. The only difference between hurricanes and women is that a hurricane doesn’t necessarily take everything a man's got. • • » * The Commerce Department says stockholders are getting more dividends this year. They threw a fellow out of Dem ocratic headquarters the other day. He suggested a Democratic campaign slogan tor next year: “Don't let ’em take it away.” * • * * Wives of Congressmen attend the Switzerland "atoms for-peace” conference. Very educational for the ladies. One wife got complimented on her hat in eight languages. "WE FLEW EASTERN. TOO EASTERN ALWAYS GIVES US A FEELING OF CONFIDENCE I" J§F Yix - Y.MLTRRH Xltt | Only Eastern flies Super-Constellation LOW COST Aircoach i|| Miami & N e Houston 13§3 San Antonio „*69 M xLgJ New Orleans HMMI *42 3 ° *» *47®° Kgjgjy JhH| Birmingham u ,‘32 20 1 Atlanta .... n,.w*22» 0 «,*26 ao St. Louis.. M«m*30 20 * Mr *33*°t Louisville . Ni«Ht*23 70 *Mv’23 70f If MB 4SILVIR FALCON +4-INOINI DOUGLAS SKYMASTIR AU FARES PIUS TAX FOR RESERVATIONS phone Executive 3-4000 or your travel agent JJMg »7 YEARS OP DIPINDABLI AIR TRANSPORTATION S •*, '* V A THE EVENING STAR, Washington, D. C. , TUESDAY. AUGUST S, ISM CONSTANTINE BROWN What About Our Eastern Allies? Turkey, Pakistan, Nationalist China, Korea Are Slighted by New Policy Some of the American out posts on the fringes of Com munist lands Turkey, Paki stan, Nationalist China and South Korea—fear that we have come to regard them as millstones around our neck since we appear to be accept ing Red smiles as proof of Communist good intentions. Those countries’ representa tives in Washington are trying to find out whether America is losing Interest in its "gal lant allies.” The administration is trying to assure them offi cially that the Geneva honey moon has in no way lessened our interest in and good will . for the fringe allies. But there are straws in the wind which cause some of them to ques tion our future intentions. The Turks are particularly uneasy. They were on our « side even before 1947 when the Truman doctrine providing as sistance was established. The Turks have devoted their en ergies to building up their mili tary forces in keeping with the plans of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington. At no time since America started helping Turkey eight years ago have the Turks re laxed their efforts to be ready for an emergency. Neutralism, which has permeated all our major Western allies that re ceived many billions to form a wall against militant com munism, never made an im pression on the Ankara gov ernment or the Turkish peo ple. But Moscow has done its best in the last two years to lure them away from the free nations. Recently the heavy military preparedness and connected Industrial development in the country, which has been in the past overwhelmingly agricul tural, have had a telling effect on Turkey’s financial stability. To these burdens were added two disastrous years of drought. The Turkish government appealed to the American Government, which bad never in the past denied much to its allies in Western Europe. But there seems to have been a change of heart in Washing ton in regard to the peripheric allies. There is an atmosphere that the honeymoon with Tur key is about over and that the Ankara government had bet ter realize this and exercise some stringent economies as suggested by the Washington financial experts, even if this means some curtailment of Turkey’s military establish ment. ’ Ankara finds it difficult to meet obligations in foreign currencies contracted with our tacit approval in the sterling bloc and in Germany and Switzerland. Early this year it asked Washington for a 8300- million interest-bearing loan to be repaid over 20 or 25 years. It was turned down not because we could not afford that sum or because Turkey was a bad credit risk but as a lesson to Turkey to handle its finances better. Instead, the Govern ment offered the government of our Middle Eastern bastion a grant of S3O million. Turkey is a cotton-producing country but does not have the facilities to manufacture cot ton goods for its army and the civilian population. An Ameri can private concern, the Re public Chemical Corp., after investigating conditiorisin Turkey, proposed to lend the Turkish government nearly $3 million at 5.5 per cent to estab- A-13 lish a cotton mill in Anatolia. The project provided that the mill be purchased in Japan and moved to Turkey where the Republic Chemical was to in stall it and get it into working condition. This plan would have en abled the Turks to produce their own cotton goods instead of buying them in England and Italy. It would have saved them a substantial amount of foreign currency. All the United States Government had to do was give the American corporation the usual “loan guaranty certificate.” The corporation applied through the usual channels. The State Department, Treasury and International Co-Operation Administration (the new name for the old FOA) got together to discuss this momentous guaranty in volving less than $3 million. v The State Department was noncommittal and cautious. William F. Russell, deputy director of technical services for the ICA, was favorable and said he believed the plan was eligible for “guaranty protec tion.” Not so the Treasury’s representative, Undersecretary W. Randolph Burgess, who took the position that since Turkey, because of the scarcity of foreign exchange, could not afford to import cotton textiles she could scarcely afford to import a mill for their pro duction. That stand is a classic. The wisdom of our Treasury officials is unquestioned on finances, but their political wisdom leaves considerable room for doubt. The feeling among our peri pheric allies that America may now be in a mood to shake them off has been strength ened by this short-sighted pol icy of the Treasury, which is attributed by them as coming from higher quarters than the Undersecretary.